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"^we/fify gfyir^inia 

ALrHED H BYBD.M A nft87> 

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• .F68 

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Entirbd according to Act of Congren, in the yeac 1846, by 


In the Clerk*! Office of the Diftrict Court for the Soathem iHftrlct of New York. 

^ • 1 • • ! • 
• • • • •• •• • 

• • • < 

• • < 

R. Okaiohsas^ Power Pt«m 
113 Falton 8tT««t 

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To the Ministers of the Synod of North Carolina, with whom I have been 
associated in arduous labors for about seven years, and whose counsel and 
assistance and cheerful welcome it has been my happiness to enjoy, — 


Aq^ to the Elders and Chuitlies with whom I have labored in the cause 
of benevolence \ whose attachment to sound doctrine and the church of their 
fiithers has been so often and so agreeably displayed ; whose hospitahty has 
sjH-ead anwnd me, times almost innumerable, the comforts and luxuries of 


And to the Children, who by their afi^ti(Niate cheerfulness have been my 

solace in hours of weariniBs and exhaustion ; the hope of the Church and of 

the Stater- 

MOST tenderly: 

And to the Citizens of the sedate and sober State of North Carolina gene- 
lally, inheriting so much that is estimable from past generations^ — 


Is this Volume dedicated by 



Jhmneif, HampsAirt Cnmif, Firgini^t I 
October, IB46. S 

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North Cabolina, in ihtk days of colonial dependence, was thp ^tf ||ffl ^f the 
joor and ^yig^op OT egsod. In her bordftrs the emigrant, the fugitive, and the 
exile fcnnd a home* Whatever may have been the caitse of leaving the land 
of flimr nativity — poUticd servitude, — tyranny over conscience^— Qr poverty of 
means, with the hope of bettering their ccMiditioiv— the descendants of these 
enterprising, snfiiaring, afilicted, yet prospered people, have cause to bless the 
kind Providence that led &eir fltthers, in their wanderings, to such a place of 

Her sandy pladm, and threatening brewers jutting out mto the ocean, met 
the voya^onr sent out by Sir Walter Ralei^ in 1584, and the island of Woco- 
ken affinrded the landing-place, *^ as some delieate garden abounding with all 
kinds of odoriferous flowers," and witnessed ths ceremonial of taking possession 
of the country &r the Queen ol England, who soon after gave it the name of 
Virginia. The island of Roanoke, between Pamtico and Albemarle Sounds, in 
the domains of €hranganimeo, afiofded the first colony of English a home so 
quiet, with a climate so mild, and with fruits so abundant, that the tempest- 
tossed mariners extolled it in their letters to their countrymen as an earthly 
paradise. So no doubt it seemed to them the fint summer of their residence, 
in 1585 ; and notwithstandhig the disastrous conclusion of that and succeeding 
colonies, so the adjoining country has seemed to many generations that have 
risen, and flourished, and passed away, in the long succession of years, since 
the wile of Granganimec, jtn sfrage state, feasted the first adventurers. 

Her extended champaign around the head Btreams of the numerous rivers 
that flow through her own bordors, and those of South Carolina, to the ocean, 
cherished into numbers, aad wctdth, and civil and religious independence, the 
emigrants fro m a rough er climate and more juaftiendly soil, of the north of Ire- 
knd and theHighlands of Scotland. The quiet of the vast solitudes and forests 
of North CaroIInS"Iured^Aese hard-working men, who, m their poverty and 
transatlantic sul^ection, cherished the principles of religion, wealth and inde- 
pendence, to seek in them the abode of domestic blessedness, and the repose of 
liberty. Par from the ocean, in a province without seaports, and unfrequented 
by wealthy emigrants, the clustered settlements had space and time to follow 
out their principles of religion, morality and politics to their legitimate ends ; 
and the first declaration of Entire Independence of the British crown was heard 
in the province that afibrded a TQsting^plaee to the first colony. 

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Ctoolina was settled by emigrants from difierent parts of the kingdom of 
Great Britain and her American provinces, in such numbers, and in such re* 
mote situations, that it is comparatively easy to follow the line of their descend* 
ants, aad trace out the wackings of their principles and habits upon themselves, 
the commonwealth, and the oaontry at large. Every state of s^iety owes 
• much of its character for excellence^or demerit, to the generations that pre- 
ceded; the present is a refleolBd image of Ihihgast; and men must search among 
their ancestors for the principles, and causes, and sj^rings of action, and mould* 
ing liiiliences, that have made society and themselves what they are. The 
preflnt {KOiieration of Carolinians look back to the men thai drove the wild 
beasts from the forests, and displaced t&e savages, as the fathers of %. republic 
more blessed than the most favored of antiquity ; and may well ask what 
principles of religion and morals, — what habits made us what we are. In an- 
swer to these questions there is no good civil history of the State ; and with the 
honorable exception of die life of CaldweU, by Mr. Caruthers, there is no church 
history ; and the traditions that reached back to the settlement of die country, 
axe, for the most part, passing away,' or becoming dimmed in the horizon of uncer> 
tainty. The prospect, then, is, that the coming generations will be ignorant of 
their ancestors and their deeds, and like the (xreeks and Romans, be compelled 
to go back to a &bulous antiquity to search in dreams and conjectures for the 
first link in a chain of causes, the progression of which is so full of blessedness. 

It may be well for some people, that the mist of antiquity hides in uncer- 
tainty, the lowness of their origin ; and that aspersion has sometimes been cast 
on Carolina. But if any people may glory in their fore&thers, the Carolinians, 
at least a part of them, may glory in theirs, and cherish their principles with 
the firm confidence that they will make their descendants better, and the pro- 
gress of excellence shall never end. No human mind can tell with certainty, 
or even conjecture plausibly, where the principles of the men, that did so much 
for their posterity, will lead ; thoAgh they may be certain the pathway shall be 
resplendent, and the goal glorious. 

The history of principles is the history of States. And the youth of Caro- 
lina might study both on one interesting page, were there a £ur record of past 
events presented to their perusal. They might learn at home something better 
than the histories of Greece and Rome, or the Assyrian and Babylonian, or ail 
the eastern and western empires of the world, have ever taught They would 
find examples worthy of all praise, and actions deserving a generous emulation. 
They would be impressed most deeply with the conviction that people and ac- 
tions worthy of such examples must be the citizens and the acts of the happiest 
nation on earth. 

The following pages are an efibrt to open the way for some future historian 
to do full justice to the past, by recording tbe events that are so honorable, and 
to the future by presenting a page full of interest and instruction, all true, and 
all encouraging. They contain the history of the Presbyterian population of 

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North Ciax>liDa as &r as it has been yet collected from traditional records of the 
charches and eccktohistical bodies and printed volumes that refer incidentally 
to this people and their principles and their doings. Though the history of a 
denomination, it is not sectarian, because it must of necessity be the history of 
a large fftrt of the State ; and because it is also a fisir record of events. £very 
denomination has the Hberty of producing a series of events in their past histoiy 
of equal or greater interest, and it will be naithrr bigoted, sectarian, or ani- 

The author has had some peculiar advantages in gathering the ftcte related 
in the following pages. For about seven years he was constantly«ngm;ed in 
the active duties ^ Secreta^ of For6%n Missions ; and in their fulfilment was 
called to visit most of the Presbyterian congregations in North Cardina and 
Virginia repeatedly. In conversation with the aged ministers and members of 
fte churdi^he heard many things to which he listened with emotion, and asked 
to hear them again ; and then repeated them to others ; and then wrote them 
down ; and then corrected and enlarged the notes ; and then occasionally pub- 
lished a chapter in the Watchman of the South, the reading of which often 
induced persons in possession of interesting fojcta to communicate them either 
to the writer personally, or to the public through the Watchmah ; and then to 
consulting manuscripts and records as far as they were known to have any 
relation to the matters in hand, or as they fell itt his way, and commonly he 
stumbled, as it were, upon them most unexpectedly, as he passed around in his 
arduous undertakings ; and then as the agency in which he was engaged was 
drawing to a close, in looking over the memoranda of interesting events that 
had accumulated upon his hands, the purpose was formed of making a volume 
of sketches relating to past events in the Presbyterian settlements of Virginia 
and Carolina, few of which had ever been in print except in the ooluimis of a 
weekly periodical, and most were &st passing away Irom the knowledge of the 
living, as that generation whose fathers were actors in the most interesting 
scenes of the early settlement, and from whom many of these traditions were 
received by the writer, were fast entering the unseen world, when he com- 
menced committing their communications to paper, and have now but here and 
there a solitary representative in the land of the living. In this state of tha 
case the Synod of North Carolina, during the annual session held in Fayette- 
ville, November, 1844, by a committee, mvited the writer to use his materials, 
and others that might be put into his hands, in preparing a history of the Pres- 
byterian Church in North CaroUna ; such a history as might show the influ- 
ence of Presbyterian doctrines, habits, and population, upon the past and present 
generations of citizens of the North State, and in sonne degree also upon the 
population of those States which owe much to the emigration from Carolina. 
The only hesitation the writer felt in acceding to this honorable proposal, arose 
from the circumstance, that as the population of a part of Virginia and North 
Carolina were homogeneous, and were for a long Ihne connected in the same 

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Presbytery, and have always since been more or less coatmcted in their religions 
and benerolent' actions, there might arise a difficulty in giving a fair history of 
the church and people, disconnected from the church in Virginia, which was 
«^or in point of time and always intimately connected in action. But upon 
Hither rejection and conversation with judicious friends, it appeared there were 
ample materials, purely Carolinian, to form a volume of the size desired by the 
gvoerallty of readers, and equally as ample materials, purely Virginian, for 
another ; and the giatification of the readers, and the public advantage, *woiild 
t)e consoked by giving the volumes separate. The invitation of Synod was 
then, a^r a few explanations, accepted, and the brethren generaHy most cheer- 
fully made ofi^r of their collections of facts and materials for the^ history, which 
they had for some time been gathering respecting their own particular charges. 
The writer is under particular obligations to many individuals for the mate- 
rials for the succeeding volume. To Rev. John Robinson, DJD,, now no more, 
from whom he received the first impulse to make the collection of traditions, by 
hearing from him, at his own fireside, the recital of some of the events that must 
immortalize Mecklenburg ; and whom he visited for the purpose of correcting 
and enlarging his traditions, in December, 1843, and found preparations Biaking 
for his funeral ; — a noble, urbane, powerful preacher of the gospel : to Rev. * 
' £. B. Currie, in whose retired cottage the writer gathered the principal isuctB 
lelating to Rev. James McGready and the revivals that accompanied and fol- 
lowed his preaching ; and many of the fisicts respecting the churches in Gran- 
ville and Caswell counties ; the infirmities of whose age but enrich his experi- 
ence : to the Rev. Robert Tate, from whom I received much that is recorded 
respecting the churches in the eastern part of the State, himself the patriarch 
of the present churches in New Hanover : to the Rev. Dr. Morrison^ for ma- 
terials for the interesting Memoir of his &ther-in-law, J. Graham ; and also for 
much concerning Dr. Hjmter and Dr. Wilson: to Dr. T. C. Caldwell, for 
many traditions relating to Sugaw Creek, received from his &ther, and for an 
interesting visit to the old grave-yard : to Dr. Hunter, of Groshen, for many 
£BLcts and incidents concerning his fiAther, Rev. Humphrey Hunter, D.D. : to 
Rev. Eli W, Caruthers, for the valuable selections from his Life of Rev. David 
Caldwell, D.D, : to ex-Governor Swain, President of the University of North 
Carolina, for materials for the sketch of the University, and ]{,ev. Joseph Cald- 
well, D.D., and for other interesting fieu^ts : to Rev. Colin Mclvor, stated clerk 
of the Synod, for a copy of the minutes of the Synod of the Carolinas, and for 
the translation of a Gaelic pamphlet : to Mr. Charles W. Harris, for some 
curious manuscripts relating to Poplar Tent, from the pen of Mrs. Alexander : 
to Rev. Alexander Wilson, D.D., for fSsicts concerning the county of Granville, 
and the church in Ireland previous to the emigration : and to Rev. Messrs. 
Cyrus Johnson, J. M. M. Caldwell, John M. Wilson, James M. H. Adams,. E. 
F. Rockwell, A. Gilchrist, C. Shaw, and Archibald Smith, for manuscripts, 
pamphlets and volumes relating to the history of Presbyterianism in their con- 

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giegatiofis: to GovemorB Morehead and Graham, and the public oAers ui 
Rafeigh, for access to the records of the State and the public libisiy : 4d1Dr. 
Ramsey, of Tennessee, for mnch valuable information : and to J. B, Jones, 
the author of the Defence of North Carolina, from whick maoy interesting 
&cts have been borrowed : and to Dr. Pattillo, of Chariotte, for many papers 
relating to his gnjodMber, Other sources of information are ackodwtidjgQd 
in the bod^ of the work. ^ 

It is more than possible that upon the perusal of these pages other documei^ 
will be brought to li^t that shall confirm the principal &cts here produced, 
add others, and perhaps modifj: some. 

The strict order of chronology could not be followed in the succession of 
chapters, but it is, as &r as possible, in the events themselves, and also in the 
narration. ' 

The volume takes tho name of "Sketches^* rather than that of " History,^* for 
reasons that will be apparent on perusal ; and the author has but one cause of 
dissatisfaction in reviewing the work, and that is, that the Sketches are not 
more worthy of the scenes and the actors. 

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AMERICA, MAT, 1775. 

Tbm Village of Charlotte, its Situation, and Origin of its Name. The Con* ' 
ventioD, May 19th, 1775, the Preparatory Steps, its Organization and 
ObJQpt. Ai^Incident related by General Graham. Committee present the 
Resolutions drawn by Dr. Brevard. The Mecklenbitro Declaratioit, 
Unanimously Adopted. The Second Mecklenburg Declaration. 
Capt Jack takes the Decltration to Philadelphia^ reads the Papers in Sa- 
lisbury, is opposed by Dunn and Boote. The Delegates decline laying 
the Declaration before Congress; Circulation and Preservation of the 
Copies. The Action of the Committee in the Case of Dunn and Boote> 
Associations first formed according to the Recommendations of Continental 
Congress. Provincial Council. County Committees of Safety. A Certi- 
ficate. First Declaration of Independence by the Constituted 
Authorities of a State. Inquiry concerning the Origin of the People 
forming the Convention .....* 33 


BLOOD shed on THE ALAMANCE— TTle First Blood Shed in the Revolution^ 
May 16M, 1776. 

The Situation and Origin of the name of Hillsborough ; its Connection with 
Past Events. Discontent in Orange and neighboring Counties. Governor • 
Tqron marches to Orange with Armed Forces ; his first Visit and its Fail- 
ure. The Excitement of the People. The Eastern nen mistake the 
Western. The Commencement of the Disturbances. The Sheriff hin* 
dered in his Duty, 1760. Pamphlet in Granville, 1765. Causes of the Com- 

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plaints among the People. Frauds of Childs and Corbin in Signing I%- 
tents. The Proclamations Disregarded. Example of Hardship in going 
to Market Proposed meeting at Maddock's Mill, Oct. 10th, 1766. Meet- 
ing at Deep River. Fanning's opinion of the Meeting. Another Meet- 
ing, 1767. Commencement of the Rsgulatioh. Building the Govern- 
or's Palace in Newbem. Another Meeting in 1768 addresses the Govern- 
or ; his reply. Unjustifiable outbreaks unfairly charged on the Regula- 
tion, ^vernor Proclaims the Regulation an Insurrection ; Ninian Bell 
Hamilton. The Regulators in Arms, August 1 1th, 1768. The Governor's 
Justice, his Proclamation. The persons excepted. Report of Maurice 
Moore, 1776. Extract from Records of C«\irt in Hillsborough. Acts of 
Personal violence ; a Mock Trial. Four New Counties made. The Go- 
vernor's Circular, 1771. General Waddel goes to Salisbury. The Black 
Boys. Waddel retires before the Regulators. Orders. Certificate. Go- 
vernor crosses the Haw, May 13th, approaches the Regulators ; Negotia- 
tion. The Governor kills Robert Thompson. The Flag of Truce fired 
on. The Governor commands his men to fire. Regulators Routed. 
Governor hangs James Few. Case of Captain Messer. Governor leads 
his prisoners in chains. Execution of six prisoners near Hillsborough. 
Tryon returns to Newbem. Fanning's Flight Husband's Flight. In- 
quiry into the origin of the men engaged in the Regulation 4& 



Widow Brevard ; her son Alexander. Judge Brevard. Her son Ephraim ; 
his Education ^ the part he took in the Convention in Mecklenburg ; the 
Circumstances of his Death. Death of Mrs. Jackson. Instructions por 
THE Dei^gatss op Mxckij:nburg County. The Principles of Civil 
and Religious Liberty 6a 



The Emigrants previous to about 173^, from Virginia, Colonies of Huguenots 
and Palatines. Quakers or Friends. The Presbyterians in Daplin, and 
in Frederick, Augusta, and Virginia. Settlements on the Eno. West- 
ern Counties set off. Encouragement to Emigrate. Lord Granville^s por- 
tion of Carolina set off. The Scotch on Cape Fear. Congregations and 
Churches in the Upper Country. Origin of the people worthy of notice. 
Influence of Religious Principle 77 

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To be found in Ireland under Elizabeth and James. Reformation in Eng- 
land partly Voluntaiy ; in Ireland Jiri^luntary. King's Supremacy ac- 
knowledged, 1536. The Bible in Ireland, 1556. Con^iracy of Tyrconnel 
and Tjrrone, 1605, and Ulster forfoited to the Crown. The Province sur- 
veyed by Chichester and allotted to three lands of occupants. Lands gen- 
erally occupied, 1610. Stewart's account of the Emigrants to Ireland. 
Con O'Neill loses part of his Estate. Emigrants under Montgomery. 
Situation of the County in 1618. The name 8eoteh*Iruh ; their character. 8i 



The Emigrants from Scotland. Stewart's character of them. The opinion 
in Scotland about the Emigration. Christian Ministers go over to Ireland 
to tht Emigrants :~lst, Edward Brice; 2d, John Ridge; 3d, M. Hub- 
bard ; 4th, James Glendenning ; 5th, Robert Cunningham ; 6th, Robert 
Blair ; 7th, James Hamilton. The Success of these Ministers. Com- 
mencement of the Great Mevival. Stewart's account of it The Month' 

Ty Meeting at Antrim. Stewart's and Blait's account of it. More 
Ministers pass over to Ireland. The 8th, Josias Welch ; 9th, Andrew 
Stewart; 10th, Qeorge Dunbar; Andrew Brown, the Deaf Mute; Uth, 
Henry Colwort ; 12th, John Livingston, of Kirks, of Shotf s Memory ; 13th, 
John McClelland ; 14th, John Semple. Monthly Meeting at Antrim im- 
proved. Bodily Exercises no mark of Religion 91 




Cause of the attempt at Emigration. Four Ministers forbid the Ministry. 
Delegates appointed to New England. Cotton Mather's notice of the mat- 
ter. The Eagle Wing sails, 1636, with a band of Emigrants. Livingston's 
account of the Voyage. Child Baptized at sea. Vessel driven back to 
Ireland. The reception of the Emigrants. The Ministers return to Scot- 
land in 1637 ; their flocks go over to receive the Sacraments. The Influ- 
ence of these men on Ireland and the World 102 

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First Meeting of a Presbytery in Ireland, 1642. Steps Preparatory. Con- 
Tocation of the Irish Clergy appointed Usher to draw up a Confession of 
Faith. Its character. Heyltn*s account of the Church in Usher's time. 
Blair and Livingston's course respecting Ordination. Laymen conduct 
public worship after the Clergy retire to Scotland. The Scottish armj 
introduced to crush Rebellion, 1641. Massacre of Protestants. Six Chap- 
lains accompany the Scotch regiments; also Mr. Livingston. Regular 
Presbyterian Churches formad in the Regiments. The Presbytery Con- 

'■ stituted. Sessions formed in the country around. The people petition the 
General Assembly of Scotland for Supplies. Six Ministers sent to regu- 
late the Churches. The Congregation take possession of some of the va- 
cant Parish Churches. Sone persons EpiscopaUy ordained, join the Pres- 
bytery. Solemn League and Covenant adopted in Scotland, 1643, and in 
many parts of Ireland, 1644. Its effect. Number of Presbyterian Minis- 
ters in Ireland from 1647 to 1657. The first Presbyteryjdivided into five 
Presbyteries. Number of Ministers in 1660 and in 1689. The Presbyte- 
ry of Lagan license the first Presbyterian Minister settled in the United 
States ; Francis Makemie 10& 



They were LoyaL Reasons for their ancestors being choson to colonise Ire- 
land. Their views of the authority of Parliament after the King's Death . 
How the Magistrates are to be chosen. 2d. They insisted on choosing 
their own Ministers of Reli^n ; this the source of all their trouble ; Re- 
publicans in their nations. 3d. They demanded .ordination by Presbyters 
instead of Bishops. 4th. Strict discipline in morals and in the instruc- 
tion of Youth. Their Fiewa of Education. Connection of their Religion 
with their politics. Their agreement in fundamentals ; and disagreement 
in smaller matters. 120 



Some families Settled as 6arly as 1729. The Clark fanttly as early as 1730, 
from the Hebrides. Charles Edward, the Pretender, appears, lands in 

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Scotland. The heads of the great Clans against his plans ; joined by the 
young men. Is for a time snccessM. fs rained at Culloden. Executions 
follow h^ defeat ; the country laid waste ; but the Prince escapes. An- 
ecdote of a Scotch gentleman. Anecdote of Kennedy. The Rebels con- 
demned ; 17 sufbr, the rest exiled, go to Cape Fear ; causes of settling 
there. The Religion of the Scotch. No Minister came with the first 
Ehnigrants. The Rev. James Campbell ; biith-place ; emigrates to Ame- 
rica ; gives over Preaching. By means of Whitefield resumes his Minis- 
try. Emigrates to Cape Fear. His extensive labors ; his regular preach- 
ing places. Bluff and its Elders. Barbacue and its Elders. Use of the 
Gaelic Language. The Rev. John McLeod 125 



The Scotch not Radicals ; desired a Government of Law. The Bible their 
guide. Revolution. Natural right in given cases. Their National Cov-i 
enants ; their object Hetherington*s view of the Covenants. Rutherford's 
Lex Rex. Charles 2d and JUtnea 1st, swore to the Covenants ; the Oath. 
Division of sentiment about the Revolution. The Association in Cum- 
berland, drawn by Robert Rowan, 1775. Governor Martin commissions 
Donald M'Donald as Brigadier. He erects the Royal Standard, Feb. , 1776. 
The Camp at Campbellton, or Cross Creeks. Col, Moore marches against 
him M'Donald sends an Embassy. Moves down to Moore*s Creek. 
Makes an attack on Caswell and Livingston, and is defeated. The action 
ofthe Provincial Congress respecting the Prisoners 137 



Her first appearance in the Trials of the Pretender. Roderick Makenzie. 
The Prince lands on South Uist ; is followed by three thousand armed 
dken. Plans for his escape in disguise. Appeal to Flora McDonald ; she 
accepts the offer. O'Neill joins. Interview with the Prince. A Pass- 
port procured for the Prince disguised as a servant The danger of disco- 
very. They set sail. A tempest. Land at Kilbride. New dangers from 
Soldiers; escape. The Prince's farewell. His escape from Scotland. 
Flora M'Donald seized and conveyed to London. The compa^ons of her 
confinemeBt The nobility become interested in her favor. Prince Frede- 
rick procures her release. She is introduced at Courts loaded with pre- 
sents and sent home. Marrias Allen M'Donald and emigrates to North 
Carolina. Her stay at Cross Creeks, at Cameron^s Hill, and in Anson 

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County ; j«ui8 the Royal Standard at Cross Creeks. After her husban<f s 
release they return to Scotland. Attacked by a Privateer on the Voyage ; 
her heroism. Her &mily; (the close of her life; her bnrial-placa . . . 148 



The first Presbyterian Minister that visited North Carolina. Missionaries 
sent by the Synod. The oldest Presbyterian Congregation in the State in 
Duplin. The Welsh Tract Their position on the Map. M* Aden's pa- 
rentage, &c. M'ADxir'i Journal. The earliest Missionary Journal in 
Carolina that has been preserved. Passes through Berkeley and Frederick 
Counties in Virginia. Stops at Opecquon. Stays some time in Augusta. 
Visits John Brown of Providence. $e<»ps a day of Fasting on Timber 
Ridge. At Forks of James River receives news of Braddock's Defeat 
Crosses the mountain and goes to Mr. Henry's Congregation. Enters 
North Carolina. Commences his Mission proper. Visits Eno and Tar 
River. Returns to Eno. Goes to the Hawfield, to the Bufialo Setdement. 
Goes to the Tadkin. Crosses Tadkin and passes slowly on te Sugar 
Creek. Sets off for South Carolina.. Lodges out for the first time. Des- 
titution in the upper part of South Carolina. Retraces his steps to the 
Yadkin, and then turns down the country towards the Cape Fear. Visits 
the Scotch settlements. Goes to Wilmington. Goes to the Welsh Tract* 
^d is detained by their entreaties. Visits Goshen. Calls made out for 
him firom Goshen and the Welsh Tract Sets out for home. Meets Go- 
vernor Dobbs. Crosses Pamtica Goes to the Red Banks. Stops at Fish- 
ing Qfeek. Goes to Nutbush. Revisits Hico, Hawfields and ^e Eno. 
Journal ends abruptly and leaves him at McMessaer on James River. 
M* Aden's labors as Pastor in North Carolina. His residence in Duplin. 
Removes to Caswell. Extract from letter from Dr. M'Aden. House 
plundered by the British Army. Place of Burial. Churches in Duplin 
and New Hanover after his removal. Rev. Messrs. Dr. Robinson, Mr. 
Stanford, Mr. Httch, Mr. Mclver. Mr. James Tate ; his visits up Black 
River ; his character. William Bingham. Colin Lindsey ; difficulties ; 
removes; suspended; his wife. Rev. Robert Tate. M* Aden's places of 
Preaching while residing in Caswell. Formation of Upper, Middle, and 
Lower Hico. Bethany or Rattlesnake. A Preaching place in Pittsylva- 
nia. TheJBell fomily 158 



The third Minister in Carolina. His ancestry. Rev. Thomas Craighead. 

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First Ecoietiafltical notice of Alezinder Cnighetd, in connexion with Mr. 
John PaoL They adopt the ConfoMion. Mr. Craighead's manner of 
preaching. Geti into difficvltiet with his brethren. Defends himself. 
Case carried np to Synod. He withdraws with the New Brunswick Pres- 
bytery. Removes to Virginia. A Member of HanoTer Presbytery. Flies 
from Virginia and Is settled in Carolina. Here ends his days, 1776. His 
loTe of Liberty. His Pamphlet His situation in Mecklenburg. Sows 
THE Sbsm or THE MscKLBimuKo DccLAKATioiT. The Settlement of 
this Upper country. The two tides of Emigration. The line of settle- 
ment Location of Sugar Creek Meeting House. The Paebnt of the 
Sbfsh Cohokboations. The Prairies. Extent of the Congregations. 
The bounds of the Sbten settled in 1764. A risit to the old graye-yard. 
Craighead's Grmre. His Family. Joseph, Alexander. Grave-yard at 
the Brick Church S. C. Caldwell ; his Services, Character and Manner. 
The Alexanders. Their Emigration. Lord Stirling. Mrs. Jackson and 
her sen. Boferd's Defeat Mrs. FU^n. Neighboring Localities. . . . 




Situation of HopeweU. Capt Bradley. General Davidson. John M'Enitt 
Alexander. Settlement of the Country. Anecdote of Alexander and Dr. 
Flinn. State of Society. The papers of the Convention. Judge Came- 
ron's Statement. Reasons for the temporary obscurity of the Convention. 
The Convention called in question. Dr. Alexander vindicates it Testi- 
mony of diflTerent persons ; Dr. Hunter, General Graham, and Major David- 
son, and Dr. Cummins, and Mr. Jack, and Col.^folk, of Raleigh. Obitu- 
ary of Dr. R M'Enitt Alexander. Rules of l/nion between the Churches 
of Hopewell and Sugar Creek in 1793 200 



Mr. Davies becomes acquainted with Pattillo. Mr. Pattillo goes to reside 
with him. His reasons lor commencing a journal. Extracts from it ; his 
birth ; becomes a merchant's clerk ; removes to Virginia ; commences 
teftcbing school ; his rdigious convictions ; oral meditations ; an error; 
his desire to preach the Gospel ; his Licensure ; how sustained while 
preparing for the Ministry ; his house struck with lightning. Extracts 
from Records of Hanover Presbytery. Goes to Hawfields, N. C, 17(55. 
ReoMves to Granville, 17*^4. Member of Provincial Congress, 1775. Ex- 
tracts from the records of Provinoial Congress. The Churches iii Gran- 
ville. First Sacrament Anecdote of Tennant Extract from a Will 


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made 1782. Act of the Congregatione. Mr. Pattillo's marriage ; his Col- 
lege Degree ; his writings and publications ; his death. Extract from Mr. 
* Lacey's funeral sermon. Extract from a letter respecting his death. His 
successors, John Matthews, M. Currie and S. L. Graham. Origin of Con- 
gregations 6f Hawfields and Eno. Visits of Missionaries ; M* Aden's risit 
in 1755 and '56 ; Mr. Debou, William Hodges, William Paisley. Fibst 
Camp Meetings iir the Southerit States. Mr. E. B. Currie, Sam- 
uel Paisley ; other supplies. Death of John Paisley. The Regulators 
not ignorant people 213 



Unusual time of Ministerial seryices. Birth an^ parentage of Dr. Caldwell. 
His admissi<ii to the Church. Takes his degree in College at the age of 
thirty-six. Prepares for the ministry. His frankness and perseyer- 
ance. Extract from minvtes of Synod of New York and New Jersey. 
The Congregation of Bufialo. Caldwell visits Carolina. Alamance 
x>rganized. Mr. Caldwell's commisftion as Missionary. Is ordained 
July, 1765 ; installed, 1768; married, 1766; opens a Classical School; 
his success in educating youth. Mrs. Caldwell's influence. Revivals in 
his school. He practises Medicine. Is a close student Orange Presby- 
tery formed. The character of the Regulators. Mr. Caldwell's inter- 
course wf6i them. His sufferings in the war. His labors and influence 
after the Revolution. Section of the Constitution. Harmonizes with 
Dr. Brevard in his paper of 1775. Public favor seeks him. Appointment 
of Clerk of a Court His sermon during the last war with England. De- 
gree Of D.D. conferred on him by the University of N. C. His death. 

* Death of Mrs. Caldwell. Their Burial-place. Dilly Paine, or the Tra- 
dition about Mrs. Paisley 231 



Siyiation of New Providence. Few manuscripts left Wallis' grave. First 
Minister of Providence. His nephew. W. R. Davie, Major and Colonel. 
Rev. Robert Henry. Articles of agreement with Clear Creek. Thomas 
Reese. The sufferings of the Congregation. James Wallis' birth and 
education. His contest with Infidelity. The character of the Revolu- 
tionary soldiers in Mecklenburg and Upper Carolina. Anecdote of old 
Mr. Alexander. The discussion about the Bible. An Infidel Debating 
Society^ Cause of dissatisfaction about Psalmody; a division follows. 
Great Camp Meeting. He teaches a Classical School Is made Trustee 
of the University. Sharon set off as a Church. 244 

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His place of residence. His employment His habits of intercourse. His 
origin. Time and place of his birth. His education. Enters the army, 
1778. In various expeditions. Taken with a feyer. At work in the 
field when the news of the enemy's approach reached him. Takes the 
field as Adjutant. The attack on Charlotte. The enemy three times re- 
pulsed. The Carolina forces retreat Locke killed. Graham left for 
dead. Reyives and is conveyed away. Taken to the Hospital. After his 
recovery raises a company of fifty-five men at his own expense, Dec., 1780. 
Battle of Cowptfis, Jan. 1781. Posted at Cowan's Ford. Davidson killed. 
Graham follows the enemy. Surprifes Hart* s Mill. At the surprise of 
Col. Pyles. The time of enlistment expiring, his men return hom^. Ru- 
therford raises a force and Grahun becomes Major. Marches to Wil- * 
mington. His last engagement Sheriff. Member of Assembly. Mar- 
ries. Removes to Lincoln county. Appointed General. Marches against 
the Indians. Basis of his political cre^. Extract from Judge Murphy's 
Oration. His religious creed. His moral and religious character and in- 
tercourse with men. Death and burial. His Portrait 251 


BATTLE or KllfO's MOUNTAIlf . 

By whom drawn up. Situation of the country after Gates'li defeat, 1780. 
Comwallis sends out Col. Ferguson. His march. The increase of his 
force. Their arms. His threats to the Mountain Men (Tennesseeans and 
Eentuckians). McDowell, and Sevier, and Shelby, in consultation. Raise 
forces. The number in camp at place of rendezvous. Ferguson retreati 
and sends a dispatch to Comwallis. His march to King's mountain. The 
Colonels send for a General Officer. In the meantime GcL Campbell 
commands. Col. Williams of South Carolina joins them on their march. 
Approach Ferguson's Camp. Plan of Battle. Come in sight of the ene- 
my. Position of the enemy's camp. Order of the troops. The battle be- 
gins. Ferguson charges and is driven back ; second and third chains. 
Fire all round the mountain. Ferguson charges repeatedly and is driven 
back ; is wounded ; is killed. Bearer of the flag shot down ; another is 
raised. They throw down their anns. The killed and wounded. The 
court-martial. Executions. Monument to Major Chronicle and others. 
Col. Williams. Colonels M'Dowell, Hambrite, Sevier and Cleveland. 
CoL Campbell, of Virginia ; his burial place, ^necdote of Col. Ferguson. 
Anecdote of Campbell. Anecdote of Preston 264 

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Plan of the battle. Circumitancee of the pvaait Its end. Barning of 
M' Aden's libraiy. The preludes of the batde. Col. Webster's escape. 
Comwallis in Bvffido Congregation ; in Alamance ; at Dr. Caldwell's. Tl» 
sufl^ngs of the family. The burning of his library. The commence- 
ment of the battle. The battle-ground. The situation of Greene's army. 
Extract of a letter showing the effects of the first (be. Extract from » 
soldier's diary. Death of Col. Webster. The militia. 272 



Formation of the Synod. The Presbyteries and their members. The firrt 
meeting in Centre Rowan. An overture respecting the Catechism. Sec- 
ond meeting. The report respecting the Catechism taken jop again. Over- 
ture on horse-racing, card-playing, dancing and revelling. Overture on at- 
tending on divine worship. Ordered that the overtures and answers 
be read in all the churches. Marriage with wife's sister's daughter 
condenmed. Tldrd Meeting, Overtures for printing part of Dr. Dod- 
dridge's worka, Day of Thanksgiving. Fourth Meeting. Preparation 
made for printing Dr. Doddridge's work on Regeneration, and his Rise 
and Progress. Decision respecting Psalmody. Question respecting Uni- 
v«rsaliits sent up t# the Assembly. Question respecting admitting Mem- 
bars, are they to asseni to the Co^funon of Faith 7 fcc. Commission of 
Synod appointed. Steps taken to collect materials for history of the Pres- 
byterian Church. Domestic Missions commenced in earnest Four Mis- 
sionaries appointed. Statistical reports from the Presbyteries of Orange 
and South Gscelina. F{fth Meeting. Decision of the General Assembly 
on the question sent up the last meeting respecting admitting Univer- 
salisls to communion, in the negative. Printing of Doddridge's work. Re- 
port from the Commission of Synod on Missionary operations^ A peculiar 
instnction to the missionaries. Their report on judicial business. Synod 
approved their doings. Sixth Meeting, Erring members to be q>eedily called 
upon. Letter from the Rev. Henry Pattillo ; his request that it be admitted 
to record. Propose to send out laymen rather than seize upon foreigners. 
Report concerning Doddridge's works. Commission of Synod report con- 
cerning the Missionaries. Seventh Meeting. Sjmod direct the Presby- 
tery of Orange to decide on tly case of Mr. Archibald ; which they forth- 
with did, and he was suspended. Directions respecting materials lor his- 

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toiy of the Church. Commiflsion of Synod report reepectiDg the Mission- 
aries ; ftdl report Mutual reports from Ministers and Sessions to Pre^y- 
teries. Eighth Meeting. Direct the Presbytery of Orange to ordain Mr. 
McGee tine tituio. Presbytery of Orange divided and Concord consti- 
tuted. Report to Synod respecting the printing of Doddridge's works. 
Day of ftsting appointed. Mnth Meeting, Failure of printing Dod- 
dridge's work. Hopewell Presbytery set off Question respecting the evi- 
daMe of baptized aivrea. Injunction to give slaves religious instructions. 
Attention* of Synod taken up by the difficulties in Abingdon t^esbytery ; 
a new Presbytery constituted there. Mr. Gilleland's memorial about his 
course respecting slavery. Synod agree with his Presbytery. Tenth 
Meeting, A Commission of Synod appointed ; suspend the Independent 
Presbytery. Minutes of the Cgmmisrimi of Synod, Its members ; 14 
ministers and 12 elders. The Como^aiion restore the suspended mem- 
bers. Charges against Hezekiah Balch. Ist charge ; of this he was 
cleared. 2d charge ; false doctrines. This referred to the General As- 
sembly ; a curious statement 3d charge ; in part sustained. 4th charge ; 
on this he was condemned by the Commission as irregular. Abingdon 
Presbytery divided, and Union Presbytery set off*. Overture on promis- 
cuous communion. Eleventh Meeting. Suspension removed from Mr. 
Crawford. Charges against Mr. Balch read. Mr. Balch brings charges 
against the old session. Extraordinary Session, 1799. Thirty folio pages 
of evidence produced and read. 3d and 4th charges against Mr, Balch 
not sustained. On the 5th charge the Synod decided against Mr. Balch. 
The two other charges not sustained. Synod suspend Mr. Balch and four 
elders. The matter settled. Twelfth Meeting, 1799. Overture on the 
subject of marriage in the forbidden degree. Mr. Bowman's case taken 
up. Reports from four of the Presbyteries. South Carolina Presbytery 
divided. Thirteenth Meeting. Two independent Ministers invited i» a 
seat Overture respecting a petition to the Legislature on Abolition dis- 
miaaed. The Missionary business. Two Missionaries sent to the Natches. 
Will a private acknowledgment of wrong be taken for a public conces- 
sion? Negative. Mr. Balch complains of the Presbytery of Abingdon. 
Greenville Presbytery set off! ComplaintaboutMr. Witherspoon. Four- 
teenth Meeting' Reports from the Missionaries to the Natcbfip.. Case of 
incestuous marriage. Mr. Balch's complaints taken up. Mr« Wither- 
spoon's case decided. Synod's solemn recommendations. Synod orderid 
the subject of Missions to be laid before the Congregations, and collections 
to be taken up. Case of Green Spring and Sinking Spring. Missionari^ 
to Mississippi Territory 281 



Tennes8Q# settled early from Carolina. Meaning of Mountain Men, &c. 

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Emigratioii from other States. The first Minister ia Tennessee. The 
Rev. Sunnel Doak. Martin Academy. Washington College. His early 
life and ^his usefulness. Rev. Samuel Houston. Rev. Messrs. He2ekiah 
Balch and Samuel Carrick. Mr. Craighead. Abingdon Presbytery. Trus- 
tees of Washington College, of Blount Coll^;e, and of Greenville College. 308 



Clergymen in the army ; some gave up their ministry. Jafnes Hall served 
as a soldier and continued a preacher. Birth-place. Place of Emigration. 
Names of families emigrating. Minute of Synod of Philadelphia in 1753. 
Minute in 1754. Minute in 1757. Minute of Synod of New York in 
1755. Minute from the Synod of New York and Philadelphia. Efibrts 
for Ministers. Salary promised ; eighty pounds for half the time. Hall's 
early instruction. The coming of a MiBsionary. Minute for 1764 by Synod. 
Mr. Hall unites with the church. His early habits and desires as a 
Christian. Devotes himself to the Ministry. A perplexing incident the 
cause of his remaining single through life. Hii age when he commences 
the Classics. His taste for Mathematics. Is gradt&ted at Princeton. 
Dr. Witherspoon*s opinion of him. Licensed to preach the Gospel. Min- 
isters in Carolina at that time. Mr. Hall installed Pastor. His Elders. 
Espouses cause of the Revolution. Raises a company of cavalry to 
go to South Carolina. An incident reconnoitreing. Raises a second com- 
pany. A third company raised and Mr. Hall goes with them. A novel 
scene in preaching. His qualifications as a commander. General Greene 
proposes him for General to fill the place of Davidson. A revival of Re- 
ligion in his charge. His first attendance on the Synod. Commences 
his Missionary excursions. A pioneer to the Natches. His reports of 
his Missions. His attendance on the General Assembly. His journeys to 
the Assembly. An incident Trains men for the Ministry. Clio^s JVlur- 
sery. Opens an Academy of Science at his own house. Prepares a 
Grammar for his young people. A circulating library. List of preachers 
educated by him. Favors the establishment of a Theological Seminary. 
Member of the Bible Society. Anecdote. His boldness and independ- 
ence, an anecdote of. His manner of preaching. His occasional melan- 
choly, anecdote of it. His tenderness for the suffering of others under it. 
Made Doctor of Divinity by Nassau Hall and University of N. C. His 
death and buriaL 315 



The successor of Dr. Hall in his charge of Concord and Fourth Creek* 

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Origin and bkfb. Is wnt to England. Emigrates to New Jersey and enters 
College. JCeviTal in Princeton College in 1772. His religious experi- 
ence. Ofeat opposition. Anecdote. Becomes convicted, hopefully con- 
yertedr His succeeding course. His view of College Honors. Visits 
England. Wishes to enter the Ministry. His Father's wishes. His 
Father offended and disinherits him. He returns to America. Commen- 
ces Theological reading with Dr. Witherspoon. His perplexity of mind. 
Commences the study of Medicine. Enters the Army. His father's 
death. A Legacy. Settles hi Princeton. His deportment in the Army. 
Mr. Hall persuades him to remoTe to Iredell, N. C. His marriage. De- 
sires to enter the Ministry. The people also desire it. Licensed by 
Orange Presbytery in 1791. Becomes Pastor of Concord and Fourth Creek. 
The Revival of 1802. His views of it Leaves Fourth Creek. His 
successors there. His death. His chiracter by John M. Wilson of Rocky 
River. His manner of preaching. His dying exercises 337 



Settlement of Thyatira. Mc Aden's course through the settlement, 1755. 
Visit of Messrs. Speneertmd McWhorter. Samuel E. McCorkle. Birth- 
place. His parents emigrate to North Carolina. Their locations. The 
Father an Elder and the Son Pastor of the Church. Commences a Classi- 
cal course. Takes his degree at Nassau Hall, 1772. Extracts from his 
diary. His early experience. His exercises during the Revival of 1772. 
Extract from Boston. Reads Hopkins. Is deeply distressed. Reads 
Smalley. Mr. Green's Sermon. He commences reading for the Ministry. 
Licensed and called to Thyatira. His Marriage. Anecdote of Mrs. 
Steele and General Green. Obituary of Mrs. Steele. Her letter to her 
Children after her death. A prayer fit)m her pen. Mr. McCorkle's re- 
sidence. Opens a Classical School. A Teacher's department The first 
Graduates of the University of N. C. Is appointed a Professor in the 
University. Declines the appointment Bounds of Thyatira. Third 
Creek formed from it Rev. J. D. Eilpatrick. His views of the Revival 
in 1802. Anecdote of him. Back Creek formed. Salisbury Church 
formed. Mr. McCorkle's Bible Classes. His Pulpit preparations. His 
printed Sermons. His appearance. Resemblance to Mr. Jefferson. His 
Pulpit instfuctions. Delegates to the Assembly. His views of the Revival 
of 1802. Struck with Death in the Pulpit. His Funeral. Thomas Espy. 
His birth. His early exercises on Religion. Commences a Classical 
course. Unites with the Church, 1820. Enters College. Goes to Vir- 
ginia. Commences preparations for the Ministry. Licensure. Influence 
of W» avample. A Missionary to Burke, N. C. Is ordained Evange- 

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list. Leaves Centre and goes to Salisbary. Seized with a hemorrhage. 

His last sickness. A testimony concerning him. His death 349 



His agency in Revivals. No memoir of him has hitherto appeared. His 
origin, immigration to North Carolina. Reasons of his education. His 
early Religious views. A change in them. Its influence on his after life 
and Preaching. Licensed by Red Stone Pre^ytery. Returns to Caro- 
lina. Religion suffered during the War. McGready attends a f\meral 
His appearance. His first Sermons. His pulpit preparations. His print- 
.ed sermons. His manner of delivery. Places of preaching. His residence. 
Visits Dr. Caldwell's School with happy effect Excitement on Religion. 
Opposition on Stony Creek. McGready and others remove to the West 
Extract from McGready*s statement of the condition of things in Kentucky. 
Commencement of the Revival in 1800. The exercises of a bodily nature. 
Crowds attend meetings for days in succession. The Revival commences 
in North Carolina, I8OI9 at Cross Roads. Also at Hawfields. The first 
Camp Meeting in North Carolina. The Revival spreads over the State. 
Dr. Caldwell appoints a meeting in Randolph County. An interesting 
pamphlet printed in Philadelphia, containing an account of the Revival 
A Clergyman's account of the exercises experienced by himself. His 
opinion of them 367 



Mr. Hunter first a Soldier and then a Minister. Settlement of Steele Creek. 
Names of its Ministers. Location of the Church. The Grave Yard. A 
visit to it The inscriptions of a Soldier. Anecdote. Other inscriptions 
of a different age. Monuments to little children. Poetic inscriptions. 
The use of Psalms and Hymns. Grave of two Brothers. Monument of 
Rev. Mr. Hunter. Extract from Gordon's History. Mr. Hunter's birth- 
place. Emigrates to America when a child. Grows up in Mecklenburg. 
Attends the Convention. Enlists as a Soldier. Commences his Classical 
course. Certificate. A Lieutenant against the Indians. Goes to Queen's 
Museum. Certificate. College broken up. Enters the Army. Is at the 
battle of Camden. Witnesses the death of De Kalb. The circumstances of 
it Prisoners in confinement. Anecdote of Hunter. Escapes firom con- 
finement Joins the Army again. Resumes his studies. Two Certifi- 
cates. Enters Mount Zion College. His degree. His licensure. A 
call with the Signatures. Removes to Lincoln. Settlement of Goshen. Its 

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Xiocatioii. Preacher at Steele Creek. Practises Medicine. His performan- 
ces as a Minister. His Death. Notice of it. His appearance and cha- 
racter. . 414 



Fall of General Davidson on the Catawba. His birth and burial. Bounda- 
ries of Centre. The first white child born between the two riyers. Origin 
of the inhabitants. Rev. Th o mas H.^McCanle. Classical school. Dr. 
McRee the Minister for about tfirty years. His birth and Parentage. 
His Father's library. Custom to Catechise. His College course and pre- 
paration for the Ministry. Settlement at Steele Creek. Extract from a 
Letter. Essay on Psalmody. Settles in Centre. Extract from a Letter. . 462 



Ministers to be disengaged from Politics. Hezekiah James Balch in the 
Convention, Minutes of Synod respecting him. His congregations. His 
Death. Location of Poplar Tent Settlement and building of the Meeting 
House. Mr. Alexander's account Dr. Robinson's. Meaning of word 
Tent. Their use. The name of Poplar Tent No Monument to Mr. 
Balch. Names of the Elders. Robert Archibald. Psalmody. Anecdote 
ot Discussion about Poplar Tent not harassed in the War. Mr. Archi- 
bald's habits. Becomes erroneous in his Creed. Anecdote of him. Mr. 
Alexander Caldwell. John Robinson. His birth-place and parentage. 
Excellent Memory. His agency in the present work. His Education. 
His College Degree. His Licensure. His personal appearance. Com- 
mences Preaching in a trying time. His first place of Labor. Removes to 
Fayetteville. Removes to Poplar Tent. Returns to Fayetteville. First 
Communion in Fayetteville. His manner of preaching there. The opinion 
of his worth thirty-two years after. His kind feelings. His advanced years. 
Anecdote. Friend of Education. Anecdote of his Courage. One of his 
Faithfulness. Meeting of Synod during his last sickness. His death and 
burial 438 



1812 iircz.xrsivF. 
Fifteenth Meeting, Missionary report from Matthews and Hall. A com- 

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mission of Synod appointed. Grammar Schools to be erected; and 
Youth licensed for the Ministry. Oyerture about exhorters. Petitions 
from Abingdon. Stated Clerk appointed. Sixteenth Meeting. Mission- 
ary to Catawbas appointed. Overture respecting Candidates. •Seven- 
teenth Meeting. Greenville Presbytery dissolved. Missionaries sent to 
Natches. Overture respecting other denominations. Other overtures. 
Eighteenth Meeting. Report of the Mission among the Catawbas. Non- 
attending Presbyteries written to. Respecting the Presbytery of Charles- 
ton. J>nneteenth Meeting. The Records transcribed by the new clerk, 
Mr. Davies. Overture the Assembly for Division. Overture respecting 
Ministers holding Civil offices. Tu)entieth Meeting. A memorial re- 
specting William C. Davis. Application of the Presbytery of Union to 
change their connexion. Missi9nary operations. Questions concerning 
Elders in Synod. Twenty-first Meeting. The Missionary operations. 
«The Minutes of Synod on the Reports. The case of Mr. Davis taken 
up. Overture respecting Qualifications of Parents asking baptism for 
Children. Report on the subject of Communing with the Methodists. 
Twenty-second Meeting. Missionary matters. A long and interesting 
Report from Mr. Hall. He prepares questions for the people. His visit 
to Knobb Creek. Case of Mr. Davis comes up. The charges against him. 
His explanations. The decision of Presbytery. Synod,.dis8atisfied with it, 
takes up the case. Mr. Davis appeals to the Assembly. Synod remits the 
case with an overture on the book published by Mr. Davis called the Gos- 
pel Plan, Harmony Presbytery set off. Pastoral letter ordered on account 
Mr. Davis's errors. Twenty-third Meeting. First Presbytery of South 
Carolina dissolved. Overture concerning Lotteries. Extract from Mr. 
Hall's report on Missions. Ordination of Mr. Caldwell of the University 
sanctioned. Twenty-fourth Meeting. Presbytery of Orange ask advice 
respecting Mr. Davis. Dr. Hall reports on his Missionary tour. The 
Synod resign their Missionary operations to the hands of the Assembly. 
Action on the subject of ordination sine titulo. Order to circulate copies 
ofthe Confession of Faith. Twenty-fifth Meeting. Report of Dr. Hall 
of Missionary labor. Support of the Missionary and contingent Amds of 
the Assembly enjoined. Presbytery of Fayetteville set off. Action of 
Synod concerning Ordinations sine titulo 454 



His parentage. Incident in his early life. Enters the school in Charlotte. 
Completes his course of study at Hampden Sydney College. Devotes 
himself to the Ministry. SetUed in Burke County. Marries. Removes 
to Rocky river. The Settiement of Rocky River. Origin of the Settiers. 
Some of the names. They favor the Regulators. Destruction of powder by 

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the Black boys. Mr. Archibald the Mlnifiter. A Revival of Religion. Mr. 
Alexander Caldv^ell. Becomes deranged and leaves them. Mr.' Wilson 
becomes their Pastor. -The estimation in which he was held by the people. 
His Ministerial habits, opens a Classical school and educates a large number 
of Ministers of the Gospel. His preparation for death. His burial. His son 
a Missionary to Africa. Dies there. Mr. Wilson's grave and epitaph. . 47G 



Cross Creek. The name. Campbelton. The public road opened. Name 
changed to Fayetteville. First stated Preacher. Second Preacher. Ordi- 
nation of Elders. First administration of the Lord's Supper. The Third « 
Preacher ordain ed. Baptism administered publicly. Mr. Robinson re- 
turns. M^TurnSlv His labors and death. His successor. Church build- 
ing put ip. Succ^ion of Ministers. Second Pastor removed by death. 
Mr. Douglass. A short Memoir of him. His spirit His Parentage. 
His Religious impressions. His temptation in New York. Preparation 
for the Ministry. Foreign Mission. Visits Mr. Nettleton. Habits of 
piety. His labors as a Missionary. Ondained. Gathers a Church in Mur- 
freesborough. Goes to Milton. Gathers a Church there. Goes to Briery. 
Goes to Richmond. Groes to Ireland. Extract from a letter. Visits the 
great valley of the Mississippi. Goes to Lexington, Virginia. Goes to 
Fayetteville. His pastoral habits. FayettevUle Presbytery. Its forma- 
tion. Notice of, Mr. McMillan. Mr. McNair. Mr. Peacock. Mr. 
Mclntyre. Mr. McDougald 489 



Extract from Tarleton's History of the Southern Campaigns. Charlotte un 
comfortable head-quarters to Cornwallis. Extract from Tarleton upon the 
difficulty of obtaining provisions. The afiair at Mclntyre's. Epitaph of 
one of the men engaged in this affair. Extract from Steadman's History 
of the American war. The place of encampment of the British army. 
Evacuation of Charlotte. The Polk family. Thomas Spratt 504 



Sentiments of the females in Carolina about education. The oldest Academy. 

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Attempts to make a College. A charter obtained and revoked by the 
King. A second time obtained and revoked. Queen's Museum goes into 
operation, chartered as Liberty Hall Academy by the Colenial Legislature. 
Extract from Charter. Trustees. First President. Laws drawn up by a 
committee. Overture to Dr. McWhorter. Certificate. Second President 
Third President The Academy broken up. Mount Zion College. List 
of Academies by Presbyterians. Probable proportion of those able to read. 
The institutions established by Presbyterians. Vhe Caldwell Institute ; 
its origin and principles of operation. Opinion of Dr. Caldwell. Tkti 
Donaldson Academy. Davidson College; its principles. Attention to 
female education. Martin Academy in Tennessee. Extract from the 
report of the Committee of Fayetteville Presbytery 



A visit to the University on Commencement day. Death of a young lady, 
mie University a State Institution. The interest of the Presbyterians in 
it The Legislature determine to found a University. The Trustees. 
Its location. Laying the corner-stone. , Extract from the speech of Dr. 
M'Corkle, The University is opened. The first Professor. Mr. Harris 
recommends Mr. Caldwell. His parentage. His early training. Commen- 
ces his Classical course. His education abandoned. At the suggestion of 
Dr. Witherspoon his course is renewed. Enters College. His views re- 
specting his conduct in College. Takes his cbgree. Commences school- 
teaching. Is made tutor in Nassau Hall. His connection with the churph 
under Mr. Austin. Correspondence with his classmate. Appointed pro- 
fessor of Mathematics at Chapel Hill. Sets out for Carolina. Anecdote 
of Dr. Green. Enters on his office. The advantages of his situation. 
The difficulties of it The efforts of infidel notions. Extraol from a letter. 
Exhibition of Presbyterian principles. False notions of education. Or- 
dination of Dr. Caldwell. His talents judged by his works. Advocates 
the Presbyterial High School. His religious experience 521 

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The little village of Charlotte, the seat of justice for Meck- 
lenburg county, North Carolina, was the theatre of one of the 
most memorable events in tfae political annals of the United States. 
Situated in the fertile champaign, between the Yadkin and 
Catkwba rivers, far above tide-water, some two hundred miles 
from the ocean, and in advance of the mountains that run almost 
parallel to the Atlantic coast, on the route of that emigration which, 
before the Revolution, passed on southwardly, from Pennsylvania, 
through Virginia, to the unoccupied regions east of the Mount- 
ains, on what is now the upper stage route from Georgia, through 
South Carolina and North Carolina, to meet the railroad at 
Raleigh, — it waSj and is, the centre of an enterprising population. 
It received its name from Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg, 
whose native province also gave name to the county, the House 
of Hanover having been invited to the throne of England. 

Here was located the first academy, or high school, in the 
upper part of the State ; and here was made the first efibrt for a 
college in North Carolina, in the institution called Queen's Mu- 

The traveller, in passing through this fertile, retired, and popu- 
lous country, would now see nothing calculated to suggest the 

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fact, that he was on the ground of the boldest Declaration ever 
made in America ; and that all around him were localities rich in 
associations of valor and sufiEering in the cause of National Inde- 
pendence, the sober recital of which borders on romance. Every- 
thing looks peaceful, secluded, and prosperous, as though the 
track of hostile armies had never defaced the soil. Were he told, 
this is the spot where lovers of personal and national liberty will 
come, in pilgrimage or imagination, to ponder events of the deep- 
est interest to all mankind, he must feel, in the beauty and fertility 
of the surrounding region, that here was a chosen habitation for 
good men to live, and act, and leave tp their posterity the inesti- 
mable privileges of poUtical and religious^eedom, with abundance 
of all that may be desired to make life one continued thanksgiving. 

Seventy years ago, on the 19th day of May, 1775, might have 
been seen assembled, in this frontier settlement, an immense con- 
course of people under great excitement ; some few, well dressed, 
moving about with the dignity of Colonial Magistrates ; a small 
number of officers of the militia ; the great mass of the assembly 
clad in the homespun of their wives and sisters, — ^not a few shod 
with the moccasins of their own manufacture, — all completely 
wrapt in the exciting subjects of a revolutionary nature, then 
agitating the whole land. Continental Congress was then in ses- 
sion in Philadelphia, consulting for the welfare of the Colonies ; 
provincial Legislatures had been dissolved, and the whole popula- 
tion of the United Provinces were in commotion, discussing the 
rights and privileges of persons, and States, and Kings. Every 
man had become a politician, and from being a hunter was pre- 
pared to become a soldier. 

There was no printing press in the upper country of Carolina, 
and many a weary mile must be traversed to find one. Newspa- 
pers were few, and, no regular post traversing the country, were 
seldom seen. The people, anxious for news, were accustomed to 
assemble to hear printed handbills from abroad, or written ones 
drawn up by persons appointed for the purpose, particularly the 
Rev. Thomas Reese, of Mecklenburg, North CaroUna, whose 
bones lie in the grave yard of the Stone Church, Pendleton, 
South Carolina. There had been frequent assemblies in Char- 
lotte, to hear the news and join in the discussions of the exciting 
subjects of the day ; and finally, to give more efficiency to tHeir 
discussions, it was agreed upon, generally, that Thomas Polk, 
Colonel of the Militia, long a surveyor in the province, frequently 
a member of the Colonial Assembly, well known and well ac- 

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quainted in the surrounding counties, a man of great excellence 
and merited popularity, should be empowered to call a convention 
of the representatives of the peop^ whenever it should appear 
advisable. It was also agreed that these representatives should 
be chosen from the MiUtia districts, by die people themselves ; 
and that when assembled for council and debate, their decisions 
should be binding on the inhabitants of Mecklenburg. 

Havii^ heard of the attempt of Governor Martin to prevent the 
assemUing <rf a Provincial Congress, or Convention, in Newbem, 
in April ; and of his arbitrary proceedings in dissolving the last 
provincial Legislature after a session of four days, before any im- 
portant business had been transacted ; and being afflicted with the 
news from distant colonies, and from across the ocean, the people 
were clamorous for action and for redress. The Provincial Con- 
gress of North Carolina had assembled in direct opposition to the 
proclamation of the Governor, and had approved of the acts and 
doings of their representatives in the Continental Congress, ex- 
pressing their confidence in their wisdom and abiUties, by re-ap- 
pointing them to the arduous duties of Representatives in the 
Legislature of the United Colonies ; and the people generally 
were more and more restless under the exercise of royal author- 
ity, and daily more irritated by the exactions of men who glutted 
their avarice under the color of law. 

In this state of the pubhc mind, Colonel Polk issued his notice 
for the conunittee men to assemble in Charlotte, on the 19th of 
May, 1775. On the appointed day between twenty and thirty 
representatives of the people met in the Court House, in the cen- 
tre of the town, at the crossing of the great streets, and surround- 
ed by an immense concourse, few of whom could enter the house, 
proceeded to organize for business, by choosing Abraham Alex- 
ander, a former member of the Legislature, a magistcate, and 
ruling elder in the Sugar Creek Congregation, in whose bounds 
they were assembled, as their chairman ; and John McKnitt Alex- 
ander, and Dr. Ephraim Brevard, men of business habits and 
great popularity, their clerks. Papers were read before the Con- 
vention and the people ; the handbill, brought by express, containing 
the news of the battle of Lexington, Massachusetts, on that day 
one month, the 19th of April, came to hand that day, and was 
read to the assembly. The Rev. Hezekiaji James Balch, Pastor 
of Poplar Tent, Dr. Ephraim Brevard, and William Kennon, 
Esq., addressed the Convention and the people at large. Under 
the excitement produced by the wanton bloodshed at Lexington, 

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and the addresses of these gentleoaen, the assembly cried out as 
with one voice, " Let us be independent ! Let us declare our 
independence, and defend it with our lives and fortunes !" The 
speakers said, his Majesty's proclamation had declared them out 
of the protection of the British Crown, and they ought, therefore, 
to declare themselves out of his protection, and independent of all 
his control. 

A committee, consisting of Dr. Ephraim Brevard, Mr. Kennon, 
and Rev. Mr. Balch, were appointed to prepare resolutions svitable 
to the occasion. Some drawn up by Dr. Brevard, and read to his 
friends at a political meeting in Queen's Museum some days before, 
were read to the Convention, and then committed to these gentle- 
men for revision. 

While the committee were out discussing these resolutions, the 
Convention continued in session and were addressed by several 
gentlemen. General Joseph Graham, then but a youth, and pre- 
sent at the deliberations, relates an interesting incident. A mem- 
ber of the committee, who had said but little before, addressed 
the chairman as follows : " If you resolve on Independence, how 
shall we all be absolved from the obligations of the oath we took 
to be true to King George the Third, about four years ago, after 
the Regulation battlcy when we were sworn, whole militia compa- 
nies together ? I should be glad to know how gentlemen can 
clear their consciences after taking that oath?" The Speaker 
referred to the blood shed by Governor Tryon, on the 16th of May, 
1771, on Alamance Creek, when he dispersed the Regulators, men 
driven to open resistance of His Majesty's officers, by their 
tyranny and exactions ; — ^and to the numerous executions that fol- 
lowed in Hillsborough and the neighboring country ; — and to the 
oath of allegiance forced on the people by the Governor, to save 
their lives and property, after that bloodshed. The question pro- 
duced great confusion, and many attempted to reply ; the chair- 
man could with difficulty preserve order. This question did not 
imply fear, or want of patriotism ; it simply revealed the spirit and 
tone of the man's conscience, that he was one of those men bless- 
ed of the Lord, " who sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth 
not." The excitement that followed evinced the fact that the 
Speaker had struck a chord that vibrated through the assembly. 
An answer must be given, or the event of that day's discussion 
.would not be for independence. The haste to answer the ques- 
tion revealed the fact that the community felt the awftd and bind- 
ing sanction of a solemn oath ; and unless some answer was 

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given, and given speedily, tl^e minds of the auditory would be 
turned back from the proposed declaration, for very many were 
held by the oath exacted by Tryon. Some cried out that — " al- 
legiance and protection were reciprocal ; when protection was 
withdrawn, allegiance ceased ; that the oath was binding only 
while the King protected us in our rights and liberties as they 
existed at the time it was taken." Others, of more passion than 
conscience, cried out that such questions and difficulties were all 
" mmsens^t^^* One man at last carried the assembly with him by 
a short illustration, pointing to a green tree near the Court House, 
— " H I am sworn to do a thing as long as the leaves continue on 
that tree, I am bound by that oath as long as the leaves continue. 
But when the leaves fall, I am released from that obligation." 
The people determined that when protection ceased, allegiance 
ceased also. The Convention proceeded to enact by-laws and 
regulations by which it should be governed as a standing commit- 
tee, and about midnight adjourned till noon the next day. 

The excitement continued to increase through the night and the 
succeeding morning. At noon. May 20th, the Convention re-assem- 
bled with an undiminished concourse of citizens, amongst whom 
might be seen many wives and mothers, anxiously awaiting the 
event. The resolutions previously drawn up by Dr. Brevard, and 
now amended by the committee, together with the by-laws and 
regulations, were taken up ; John McKnitt Alexander read the 
by-laws, and Dr. Brevard the resolutions. All was stillness. The 
chairman of the Convention put the question : — " Are you all 
agreed ?" The response was an universal " aye." 

After the business of the Convention was all arranged, it was 
moved and seconded that the proceedings should be read at the 
Court House door in hearing of the multitude. Proclamation was 
made, and from the Court House steps Colonel Thomas Polk 
read, to a listening and approving auditory, the following resolu- 
tions, viz. : — 


''Resolved, 1st. That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted, 
or in any way, form, or manner, countenanced the unchartered and 
dangerous invasion of our rights, as claimed by Great Britain, is 
an enemy to this country, to America, and to the inherent and 
unalienable rights of man. 

" Resolved, 2d. That we, the citizens of Mecklenburg county, 
do hereby dissolve the poUtical bonds which have connected us 

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with* the mother country, and hereby absolve ourselves from all 
allegiance to the British crown, and abjure all political connection, 
contract, or association with that nation, who have wantonly 
trampled on our rights and liberties, and inhumanly shed the blood 
of American Patriots at Lexington. 

" Resolved, 3d. That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and 
independent people ; are, and of right ought to be, a sovereign 
and self-governing association, under the control of no power, 
other than that of our God, and the General Government of the 
Congress : — ^to the maintenance of which independence, we sol- 
emnly pledge to each other, our mutual co-operation, our lives, 
our fortunes, and our most sacred honor. 

" Resolved, 4th. That as we acknowledge the existence and con- 
trol of no law, nor legal office, civil or military, within this county ; 
we do hereby ordain and adopt, as a rule of life, all, each, and 
every of our former laws ; wherein, nevertheless, the crown of 
Great Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges, 
immunities, or authority therein. 

" Resolved, 6th. That it is ftirther decreed, that all, each, and 
every military officer in this county is hereby retained in his former 
command and authority, he acting conformably to these regulations. 
And that every member present of this delegation shall henceforth 
be a civil officer, viz. : a Justice of the Peace, in the character of 
a conunittee man, to issue process, hear and determine all matters 
of controversy, according to said adopted laws ; and to preserve 
peace, union, and harmony in said county ; and to use every exer- 
tion to spread the love of country and fire of freedom throughout 
America, until a general organized government be estabhshed in 
this province." 

A voice from the crowd called out for "three cheers," and the 
whole company shouted three timesj and threw their hats in the 
air. The Resolutions were read again and again during the day 
to different companies desirous of retaining in their memories 
sentiments so congenial to their feelings. There are still living 
some whose parents were in that assembly, and heard and read 
the resolutions ; and from whose lips they heard the circumstances 
and sentiments of this remarkable declaration. 


The Convention had frequent meetings, and on the 30th of May, 
1775, issued the foUowing paper, viz.: — 

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" Charlotte, Mecklenburg County, 
Muy 30th, 1775. 


" This day the committee of the county met and passed the 
following Resolves : — ^Whereas, by an Address presented to his 
Majesty by both houses of parliament, in February last, the 
American Colonies are declared to be in a state of actual rebellion, 
we conceive that all laws and commissions conlinned by, or de- 
rived from the authority of the king or parliament, are annulled 
and vacated, and the former civil constitution of these Colonies 
for the present wholly suspended. To provide, in some degree, 
for the exigencies of this county, in the present alarming period, 
we deem it necessary and proper to pass the following resolves, 
viz. : — 

" 1st. That all commissions, civil and military, heretofore 
granted by the crown, to be exercised in these Colonies, are null 
and void, and the constitution of each particular Colony wholly 

" 2d. That the Provincial Congress of each province, under the 
direction of the great Continental Congress, is invested with all 
legislative and executive powers, within their respective provinces, 
and that no other legislative power does, or can exist, at this time, 
in any of these Colonies. 

" 3d, As all former laws are now suspended in this province, 
and the Congress have not provided others, we judge it necessary 
for the better preservation of good order, to form certain rules 
and regulations for the^ internal government of this county, until 
laws shall be provided for us by the Congress. 

" 4th. That the inhabitants of this county do meet on a certain 
day appointed by this committee, and having formed themselves 
into nine companies, viz., eight in the county, and one in the town 
of Chaurlotte, do choose a Colonel and other military officers, who 
shall hold and exercise their several powers by virtue of this 
choice, and independent of the crown of Great Britain and the 
former constitution of this province." 

[TTien follow eleven articles for the preservation of the peace^ 
and the choice of officers to perform the duties of a regular gov- 

" 16th. That whatever person shall hereafter receive a com- 
mission from the crown, or attempt to exercise any such commis- 
sion heretofore received, shall be deemed an enemy to his country; 
and upon information to the captain of the company in which he 
resides, the company shall cause him to be apprehended, and. 

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upon proof of the fact, committed to safe custody, till the next 
sitting of the committee, who shall deal with him as prudence 
shall direct.** , 

A copy of the acts and doings of this convention was sent by 
express to the members of Congress from North Carolina, then 
in session in Philadelphia. Capt. James Jack, of Charlotte, was 
^chosen as the bearer, and set out immediately on his mission. 
Passing through Salisbury, on the regular court day, he was per- 
suaded by Mr. Kennon, a lawyer in attendance at court, also a 
member of the committee that reported the first declaration, to 
permit a reading of the papers publicly. The citizens of Rowan, 
generally, approved of the course taken by their fellow-citizens of 
Mecklenburg. Two individuals, John Dunn and Benjamin Booth 
Boote, opposed the sentiments of the resolution, pronounced them 
treasonable, and proposed the detention of Captain Jack. Bidding 
them defiance, and favored by the great majority of the people, 
he passed on unmolested, and delivered the declarations to the 
delegates from North Carolina, then in Philadelphia — Messrs. 
Caswell, Hooper, and Hewes. Approving of the spirit of their 
fellow citizens, and the tone of the resolutions, these gentlemen 
nevertheless thought them premature, as the General Congress 
had not then abandoned all hopes of a reconciliation with the 
mother country, on honorable terms ; and did not present them to 
Congress. • By this perhaps prudent smothering of the expressions 
of sentiment by an intelligent people, the citizens of Mecklenburg 
were disappointed, but not discouraged ; they lost the foreground 
their patriotism merited, but lost not their spirit. They declared 
themselves independent May, 1775, and have never ceased to 
be so. 

A copy of the proceedings of the Convention was addressed to 
the Moderator of the first Provincial Congress of North Carolina, 
which met in Hillsborough, August 20th, 1779^; and was laid 
before the committee of business, but not particularly acted upon, 
as the majority of the body were still hoping for reconciliation on 
honorable terms. 

A copy of the proceedings appeared in the Cape Fear Mercury, 
published in Wilmington, and meeting the eye of Governor Josiah 
Martin, is thus noticed by him in the Proclamation issued from on 
board his Majesty's ship Cruiser, August 8th, 1775, and sent to 
the Provincial Congress : — " And whereas, I have also seen a most 
infamous publication in the Cape Fear Mercury, importing to be 

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* Resolves^ of a set of people styling themselves *a Committee 
of the County of Mecklenburg,^ most traitorously declaring the 
entire dissolution of the laws, government, and constituticm of the 
country, and setting up a system of rule and regulation repugnant 
to the laws, and subversive of his Majesty's government," dec. 
The Governor knew the people better than his predecessor, 
Tryon, and had he known them better still, he would have spoken 
of them more respectfully. 

A copy of the second declaration (that of May 30th, 1775) 
appeared in the public papers in New York and Massachusetts ; 
files of which are still preserved ; and from them was copied by 
Mr. Force into his State Papers. 

The history of the preservation of the first declaration (that of 
May 20th, 1775), in the absence of printed documents, will be 
given, in full, in the sketch of Hopewell Congregation, and the 
Secretary of the Convention. 

The energy of the committee was equal to the decision of their 
declarations. The laws were vigorously enforced ; and the vene- 
rable chairman, and his coadjutor Col. Polk, with the committee 
at large, demonstrated that, in seeking freedom from tyranny, they 
designed no overthrow of law, or perversion of justice. Opposers 
of independence were reckoned oflfenders; and open offenders 
found no refuge in Mecklenburg. As soon as the news of the 
insult oflfered their express, Capt. Jack, in SaUsbury, reached 
Charlotte, the conmiittee ordered a party of some ten or twelve 
armed men, on horseback, to proceed to Salisbury, the seat of 
justice in Rowan, and bring these men prisoners to Charlotte. 
The party lost no time in fulfilling their mission, and met with no 
resistance in Rowan. The offenders, Dunn and Boote, were, 
after examination by- the conunittee, sent to South Carolina as 
suspicious persons, to be kept in confinement. Gen. Graham 
says — " My brother, George Graham, and the late Col. John Car- 
ruth, were of tbc party that went to SaUsbury ; and it is distinctly 
remembered that when in Charlotte, they came home at night in 
order to provide for their trip to Camden ; and they and two others 
of the party took Boote to that place. This was the first military 
expedition from Mecklenburg in the revolutionary war, and believed 
to be the first anywhere to the South." — But it was far from being 
the last, retired and frontier as the county was. It characterized^ 
in its spirit, energy and success, the various expeditions in and 
fit)m Mecklenburg during the jseven years' war — ^more particularly 
in the distressing campaigns of Comwallis, in which Graham 

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himself acted so conspicuous a part. Dunn and Boote were both 
transferred to Charleston, for safekeeping, as persons particularly 
inimical to the country. Their wives made a strong appeal in 
their favor to the Provincial Congress, v^rhich met in Hillsborough, 
August 20th, 1775 : on the 29th of that month it was decided by 
a vote of that body that they remain in confinement. 

Associations were formed, very generally, throughout the diflfer- 
ent counties in the state during the sununefof 1775. Articles 
drawn up for the purpose were signed individually as a test of 
patriotism. The' first association of which there is a copy, was 
drawn up in Cumberland county, July 10th, 1775 ; the second in 
Tryon, now Lincoln, in August of the same year. 

The first Provincial Congress of North Carolina were not pre- 
pared for independence of the mother country ; and on the 4th of 
September, 1775, after discussion and the action of a conmiittee, 
it was resolved — "The present association ought to be further 
relied on for bringing about a reconciliation with the parent state." 
But on the 9th of the same month, the appointment of a Provincial 
Council, of thirteen persons, with executive powers, was resolved 
upon ; also County Committees of Safety, with executive powers, 
in connection with the Provincial Council, to consist of not less 
than twenty-one persons, to be chosen annually by the electors on 
the day they made choice of Congressmen. It was also deter- 
mined that, after the lOth day of December, no suit for debt should 
be entertained except by permission of this conmiittee. These 
committees of safety appear to have been the same as that already 
in existence in Mecklenburg ; and Abraham Alexander continued 
to act as the chairman, as appears from the following certificate, 
which may be also a specimen of the spirit of the times, and the 
vigilance with which the committee acted : 

" North Carolina, Mecklenburg County, 
''Nov, 28th, J 775. 

" These may certify to all whom they may concern, that the 
bearer hereof, William Henderson, is allowed here to be a true 
friend of liberty, and has signed the association. 

" Certified by Abraham Alexander, chairman of the committee 
of safety." 

Though the Declaration of Independence, made and repeated in 
Charlotte, in May, 1775, had no immediate effect upon the Con- 
tinental Congress, it is not unfair to conjecture that it had an in- 

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fluence on the Provincial Congress of North Carolinat that met in 
Hillsborough in August of that year, in the appointment of the 
Provincial Committee and the County Committees of Safety, as 
four of the members of the convention were members of the 
Congress, viz. : — Thomas Polk, Waightstill Avery, John Pfifer, 
and John McKnitt Alexander. Neither is it unfair to conclude 
that it had soiue influence on the Provincial Congress that assem- 
bled in Halifax, April 4th, 1776 : as, on the 8th of that month a 
committee was appointed, consisting of Messrs. Harnett, Burke, 
A. Jones, T. Jones, Nash, Henekin, and Person, to take into con- 
sideration the usurpations and violence committed by the king and 
parliament of Great Britain ; and, on the 12th, Mr. Harnett sub- 
mitted an able report, which was concluded with the following 
i^solution, viz. : 

" Resolved, That the delegates from this colony, in Continental 
Congress, be empowered to concur with the delegates of the other 
colonies in declaring independence, and in forming foreign alli- 
ances ; reserving to this colony the sole and exclusive right of 
forming a constitution and laws for this colony, and of appointing 
delegates from time to time (under the direction of a general repre- 
sentation thereof), to meet delegates of the other colonies for such 
purposes as shall be hereafter pointed out." 

This resolution was, on the same day it was proposed, unani- 
mously adopted ; and is the first public declaration for in- 
dependence BY THE constituted authorities OF A STATE. It 

was presented to the Continental Congress, May 27th, 1776, 
nearly six weeks before the national Declaration. 

The question now arises, who were these people of Meek- ' 
lenburg, and whence did they come ? What were the habits 
and manners by which they were characterized ? What were their 
religious principles ? and what their daily practice ? The county 
was comparatively new ; and it was not yet forty years since the 
first of those composing the convention had settled in the wilder- 
ness. Agriculturists, at a distance from market, and in a fertile 
country afibrding in its pea-patches, and cane-brakes, and prairies, 
plentiful sustenance for their herds, they had abundance of pro- 
visions, and little of the sinews of war, money. Skilful marksmen, 
hunters, and horsemen, capable of enduring great fatigue, in mak- 
ing the Declaration of Independence, they ofiered a heart and a 
hand, to give and act according to their abilities, and the emergen- 
cies in which they might be placed. The riches of the gold mines 
were then unknown : the wealth of the country was in her sons, 

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and she wasjrich. Protestants, trained in religious things in the 
strict doctrines of the Reformation, their settlements were made 
in congregations ; and their places of worship so arranged as to 
accommodate all the famiUes. Their descendants now assemble 
where their fathers worshipped before the Revolution. Their 
forms and creed were the forms and creed of their ancestors, who 
were eminently a religious people ; and their Confession of Faith 
has descended as a legacy firom the emigrants, to go down to the 
latest posterity. 

Whence did these people come ? and what was their an- 
cestry ? Of the members of the Convention that proclaimed In- 
dependence, May, 1775, one was a minister of the Gospel, and 
nine were Elders in the Church ; and all in some way connected 
with the, seven .churches and congregations that embraced the 
whole county of Mecklenburg. In tracing their history, the 
true and legitimate workings of religious principles are as happily 
displayed as in the annals of any State or section in the United 
States. When the history of these people and their descendants 
shall be the history of two centuries, it may, and probably will 
appear, that in the advance of true religious and genuine liberty 
and sound literature, the South and West are not a whit behind 
the most favored sections of our Confederacy. < It cannot well be 
otherwise, for the principles, the creed of Puritanism, under 
whose influence human society has so happily been developed 
in the New England States, are the principles of Presbytery, the 
principles of civil and religious liberty, that struck deep in the 
soil of Carolina, and sent out their vigorous shoots in the great 
valley of the Mississippi. 

But the question arises vrith increased force, who were these 
people, and whence did they come ? In what school of poli- 
tics and religion had they been disciplined? At what foun- 
tains had they been drinking such inspirations, that here in the 
wilderness, common people, in their thoughts of fireedom and 
equality, far outstripped the most ardent leaders in the Conti- 
nental Congress ? Whence came these men, that spoke out 
their thoughts, and thought as they spoke ; and both thought and 
spoke unextinguishable principles of freedom of conscience and 
civil liberty ? That they were poor and obscure but adds to their 
interest, when it is known that their deeds in the Revolution 
were equal to their principles. Many a "life" was given in 
Mecklenburg in consequence of that declaration, and much of 
"fortune" was sacrificed; but their "honor" came out safe, even 

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their great enemy Tarleton being witness. They di(^ not get their 
ideas of liberty and law from Vattel, or Puffendorf, or the tomes 
of English law. From what book then did they get their know- 
ledge, their principles of life ? Ahead of their own State in their 
political notions, as a body, they never wavered through the 
whole Revolutionary struggle ; and their descendants possess 
now just what these people asserted then, both in religion and 
politics, in conscience and in the state. 

To North Carolina belongs the unperishable honor of being 
the first in declaring that Independence, which is the pride and 
glory of every American. Honor to whom honor is due ! 

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In the year 1759 a town was established by the legislature of 
the province of North Carolina, on the Eno, a branch of the 
Neuse, near its head waters, in the county of Orange, which 
might have received its name, Hillsboroughy from the beautiful 
eminences by which it is surrounded, as well as from the Earl 
of Hillsborough, Secretary of State for American affairs, from 
whom it is called. Its first name was Childsborough, in honor 
of the Attorney-General ; but the change speedily took place on 
account of the odium attached to the attorney for his exorbitant 

This little village, the county seat of Orange, has claims upon 
our attention, for events enacted within its precincts and its 
neighborhood, in times gone by. It was the seat of the first 
provincial congress in North Carolina, 1775 ; — the head-quarters 
of Gates after his sad defeat at Camden ; — and of his adversary, 
Lord Comwallis, on his invasion of Carolina in his pursuit of 
Greene (the residence of his Lordship, then one of the most 
sightly buildings in the village, is now kept as a tavern of no 
splendid appearance) ; — ^but more particularly noted as the place 
of the first outbreaking of those discontents, which had shown 
themselves in complaints and remonstrances, but here assumed 
form and consistence, first heard of in Orange and Granville, and 
ultimately spreading over all that section of the State west of a 
line drawn from the point of entrance of the Roanoke, from 
Virginia, to the point of egress of the Yadkin to South Carolina ; 
— discontents, and complaints, and outbreakings, that eventuated 
in the first blood shed in Carolina, in the contest of freedom of 
opinion and property with the tyranny and misrule of the British 
government : and the Jirst contest that had any appearance of 
a regular predetermined battle, in the provinces in North 

This spirit of discontent was at first confined to that part of 
the pfovince granted and set off to Lord Granville, which was 
bounded by the Virginia line on the north, by the line of latitude 

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of 350 Sj^^ on the souths and extending from the Atlantic Ocean 
indefinitely west ; but more particularly, that part of his Lord- 
ship's domain lying west of the line from the Roanoke to the 
Catawba, at the points specified above. It might have been 
quieted, had the governor been as ready to require the agents of 
Granville and his own oflScers to do justice, as he was to issue 
his proclamations, filled with promises, and vain orders, to a 
people irritated by oppression, but not desirous of rebellion. 

On the 24th of April, 1771, Governor Tryon marched from 
Newbem with a small force, on his way, acconling to the recom- 
mendation of the council, to check a rebellion in the upper 
comitry, which had received the name of the Regulators, or the 
Regulation ; the militia of the several coimties, in answer to the 
governor's demand upon the constituted authorities, joined him on 
his march; and on the 4th of May he encamped at Hunter's 
lodge in Wake county. Here being joined by a detachment of 
militia under Col. John Hintouj he found himself at the head of 
an armed force sufficient to alarm, if not subdue, the undisci- 
plined country in which the dissatisfaction prevailed. He left 
the palace in Newbem accompanied by about three hundred men, 
a small train of artillery, and a number of baggage wagons ; on 
the way he had been joined by the detachment of militia from 
New Hanover county, imder Col. John Ashe ; of the county of 
Craven, under Col. Joseph Leech ; of the coimty of Dobbs (now 
called Lenoir), under Col. Richard Caswell ; of the county of 
Onslow, under Col. Craig ; of the qounty of Cartaret, under 
Col. William Thompson ; of the county of Johnson, under Col. 
Needham Bryan ; of the county of Beaufort, a company of ar- 
tillery, under Capt. Moore, and a company of Rangers under 
Capt. Neale ; and a company of light horsemen from Duplin, 
under Capt. Bullock. 

From this place he sent out some detachments to assist the 
sheriffs in collecting their taxes and various fees due to the go- 
vernment and its officers, with the hope of overawing the com- 
munity by his military parade ; and on the 9th instant marched to 
the Eno, and encamped within a few miles of Hillsborough, the 
centre of the infected district, and fhe residence of the most 
hated and oppressive officer of the crown. Col. Edmund Fan- 
ning, who joined his camp at this place with a detachment of the 
militia of Orange, whom by various means he had prevailed upon 
to iinite with the governor in putting down their distressed and 
rebellious neighbors. 

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This was the second visit paid by the governor to the county 
of Orange on account of the agitation of Uie public mind, and the 
disturbances in the conununity, and the difficulty attending the 
collection of taxes and the fees of the public officers. In the 
early part of July, 1768, he came as governor, unattended with 
any armed force, and used the authority of the chief magistrate^ 
and the address of a practised politician, to restore order, under 
promises of redress. The apparent quiet gave place to redoubled 
confusion after his departure, as the promises of protection from 
illegal exactions all proved vain. He now came with an armed 
detachment of the colonial militia, to quell by power what he 
would not control by justice. 

The whole inhabited region of Carolina, west of the line men« 
tioned above, inhabited, as Martin says, — " by several thousand 
families, removed from the mother country, settled in the frontier 
counties of the province, exposed to the dangers of savage Indi- 
ans, and subject to all the hardships and difficulties of cultivating 
a desolate wilderness, under the expectation of enjoying to their 
frdlest extent the exercise of their religious privileges as a peo- 
ple," — ^and with their religious were joined inseparably the civil 
and domestic rights of an enterprising race accustomed to endure 
hardship and resist oppression ; — all this region of country was 
agitated, and in some parts in open rebellion ; without a single 
military leader of experience ; with few men of much wealth or 
political eminence, or polished education ; with a population of 
scattered neighborhoods, and not a single fortified place, or any 
preparations of the munitions of war beyond the rifle and powder 
and ball of the hunter. 

Mr. Wirt, in his Life of Patrick Henry, says, " the spirit of 
revolution in Virginia began in the highest circles in the commu- 
nity, and worked its way down to the lower, the bone and sinew 
of the country." Wherever it may have begun in the eastern 
part of Carolina, it is certain that in the western division, the 
people, feeling that their interests were neglected by the governor, 
attd misunderstood or overlooked by the seaboard counties, and 
not protected, or even consulted, by the parliament or court of 
England, or any of their executive officers, were moved as one 
great, excited, undisciplined mass of shrewd, hardy, enterprising 
men, that acknowledged the dominion of law, and held " opposi- 
tion to tyrants " to be " obedience to God." 

The men on the seaboard of Carolina, with Colonels Ashe and 
Waddel it they head, had nobly opposed the Stamp Act, and pre- 

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vented its execution in North Carolina; and in their patriotic 
movements the people of Orange sustained them ; and called them 
" The Sons of Liberty. ^^ Col. Ashe, in Wilmington, had ^ven 
tared to lead the excited populace against the wishes and even 
the hospitality of the goremor, and in 1766 his party had thrown 
the governor's roasted ox, provided for a barbecue feast, into the 
river. Now they were marching with this very governor, to sub- 
due the disciples of Liberty in the west ; perhaps, through a mis- 
understanding of the true nature of the case, they were willing 
to convince the governor that they were all supporters of the 
laws and of the authority of the British crown, by uniting with 
him and subduing those who were reported to the council and 
provincial legislature as an ignorant and restless multitude, to be 
reclaimed, by severity, to the government of the laws. The 
eastern men looked for evils from across the waters ; and were 
prepared to resist oppression on their shores before it should step 
upon the soil of their State. The western men were seeking re- 
dress from evils that pressed them at home, under the misrule of 
the officers of the province, evils unknown by experience in the , 
eastern counties, and misunderstood when reported there. Had 
Ashe, and Waddel, and Caswell, understood their case, they would 
have acted like Thomas Person, of Granville, and favored the 
distressed, even though they might have felt under obhgations to 
maintain the peace of the province, and the due subordination to 
the laws. While the rest of this province, and the other pro- 
vinces, were resisting by resolutions and remonstrances, and mak-. 
ing preparations for distant and coming evils ; these western men, 
in defence of their rights, boldly made resistance to the consti- 
tuted authorities, unto blood. While the eastern men stopped the 
stamped paper on the shore, these contended with an enemy in 
their own bosom, and sought deliverance at home in the wil- 

The disturbances" Governor Tryon came to quell were no sud- / 
den outbreaks of a discontented and excitable people. As early 
as the year 1759, the attention of the legislature of the province 
was called to the illegal fees exacted by the officers of government, 
producing great and alarming discontents ; and a law proposed for 
redress failed in meeting the approbation of the legislature, though 
the discontent of persons Uving on Lord Granville's land had been 
manifested by the seizure of his lordship's agent, in Edenton, 
Francis Corbin, and his purchase of liberty by his bond, fpr future 
better behavior, in £8,000, with eight securities. Thisf exhibition 


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of popular frenzy was not noticed by the governor, because one 
of his favorite counsellors, M'Culloch, v^ras engaged in it. In 
1760, the people of Orange, finding themselves "defrauded by 
the clerks of the several courts, by the recorders of deeds, by entry 
takers, by surveyors, and by the lawyers, every man demanding 
twice or three times his legal fees," violently prevented the sheriff 
from holding an election .according to proclamation of the governor, 
in eiqpectation of some new oppression by the office-holders, in the 
form of taxes and fees. In June, 1765, a paper entitled, " A seri" 
ous address to the people of Granville county, containing a brief 
narrative of our situation, imd the wrongs we suffer, with some 
necessary hints with respect to a reformation,^^ was circulated in 
that county, with great effect, being written vrith much cleamesft 
jand force. The wrongs complained of in Orange, and Granville, 
and Anson, and the other counties, were essentially, and for the 
most part, individually the same. 

The people complained that illegal and exorbitant fees were ex- 
torted by officers of government ; that oppressive taxes were 

^ exacted by the sheriffs, where they had a right to exact some ; and 
that the manner of their collection at all times was oppressive, 
especially when the right to exact any was denied. As early as 
the years 1752 or 1753, Childs and Corbin, the agents for Lord 
Granville, and successors of Mosely and Holton, began to oppress 
the people who had been induced, by fair promises, to settle on 
his lordship's reservation, by declaring the patents issued by their 
predecessors null and void, because the words, ^^ Right Ho- 
norable Earl^^ had been left out from the signature, which had 
been simply, ^^'Granville, by his Attorneys.^' They next demand- 
ed a larger fee for the patents they issued, than had been given to 
their predecessors ; — ^next, a fee for a device which they had in- 
vented to be affixed to the papers ; — ^also, by granting over and 
over again, knowingly, the same lands to different persons, and in 

•, no case returning the illegal fees ; — and in various ways rendering 
titles to land uncertain and insecure in a large part of Orange. In 
all these extortions the people complained that the high officers of 
the province were so interested, there was little prospect of justice 
but by some strong appeals and exhibitions of powerful dislike, 
that could n<rt4>e frovnaed down. 

The governor's proclamation, iasued from time to time, requiring 
that copies of »hc legal fees should be exhibited tg the people, and 
no others demanded, were disregarded by his officers ; and it was 
more than hiated that the judges were, indirectly at least, in many 

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cases, partakers of the crime, by sharing the fees of oflSce with 
the inferior officers. This gave weight and impunity to the op- 
pressive exactions. The people were poor ; living on productive 
land as most of them did, they were far from market, and had 
scarcely surmounted the labors and exposftires of a new seHlement. 
One of them, who was engaged in the opposition, declared that 
when he had gone with his father to Fayetteville to market, with 
a load of wheat, he could get a bushel of salt for a bushel of 
wheat ; or if money was demanded, they could get five shillings a 
bushel for wheat, of which one only was in money, and the rest in 
trade. And if they could go home with forty shillings, or five dol- 
lars, from a load of forty bushels, they tliought they had done well. 
In these circumstances double fees and double taxes were exceed- 
ingly oppressive, — and to men of their principles these exactions 
were sufficient cause of open and persevering resistance. 

In 1766, the Stamp Act was repealed, and the governor issued 
two proclamations on the 25th of June, one making known that 
desirable fact, the other requiring of the officers of government 
strict adherence lo the graduated table of fees ; e3q)ecting of coa- 
sequence that both the east and the west would be gratified, and 
make no further resistance to the collection of the lawful taxes, 
and range themselves on the side of the government. The relief • 
and tranquilUty were far greater in the eastern counties than in the 
western. During the session of the county court of Orange, a 
number of persons entered the court-house in Hillsborough, and 
presented to the magistrates a written complaint, drawn up by 
Harmon Husbands, which they requested the clerk to read, setting 
forth the views of the people respecting their wrongs, — " that there 
were many evils complained of in the county of Orange that ought 
to be redressed," — and proposing that there should be a meeting 
in each company of militia, for the purpose of appointing delegates 
for a general meeting to be held at some suitable place " where 
there was no liquor, ^'^ — "judiciously to inquire whether the freemen . 
of this county labor under any abuse of power," — " that the opi* 
nions of the deputies be committed to writing, freely conversed 
upon, — and measures taken for amendment." The proposition was 
considered reasonable, and a meeting was e^pointed to be held at 
Haddock's Mill, two or three miles west of Hillsborough, on the 
10th of October, to inquire into the acts of government, — " for 
while men were men, if even the Sons of Libm^ were put in 
office they would become corrupt and oppi^ssive^ unless they were 
called upon to give an account of their stewardship." 

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The company meetings were held, and the delegates were ap- 
pointed ; in some cases, mth written commissions, viz :— " At a 
meeting in the neighborfiood of Deep River, 2(Hh of August, 1766, 
it was unanimously agreed to appoint W. C. and W. M. Xjo attend 
a genetal meeting on the 10th of October, at Maddock's Mill, 
where they are judiciously to examine whether the freemen in 
this coimty labor under any abuses of power ; and in particular to 
examine into the public tax, and inform themselves of every parti- 
cular thereof, by what laws, and for what use it is laid, in order to 
remove some jealousies out of our minds." " And the representa- 
tives, vestrymen, and other officers, are requested to give the mem- 
bers what information and satisfaction they can, so far as they 
value the good will of every honest freeholder, and the executing 
public offices pleasant and dehghtsome." 

On ^e appointed day, the 10th of October, 1766, the delegates 
assembled ; after some time, James Watson, a friend of Col. Fan- 
ningi the most odious officer in the county, came, and as a reason 
for his not appearing to give account as their representative, read 
a mess^e from Fanning, that, " It had been his intention of at- 
tending them till a few days ago, when he observed in the notice 
from Deep River, the word judiciously, which signified the author- 
f ity of a court ; and that he considered the meeting an insurrection." 
The meeting had full and free discussion on a variety of topics ; 
and finally resolved that such meetings as the present were neces- 
sary, annually, or oftener, to hear from their representatives and 
officers, in order to have the benefits of their constitution and the 
choice of their rulers ; and that as their representatives, sherifis, 
- vestry and other officers had not met them here, with but one 
exception, they should have another opportunity of conferring with 
their constituents. It is impossible to conceive what fairer mode 
of ascertaining the truth could be devised by men situated as they 
were, without a printing press and without newspapers. Such 
proceedings might, in the colonial days, be rebelUon to be put 
^owTi ; in these days of liberty, a man would lose his hold on the 
^ pomiriimiiy were he to refuse compliance with such commands 
1^ %oin his constituents, or the community at large. 
^4 In April, 1767, another meeting was held at tlie same place, 
MaJciock's Mills, and the following preamble and resolutions were 
diicus^oii and adopted, by which these men passed the Rubicon ; 
and frcjiJi being called a mob, or insurgents, were known by tli« 
name of Regulators, or The Regulation, and were considered 
as having some continued existence : 

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" We, the subscribers, do voluntarily agree to form ourselves 
into an association, to assemble ourselves for conference for regu- 
lating public grievances and abuses of power, in the following 
particulars, with others of the like nature that may occur, viz. : 

" 1st. That we will pay no more taxes, until we are satisfied they 
are agreeable to law, and applied to the purposes therein mention- 
ed, unless we cannot help it, or are forced. 

" 2d. That we will pay no oflScer any more fees than the law al* 
lows, and unless we are obliged to it ; and thea to show our dis- 
like, and bear an open testimony against it. 

" 3d. That we will attend our meetings of conference as often as 
we conveniently can, and is necessary in order to consult our rie- 
presentatives on the amendment of such laws as may be found 
grievous or unnecessary ; and to choose more suitable men than 
we have done heretofore for burgesses and vestrymen ; and to 
petition the houses of assembly, governor, council, king, and par- 
liament, &c., for redress in such grievances as in the course of the 
undertaking may occur ; and to inform one another, learii, know, 
and enjoy all the privileges and liberties that are aUbwed, and weit 
settled on us by our worthy ancestor*, the founders of our present 
constitution, in order to preserve it on its ancient foundation, that 
it may stand firm and unshaken. 

" 4th. That we will contribute to collections for defraying neces- 
sary expenses attending the work, according to our abilities. 

" 5th. That in case of difierence in judgment, we will submit to 
the judgment of the majority of our body. 

" To all which we solemnly swear, or beiijg a Qiiaker, or other- 
wise scrupulous in conscience of the common oath, do solemnly 
affirm, that we will stand true and faithful to this cause, till we 
bring things to a true regulation, according to the true intent and 
meaning hereof, in the judgment of a majority of us." 

These resolutions were drawn up by Harmon Husbands. 

A subscription was set on foot, and fifty pounds were colji^c^ed - 
for the purpose of defraying the expeniie^ pf ,auch. suits .as Hiigh^ 
arise in seeking redress of their grievariees; 

During this year, 1767, the governoi;'C03nmenced -.h^ia palac^ft at 
Newbem, for which, with great difficuitj, he had obtained d& ap^ 
propriation of £5,000 by the last legislature ; and proceeded in ft 
tasteful and expensive style of building, to expend the whole sum 
upon the foundation and a small part of the superstructure. At the 
meeting of the two houses in December of His year, the governor 
laid before them the condition of the building. .Tlie legislature 

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witb rel^ptance gave, as^the only alternative, £10,000 more to 
complete tbe palace. When finished it was pronounced the most 
sopeib building in the United Provinces. The governor was grati- 
fied, and the people incensed. The taxes had been burdensome — 
the palace rendered them intolerable. 

Chi the 21st of May, 1768, the Regulators had another meeting, 
and determined to petition the governor direct, and prepared their 
address ; which, with a copy of their proceedings at this and the 
previous meetings, was sent to His Excellency, by James Hunter 
and Rednap Howell. In the month of June, these gentlemen 
waited upon the governor at Brunswick ; and in reply to their peti- 
tion, received a written docmnent from which the following extracts 
are made: 

" The grievances complained of by no means warrant the ex- 
traordinary steps you have taken : in consideration of a determina- 
tion to abide by my decision in council, it is my direction, by the 
unanimous advice of that board, that you do, fit)m henceforward, 
desfist from any further meetings, either by verbal appointments or 
advertisement. That all titles of Regulators or Associators cease 
among you. As you want 1^ be satisfied what is the amount of 
the tax for the public service for 1767, I am to inform you, it is 
seven shillings a taxable, besides the county and parish taxes, the 
particulars of which I will give to Mr. Hunter. I have only to 
add, I shall be up at Hillsborough the beginning of next month." 

In all these public and docimientary proceedings of the Regula- 
tors, we «ee nothing to blame, and much to admire. On these 
principles, and to this extant of opposition, the whole western 
counties were agreed* The most sober and sedate in the com- 
munity were united in resisting the tyranny of unjust and exorbi- 
tant taxes ; and had been aroused to a degree of violence and op- 
position difficult to manage and hard to quell. And the more 
restless and turbulent and unprincipled parts of society, equally 
. aggriftvecJi .^n4 more ungovernable, cast themselves in as a 
part^ df tKe .re&sling itAs^ of population, with little to gain, but 
ywi^r "libfefiSe'fof t&eir unprincipled passions, and little to 
teftO^jcpWd^.-tScy/esca^* confinement and personal punishment. 
'JftSescf pfersciis were giffltyof lynching the sheriffs, that is, seizing 
those they found in the exercise of their office, tying them to a 
black-jack, or other small trees, beating them severely with rods, 
laughing and shouting to see their contortions ; they would rescue 
property which had been seized for taxes, often with great vio- 
lence ; and on one occasion, in April, 1768, proceeded to fire a few 
shots upon the house of Edmund Fanning in Hillsborough. These 

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unjustifiable acts were charged uptn the party ; and the Regula- 
tors were made accountable for all the iU that wicked me|l chose to 
perpetrate under the name of strugj^ing for liberty ; while it is 
'well known that the leaders of this oppressed party never expressed 
a desire to be free from law or equitable taxation. The gover- 
nor's palace, double and treble fees and taxes without reason, drove 
the sober to resistance, and the passionate and unprincipled to 
outrage. But there were cases of injustice most foul and crying 
that might palliate, where they could not justify, the violenae t^it 
followed ; such as taking advantage of the quietness of the Regu- 
lators to seize a man^s horse with the bridle and saddle, and selling 
them for four or five dollars to an officer, to pay taxes resisted as 

The sheriff had taken advantage of a peculiar conjuncture of 
events to seize two of the leading men. A meeting had been 
agreed upon to be held on the 20th of May, 1768, when the 
sheriff and vestrymen would meet a deputation from the Regula- 
tors, and give them satisfaction. Previous to that day a messen- 
ger came from the governor vnth a proclamation against thd Regu- 
lation as an insurrection ; the sheriff igimediately, with a party of 
thirty horsemen, rode some fifty miles, and seizing Harmon Hns* 
bands and William Hunter, confined them in Hillsborough jail. 
The whole country arose, and making an old Scotchman of some 
seventy years of age, Ninian Bell Hamilton, their leader, marched 
towards Hillsborough to the rescue. When they reached the 
Eno, they found the prisoners set free, with this condition laid upon 
them among others — " nor show any jealousies of die officers 
taking extraordinary fees." When the Regulators reached the 
Eno, Fanning went dtmn to meet them with a bottle of rum in 
one hand and of wine in the other, and called for a horse to take 
him over — " ye're nane too gude to wade," replied the old Scotch- 
man. Fanning waded the rivar, but no one would partake of his 
refreshments, or listen to his statements. The governor's messen- 
ger, who had just then returned, rode up to them, read the governor's 
message, and assured them that, on application to the governor, he 
would redress their grievances and protect them from extortioxrcidd 
oppression of any officer, provided they would disperse a^d go 
home. The whole company cried out, ''agreed ! agreed !" and 
immediately dispersed. This event preceded the visit made by 
Hunter and Howell to the governor. 

Early in July, 1768, the governor arrived in Hillsborough, and 
issuing a proclamation, as he had promised Hunter and Howell, 

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excited the expectations of tjje^ountry that some redress would be 
granted. But sending the sheriflF to collect the taxes, and with 
him a letter addressed to the people of a similar import with his 
proclamations and previoijs letters, these fond expectations were al 
broken, and the excited people drove oflF the sheriflF with threats 
of his Ufe if he persisted in his eflTorts, and sent a reply to the gov- 
ernor. On a false alarm, a large body of the Regulators assem- 
bled in arms, on the night of the 1 1th of August, near Hillsbo- 
rough. The nearest companies of militia were called upon ; and 
a large body assembled to defend the governor from injury or 
insult. The better part of the community were averse to the irregu- 
larities of those lawless spirits who, attaching themselves to the 
cause of Uberty, greatly impeded its progress ; and desired to go- 
vern themselves and persuade their neighbors, by reason, to gain 
the justice they demanded. Frequent communications passed be- 
tween the governor and the leaders of the Regulators before the 
session of the superior court, Sept. 22d, at which Husband and 
Butler were to be tried ; and the demands of His Excellency always 
imphed absolute submission ; while the Regulators insisted on 
protection. On the day of trial, between three and four thousand 
people assembled near the town, but no violence was committed ; 
the court proceeded ; Husbands was acquitted ; Hunter and two ' 
others were found guilty of riot, fined heavily and committed to 
jail, from which two soon fouikl the naeans of escape, and all soon 
received the pardon of the governor. A number of indictments 
were found against Fanning ; he was pronounced guilty on all, 
and fined one penny each. ' 

After this display of justice, the governor issued a proclamation 
of a general pardon to all who had been engaged in the late riotous 
movements, except thirteen individuals designated by name. 
These were probably esteemed by the governor as principal men 
among the Regulators in Orange county, and their names are pre- 
served, James Hunter, Ninian Hamilton, Peter Craven, Isaac 
Jackson, Harmon Husbands, Mattfiew Hamilton, William Payne, 
Ninian Bell Hamilton, Malachy Tyke, William MoflTat, Christo- 
pher Nation, Solomon GoflF, and John O'Neil. Supposing the 
country suflSciently pacified, the governor returned to his palace, 
soon to find that the people were neither deceived nor dispirited. 

The course of events in the upper country flowed on in a dis- 
turbed chaimel, during thQ remaining part of the year 1768, the 
whole of 1769 and 1770. The Regulators held their meetings, 
often in an excited, but never in a dissipated manner, and con- 

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tinued to throw more and more diflSpulties in the way of the sheriflFs 
and other officers, whose exactions imareased by impunity. All 
classes felt the evil, and a greater number than formerly de- 
termined on resistance. In March, 1770, Maurice Moore reported 
to the governor from Salisbury, where he had gone tt hold the 
superior court, — " that the sheriffs of the several counties of that 
district, complained heavily of the opposition made to them in the 
exercise of their duties, by the Regulators ; that it was imjossible 
to collect a tax or levy an execution ; plain proofs, among others, 
that their designs have even extended farther than to promote' a 
public inquiry into the conduct of public officers :" and he prayed 
that it might not be found necessary to redress the evil " by means 
'equal to the obstinacy of the people." 

On the records of the superior court in Hillsborough, under 
date of Sept. 24th, 1770, is the following entry, which requires no 
Qonmient. " Several persons styling themselves ' Regulators, 
assembled together in the court-yard under the conduct of Husbands, 
James Hunter, Rednap Howell, William Butler, Samuel Divinny, 
and many others, insulted some of the gentlemen of the bar, and 
in a riotous manner went into the court-house, and forcibly carried 
out some of the attorneys, and in a cruel manner, beat $hem. 
They then insisted that the judge (Richard Henderson being the 
only one on the bench) should proceed to trial of their leaders, who 
had been indicted at a former court, and that the jury should be 
taken out of their party* Therefore, the judge finding it impossi- 
ble to proceed with honor to himself and justice to his country, 
adjourned the court until to-morrow at 10 o'clock ; and took ad- 
vantage of the night and made his escape, and the court adjourned 
to meet in course." 

The next entry is as follows, viz. : 

" March term, 1771. The persons styling themselves Regula- 
tors, imder the conduct of Harmon Husbands, James Hunter, Red- 
nap Howell, William Butler, and Samuel Divinny, still continuing 
their riotous meetings, and severely threatening the judges, lawyers, 
and other officers of the court, prevented any of the judges or 
lawyers attending. Therefore, the court adjourned till the nexj 
September term." So it appears there was no superior court in 
Orange for a year ; and in Rowan the course of justice was greatly 

To these acts of rebellion, unfortunaJtely, were added acts of 
personal violence that called the governor from his palace, with his 
armed force to revenge. Immediately after the adjournment of the 

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court, a lawyer, Mr. John Williams, on his way to the court- 
house, was met by a number of individuals, who seized and beat 
him severely in the streets. Edmund Fanning, the person most 
obnoxious to the conununily, was seized in the court-house, 
dragged out by his heels, severely beaten, and kept in confinement 
during the night. In the morning, when it was discovered there 
would be no court, he was beaten again ; his fine house, which 
occupied the site of the present Masonic Hall, was torn down, and 
his elegant furniture destroyed. While the buildings on the pre- 
mises were falling under the hands of the Regulators, a bell, 
which had been procured for the Episcopal church, and deposited 
with Fanning for safe keeping, was discovered. The cry was 
raised, " ifs a spice mortar ;" and in a twinkling, Fanning's spice 
mortar was scattered in firagments. 

The excited multitude then proceeded to the court-house ; ap- 
pointed a man by the name of Yorke as clerk ; set up a mock 
judge ; called over the cases ; directed Fanning to plead law ; 
and pronounced judgment in mock gravity and ridicule of the 
court, and law, and officers, by whom they felt themselves 
aggrieved. Henderson informed the governor, and iirged his 
special attendance, and proposed the caUing of the Assembly. 
Soon after, the house, bam, and out-buildings of the judge, were 
burned to the ground. 

The governor postponed the calling of the legislature till the 
usual time ; and received them in the palace, which had just been 
completed, amidst the confusion of the upper country, so greatly 
aggravated by its erection. Vigorous measures were proposed to 
restore peace to the upper country ; four new counties were set oflf 
— Guilford, Chatham, Surry, and Wake. With the hopes of divid- 
ing the attention of the people, a proclamation was issued forbid- 
ding merchants, traders, or others, to supply any person with pow- 
der and shot, or lead, till further notice ; and finally it was deter- 
mined to proceed to extremities, and on the 19th March, 1T71, the 
governor issued Tiis circular to the colonels and com m anding offi- 
cers of the regunents, statmg the grievances the government was 
sufffering ; he adds — ^ You are to take fifty volunteers firom your 
regiment, to form one company," &c., oflFering, at the same time, 
liberal rations, .bounty and pay. No little difficulty was found in 
coUeeting the necessary forces, firom the great unwillingness of the 
militia to march against men, in whose doings there was so much 
to justify, and so little to condemn and punish. 

On the 9th. of May, after many delays, he was encamped, as 


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we have said, on the banks of the Eno, near Hillsborough. 
General Hugh Waddel had been directed to march with the forces 
of Bladen and Cumberland, and to rendezvous in Salisbury, and 
collect the forces from the western counties, and join the governor 
in Orange, now Guilford. While he was encamped at Salisbury, 
waiting for the arrival of ammunition from Charleston, the exploit 
known in tradition as the Black Boys was performed by a company 
of men in Cabarrus county, who, lying in wait in disguise, widi 
blackened faces, intercepted the convoy of ammunition between 
Charlotte and Salisbury, routed the guard, blew up the powder, 
and Escaped unhurt. 

Having crossed the Yadkin, Waddel found a large company of 
Regulators assembled to prevent his advance ; his own men were 
many of them averse to violence, and others strongly in favor of 
the insurgents, and were falling away from his ranks. Upon 
receiving threats of violence if he continued to advance, in a 
council of officers, he determined to retreat across the Yadkin. 

"General Waddel's Camp, ) 
''PoUs' Creek, lOth May, 1771. J 

" By a Council of Officers of the Western Detachment : — 

" Considering the great superiority of the insurgents in number, 
and the resolution of a great part of their own men not to fight, 
it was resolved that they should retreat across the Yadkin. 
" William Lindsay, Griffith Rutherford, 

Ad' Alexander, Saml. Spencer, 

Thos. Neel, Robert Harris, 

Fr. Ross, Saml. Snead, 

Robt. Schaw, Wm. Luckie. 

"May 11th, Captain Alexander made oath before Griffith 
Rutherford, that he had passed along the lines of the Regulators 
in arms, drawn up on ground he was acquainted with. The foot 
appeared to him to extend a quarter of a mile, seven or eight deep, 
and the horse to extend one hundred and tweiity yards, twelve or 
fourteen deep." 

On Waddel's retreat the Regulators pressed on him, and many 
of his men deserting, he reached SaUsbury with a greatly dimi- 
nished force, and immediately despatched a messenger to Vsyon 
to warn him of the common danger. The governor, already 
alarmed at the reports that came in, of forces gathering on the 
Alamance, on the route to SaUsbury, raised his camp immediately, 

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and on the 13th of May crossed Haw River ; and on the evening 
of the 14th, encamped within six miles of the Regulators, on the 
Alamance. On the 15th, the Regulators sent a message to the 
governor making propositions of accommodation, and asking an 
answer in four hours. He promised them one by noon the next 
day. Jn the evening, Captain Ashe and Captain John Walker 
being caught out of camp, by the Regulators, were tied to trees, 
severely whipped, and made prisoners. On this, as on the preced- 
ing night, one-third of the forces was under arms all night. On 
the 16th, Tryon began his march at daybreak, and moved on 
silently within half a mile of the insurgents, and there proceeded 
to form his line, the discharge of two cannon being the sigiuil. 
Here Rev. David Caldwell, who, at the solicitations of his parish- 
ioners and acquaintances, some of whom were with the Regulators, 
had visited Tryon's camp on the 15th, in company with Alexander 
Martin, afterwards governor of the State, to persuade the gover- 
nor to mild measures, again visited the camp, and it is said 
obtained a promise from the governor that he would not fire until 
he had tried negotiation. Tryon sent .in his reply to the Regu- 
lators, demanding unconditional submission, and gave an hour for 
consideration : they heard with great impatience a first and second 
reading. Both parties advanced to within about three hundred 
yards of each other ; Tryon sent a magistrate to the insurgents with 
a proclamation to disperse within an hour, and also commenced a 
negotiation for an exchange of Captains Ashe and Walker. 
Robert Thompson, who had with some others come into the camp 
to negotiate with the governor, was detained as a prisoner, and at- 
tempting to leave camp without liberty, the governor seized a gun 
and shot him dead with his own hand. A flag of truce sent out by 
him was immediately fired on by the excited people, many of whom 
were near enough to witness the circumstances of Thompson's 
- death. The parties had gradually been drawing nearer and nearer 
to each other, the insurgents somewhat irregularly, till their lines 
in places almost met. The governor gave the word ^''Jirey'' his 
men hesitated, and the Regulators, many of them with rude antics, 
dai^ them to " fire." " Fire ! " cried the governor, rising in his 
stirrups ; " fire ! on them or on me !" and the action began. 
The cannon were discharged, and the mihtary commenced firing 
by platoons ; the Regulators in an irregular manner from behind 
trees. Some stout young men of the Regulators rushed forward 
and seized the cannon of the governor, but not knowing how to 
use them, speedily^ gave them up and retreated. A flag of truce 

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was sent out by the governor to stop the battle ; an old Scotch- 
man cried out to the Regulators, " it's a flag, don't fire ;" but 
almost immediately three or four rifles were discharged, and the 
flag fell. The firing was renewed with fresh vigor by tlie military, 
and the Regulators in the general fled, leaving a few posted behind 
trees, who continued theu: fatal aim till their ammunition was 
exhausted, or they were in danger of being surrounded. 

Some of the Regulators had wished and expected to fight ; but 
the greater part that had assembled expected that the governor, 
seeing theu: numbers, would parley with them, and ultimately 
grant their demands. Rev. Mr. Caldwell, just from Tryon's camp, 
was riding along the lines urging the men to go home without vio- 
lence, when the command to fire was given, and with difficulty 
escaped from the conflict. 

They had no commander to regulate their motions, they had 
none with iiem used to camps and wars to give them advice ; 
there had of late been no expeditions against the savages, and the 
military life, further than to shoot a rifle and live on short rations, 
was all new. " O," said m. old man, who was in the battle, to Mr. 
Caruthers, " 0, if John and Daniel Gillespie had only known as 
much about military discipline then as they knew a few years after 
Aat, the bloody Tryon would never have slept in his palace again !" 
Many that were defeated in that bloodshed, in a few years showed 
Comwallis they had learned to fight better than in the day of 
Tryon's victory on the Alamance. It is the unvarying tradition 
among the people of the country, that the Regulators had but 
little ammunition, and did not flee till it was all expended. 

Nine of the Regulators, and twenty-seven of the militia were 
left dead on the field ; a gi«ai: number were wounded on both 
sides in this skirmish, or battle — in this first blood shed for the 
enjoyment of liberty. We cannot but admire the principles that 
led to the result, how much soever we may deplore the excesses 
that preceded, and the bloodshed itself. 

The excesses of the Regulators had been great, as has been 
recorded, but the barbarities of the governor upon his prisoners, 
after his victory, make these lamented deeds dwindle into hamiless 
sport. On the evening of the battle, he proceeded to hang, without 
trial or form, James Few (whom he had taken prisoner), a young 
man, a carpenter, that owned a little spot of land near fiiHsborough, 
where Mr. Kirkham's house now stands, of quiet and industrious 
habits, goaded on to rebellion by the exactions of Fanning ; and at 
last, driven to madness by the dishonor done by. that man to hi'' 

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intended bride, he joined the Regulators, and proclaimed himself 
" sent by heaven to release the world of oppressiony and to begin 
in Carolina.^^ And not content with this, the governor's ven- 
geance followed his aged parents, and having executed their son, 
Tryon proceeded to destroy the little provision made for their 
helplessness and age. 

Captain Messer was condenmed to be hung the next day. His 
wife, hearing of his captivity and intended fate, came with her oldest 
child, a lad of about ten years, to visit and intercede for her husband. 
Her kindness comforted but could not redeem her husband, the 
father of her children ; the governor was inflexible. While the pre- 
parations were making for the execution, she lay upon the ground 
weeping, her face covered with her hands, and the weeping boy 
by her side. When the fatal moment, as he supposed, had arrived, 
the boy, stepping up to Tryon, says : " Su:, hang me and let my 
father hve !" " Who told you to say that ?*' said the govemOT. 
" Nobody !" replied the lad. ** And why," said the governor, " do 
you ask that ?" " Because," said the boy, " if you hang my 
father my mother will die, and the children vrill perish." " Well !" 
said the governor, deeply moved by the earnestness and affecting 
simplicity of the lad, " your father shall not be hung to-day." On 
suggestion of Fanning, Messer was offered his liberty on condi- 
tion that he would bring in Harmon Husbands, his wife and child 
being kept as hostages, .\iter an absence of some days he re- 
turned, saying he had overtaken him in Virginia, but could not 
bring him back ; he was put in chains and taken along as prisoner. 

After resting a few days on Sandy River, the governor passed 
on as far as the Yadkin, and having issued a proclamation, that all 
those who had been engaged in these disturbances, excepting the 
prisoners in camp, the company called the Black Boys, and sixteen 
others, that should come into camp, lay down their arms, and take 
the oath of allegiance before the 10th of July, should receive a 
free pardon : and having sent General Waddel with a company of 
twenty-five light horse, one field-piece, and a respectable corps of 
militia to visit the counties to the west and south, and return 
home, himself took a curcuit round through Stokes, Rockingham, 
Guilford to Hillsborough. In all his circuit, after the bloodshed, 
he exhibited his prisoners in chaiai, particularly in the villages he 
passed. He exacted the oath of allegiance from all the inhabitants 
that conld be found; levied contributions of provisions vrith a 
lavish hand upon the suspected and the absent ; he seized one 
Johnson, who was reported to have spoken disrespectfully of Lady 

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Wake, from whom one of the owmties lately forcibly set off had 
been called, a beautiful and accomplished lady ; and for hi» want 
of gallantry to this sister of the governor's wife, condemned him 
to five hmidred lashes on his bare back, two hundred and fifty of 
which were inflicted ; and offered a reward of a thousand acres of 
land, and one hundred pounds in money, for Harmon Husbands, 
James Butler, Rednap Howell, and others of the Regulators ; and 
filled his measure of tyrannical glory by burning houses, destroy- 
ing crops, and holding courts-martiaJ for civil crimes. On 
reaching Hillsborough, he held a special court for the trial of his 
prisoners, twelve of whom were condemned to death on his urgent 
statements, and six were actually executed. The real leaders had 
all escaped, but a sacrifice must be made ; the court hesitated and 
delayed ; he sent hist aide-de-camp to chide and threaten their 
delay ; the soldier and governor were lost in the tyrant and the 

On the 19th of June, six prisoners were pubGcly executed near 
Hillsborough, of whom the unfortunate Messer was one, reprieved 
a few days by the spirit of his child, only to be carried about in 
chains, and hung ignominiously at last. The governor, in person, 
gave orders for the parade at the execution, and, as Maurice Moore 
said, "left a ridiculous idea of his character behind, bearing a 
strong resemblance. to that of an imdertaker at a fimeral." 

Robert Mateer, one of the victims, was a quiet, inoffensive, 
upright man, who had never joined the Regulators. On the 
morning of the bloodshed he visited Tryon's camp with Robert 
Thompson, and was deismed with him a prisoner ; being recog- 
nized as the person who had, some time before, grievously offended 
the governor in the matter of a letter entrusted to his care, he was 
condemned, and made one of the six that were executed ; beloved 
while living, and lamented when dead. 

Captain Merrill, from the Jersey Settlement, oar, as others say, 
from Mecklenburg county, was on his way to join the Regu- 
lators — ^probably had been engaged in intercepting Waddel — ^with 
three hundred men under his conunand. Healing of the defeat 
and dispersion of the Regulators on the Alamance, when within a 
day's march, his men dispersed, and he returned home, but was 
afterwards taken prisoner, and wna made one of the six that were 
executed. A pious man, he professed his faith in the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and declared himself ready to die, and died iike a soldier 
and a Christian, sisiging very devoutly, with his dying breath, a 

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Psalm of David, like the Covenanters in the Grass Market in 

James Pugh, an ingenious gunsmith, had, during the firing at 
Alamance, killed with his rifle some fifteen of those who served 
the cannon, and delaying his escape too long was taken prisoner, 
and made one for this day's sacrificfe. When placed under the 
gallows he asked and obtained leave from the governor to address 
the people for half an hour. He justified his course, professed his 
readiness to meet God, inveighed against the oppression of the 
public officers, and particularly against Fanning. This dastardly 
man, unable to bear the reproaches of his victim, made the sug- 
gestion, and the barrel, on which the prisoner stood, was over- 
turned, and the yoimg man launched into eternity, his speech 
unfinished and his half hour unexpired. • 

These men may have T?een rash, but they were no* cowards : 
they may have been imprudent, but they were sufiering under 
wrong and outrage, and the withholding justice, and the proper 
exercise of law. "And if oppression will make a wise man mad," 
the ten years of such oppression as these sufiered, would have 
proved them fit for subjection had they been submissive. 

Tryon returned to his costly palace in Newborn, only to bid it 
farewell, and make room for Josiah Mlfcirtin, who knew better how 
to appreciate these people and their complaints. Edmund Fan- 
ning, the cause of so much trouble, gathered a company and met the 
governor on his first approach to Orange ; went with him to Ala- 
mance, and as the firing commenced, found it indispensable to take 
his post many miles in the rear, whether through fear of his life, 
or of shedding the Regulators' blood. Harmon Husbands, also, on 
the other side, rode faster and farther on that day. He had been 
active for years in exciting the people to resistance, making 
speeches, circulating information, drawing up memorials and 
papers of a political cast, and taking the lead in measures that 
brought on the bloodshed in Alamance. He had been once put in 
prison while a member of the legislature, for his principles and 
connection with the disturbances in Orange ; but when the cannon 
began to roar at Tryon's conmiand, on the 16th of May, on the 
Alamance, he mounted his horse and rode rapidly away to the more 
quiet State of Pennsylvania, and was not seen again in Carolina 
till after the Revolution — ^professing that his principles as a Quaker 
forbad© him to fight, though they impelled him to resistance. When 
the time of trial came, that men must submit or flee, or bleed, he 
escaped, whflc others poured out their blood. He and all like him 

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are passed over in the inquiries We make about the people who 
bore the burthen of the Revolution and its previous struggles. 

The question now arises, who were these people ? — and whence 
did they come? They could discuss the rights and privi- 
leges of men ; they could vmte in a manner that has been pro- 
nounced ** the style of the Revolution ;" and they were men that 
feared an oath. The oath of allegiance exacted by Tryon, from 
multitudes, as the condition of their lives and property, hung on 
their consciences through Ufe, and no reasoning could convince 
them they were free from its awful sanctions, though the king 
could afford them no protection. One of these, who was in the 
bloodshed of Alamance, and afterwards had borne arms for the 
king, as he considered himself bound to do, said sorrov^lly at 
the olose of the Revolution — ^ I have fought for my country, and 
fought for my king ; and have been whipped both times." Still 
his oath bound his conscience, while he rejoiced it did not reach 
his children. 

The descendants of these people, who were at the time treated 
as rebels, and stigmatized in government papers as ignorant and 
headstrong and unprincipled, hold the first rank in their own coun- 
try for probity and intelligence ; have held the first offices in their 
own and the two younger and neighboring States ; and have not 
been debarred the highest offices in the Union. 

In less than four years from this period, those who were not 
crushed by the solemnities of the oath 'f ryon forced on them^ 
united with their brethren of Mecklenburg of the same stock, and 
kindred faith, in maintaining the first declaration of independence 
made in North America — a declaration sealed with blood in North 
Carolina, but never, like the Regulation, put down. The princi- 
ples of the Regulators never were put down ; and in the contest 
with the governor, there is little doubt on which side the victory 
would have declared itself had there been a military man at the 
head of the undisciplined people, or had they been fuUy convinced 
the governor would fire upon them. Repeatedly had these men 
gathered at Hillsborough, and dispersed without violence, on pro- 
mise of redress ; and Waddel had been met and turned back with- 
out bloodshed a few days before. The greater part expected 
some terms of reconciliation, while some wished for the contest, 
and many were ready to fight. 

The address sent in to Tryon the day before the bloodshed, in 
which they promised to disperse and go home if he would redress 
their grievances, shows they were not expecting th# governor 


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would pr«|aed to violence. Thft feelings of a great part o£ the 
western counties were united in the object of their efforts ; and 
many of the inhabitants of the seaboard were on their side. The 
militia of Duplin refused to march against them, with the exception 
of a company of light horse under Capt. Bullock, and also refused 
the oath of sJlegiance the governor offered them on his return. In 
Halifax there were many supporters of their principles ; in New- 
bem itself many, in fact, the majority of the mihtia assembled, de- 
clared in their favor. Not a few men of eminence favored them 
more or less openly, advocating the principles, but greatly disap- 
proving the excesses of the violent. Of these were such men as 
Maurice Moore, judge of the Superior Court ; Thomas Person, the 
founder of Person Hall, at Chapel Hill ; and Alexander Martin, 
afterwards governor of the State. 

Martin, the historian, who appears to know so little about the 
principles and habits of the persons engaged, says that there were 
*^ several thousand families" scattered through the upper counties : 
and so there were — and these gathered into congregations of reli- 
gious worshippers all along from the Virginia to the South Carolina 
line. It is the origin of these that is now inquired after ; and the 
nature of their religion, so favorable to mental exercise and improve- 
ment, to civil freedom and the rights of man, that is to be deline- 
ated, — a religion the same now as in the days of the American 
Revolution, — and the great EngUsh Revolution of 1688, — and the 
same in spirit and substantial forms as when the great Apostle 
plead his cause, in chains, at Rome. 

There has been as yet no monument erected to the memory of 
those who fell on the Alamance, in this first bloodshed in the cause 
of oppressed freemen seeking their rights : they sleep in unhonored 
graves, as also do those who*were pubhcly executed in the same 
glorious cause near Hillsborough, June 19th, 1T71. BUt you can 
find the battle ground and graves of the slain, on the old road from 
Hillsb(»rough to Sahsbury by Martinville, or Guilford old court- 
house. It is a locality to be remembered, for the event must 
always fill an honorable page in any full and fair history of North 
Carolina, or of the United States, as the first resistance to blood, 
in which resistance was determined upon, even should resistance 
.end in wounds and death. 

The Regulators may have been rude, they certainly were un- 
polished ; but they were not ignorant, neither did they lack intelli- 
gence, nor exhibit as a people any lack of religious or moral princi- 
ple. On tbe tontrary; their estimation of an oath far transcended 

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the expectation of the goyemor, who anticipated Bmifh from a 
people taught by McAden, Caldwell, Pattillo, and Craigiiead, all 
eminent in their vocation as gospel ministers. 

Differing from the goyemor in their religious principles as much 
as in their political creed, they were condemned by the king's officers 
to fines and plunder and confiscation and death, and by the ministers 
of the State reUgion to endless perdition. There is extant a sermon 
preached before the goyemor at Hillsborough, on Sunday, the 25th 
of September, 1768, by George Micklejohn, from Romans, chapter 
xiii., 1st and 2d yerses — ^in which the preacher ayows that the 
goyemor ought to haye executed at least twenty on that his first 
risit ; and that the rebels could not escape the damnation of hell 
on account of their resistance to the existing goyemment. But 
these outraged men sought deliyerance from the oppression of 
man, and hoped in the mercy of Almighty God. And they found 
frxMn heayen what was denied by earth. 

The succeeding pages will giye a collection of facts that shall 
prMttot the history of principles that cannot die, and are always 
effective.^ The scene of action and the actors but reflect additional 
tints of beauty on what, in themselves, are immortal, — ^the princi- 
plea of tme govemoient and undefiled reUgion. 

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" She has seven sons in the rebel army," was Ac reason . given 
by the British officer for plundering the farm and burning the house 
of Widow Brevard, in Centre Congregation, while Comwallis was 
in pursuit of Morgan and Greene, after the victory of the Cowpens. 
What a mother ! seven sons in the army at one time ! all fighting 
for the independence of their country ! And for this glorious fact, 
the house of the widow plundered and burned, and her farm pil- 

One son, Captain Alexander Brevard, a tall, dignified gentleman, 
indepcedent in his feeUngs and his manners, rendered signal ser- 
vices in the Continental army. He took part in nine important 
battles — Brandywine, Germantovni, Princeton, Stony Point, Eu- 
taw, Guilford, Camden, Ninety-Six, and Stono. Of all these, he 
used to say, the battle of the Eutaw was the sorest conflict ; in 
that he lost twenty-one of his men. When the time of hard service 
was over, he returned to private life, and never sought political pro- 
motion ; enjoying that liberty for which he had fought, and serving his 
generation as a good citizen, aad the church as an elder, respected 
and beloved. He laid his bones at last in Lincoln county, the 
place of his residence for many years, in a spot selected by himself 
and General Graham. They served as soldiers in the Revolution, 
and lived as most intimate firiends : having married sisters, the 
daughters of Major John Davidson, one of the members of the 
Mecklenburg Convention, they were brothers indeed ; and dying 
in the hope of a blessed resurrection, they sleep, with their wives 
and many of then: children, in then: chosen place of sepulture. 
You may find the graves of these honorable dead in a secluded 
place, walled in with rock, about a hundred paces from the great road 
leading from Beattie's Ford by Brevard's Furnace to Lincolnton, 
a spot where piety and afiection and patriotism may meet and 
mingle their tears ; and youth may gather lessons of wisdom. 

The youngest son of this widow, afterwards Judge Brevard of 
Camden, South Carolina, was firft lieutenant of a company of 
horse, at the age of seventeen, and held, through life, a correspond- 
ing station in the opinions and affections of his fellow men. 

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Ephraim Brevard, another son of this widow, having pursued a 
course of cfassical studies in his native congregation, was graduated 
at Princeton College; and havingpursued a course of medical studies, 
was settled in Charlotte. His talents, patriotism and education, united 
with his prudence and practical sense, marked him as a leader in 
the councils, that preceded the convention, held in Queen's Mu- 
seum ; and on the day of meeting designated him as secretary and 
draughtsman of that singular and unrivalled declaration, which 
alone is a passport to the memory of posterity through all time. 

Dr. Brevard took an active part in the establishment and man- 
agement of the literary institution in Charlotte, which was, to dl 
useful purposes, a college, though refused that name by the king 
and council. His name appears upon the degree given John Gra- 
ham in 1778, which is carefully preserved at Vesuvius Furnace, 
the only degree of the institution now known to be in existence. For 
a time the institution was under his instruction. 

When the British forces invaded the southern States, Dr. Bre- 
vard entered the army as surgeon, and was taken prisoner at the 
surrender of Charleston, May 12th, 1780. The sufferings of the 
captives taken in that surrendered city, moved tlie hearts of the 
brave inhabitants of Western Carolina, and in the tenderness of 
the female bosom found alleviation. News urns circulated among 
the settlements in the upper country, that their friends and relations 
were dying of want and diiease, in their captivity. The men could 
not visit them ; it would be leaping into the lion's den. The wives, 
the mothers, die sisters, the daughters, gathering clothing and pro- 
visions and medicine, sought through long journeys, the places of 
confinement, trusting to their sex, under the Providence of God, 
for their protection. These visits of mercy saved the lives of mul- 
titudes ; and in some cases were purchased by the lives of the no- 
ble females that dared to undertake them. The mother of Presi- 
dent Andrew Jackson, returning to the Waxhaw, from a visit made to 
the prisoners, having been the bearer of medicine, and clothing, and 
sympathy, was seized with a fever in that wide, sandy wilderness of 
{Mnes that intervened, and died in a tent, and was buried by the road- 
side, and Ues in an unknown grave. Multitudes perished and found a 
captive's grave ; and multitudes more contracted disease whose 
wasting influence more slowly, yet as surely, laid them low among 
their native hills. Of these yf§s Dr. Brevard. On being set at 
liberty, he sought the residence of John McKnitt Alexander, his 
firiend and co-secretary, for rest and recovery. The air of that 
mild climate, and the aid of medicine, and the watchful care of 

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friends, all fEuled to rest(»pe him. Struggling for a time against the 
disease, with hopes of recovery, he breathed his last, about the 
time the hostile forces trod his native soil. He gave '^ life, fortune, 
and most sacred honor,'' in his country's service. The first was 
sacrificed ; the last is imperishable. You may search Hopewell 
giaveyard in vain for a trace of his grave. His bones have moul- 
dered beneath the turf that covers Davidson and the Alexanders, 
but no stone tells where they are laid. No man living can lead 
the inquirer to the spot. 

There is a paper in his handwriting, preserved for a long time 
in the family of his friend John McKnitt Alexander, and now in 
the possession of the Governor of North Carolina, William A. 
Graham, which is as remarkable as the proceeding of the Con- 
vention on which it is based. It bears date September 1st, 1775. 
The first Provincial Congress of North Carolina was then in ses- 
sion in HiUsborough. The delegates from Mecklenburg were his 
compeers and personal friends, — ^PoU^, Avery, Pfifer and McKnitt 


" 1st. You are instructed to vote that the late Province of North 
Carolina is, and of right ought to be, a free and independent State ; 
is vested with the powers of Legislatioaa, capable of making laws 
to regulate all the internal police, subject only in its internal con- 
nections and foreign commerce, to a negative of a continental 

" 2d. You are instructed to vote for the execution of a civil gov- 
ernment under the authority of the people, for the future security 
of all the rights, privileges, and prerogatives of the State, and the 
private, natural and unalienable rights of the constituting noembers 
thereof, either as men or Christians. If this should not be con- 
firmed in Congress, or Convention, — ^protest. 

" 3d. You are instructed to vote that an equal representation be 
established, and that the qualifications required to enable any per- 
son or persons to have a voice in legislation may not be screwed 
too high, but that every freeman, who shall be called upon to sup- 
port government, either in person or property, naay be admitted 
thereto. If this should not be ^nfirmed, — protest and remon- 

" 4th. You are instructed to vote that legislaticm be not a di- 
vided right, and that no man, or body of men, be invested with a 

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negatiye on the yoice of the people duly collect^ ; and that no 
hcmois or dignities be confinned for life, or made hereditary on 
any person or persdns, either legislatiye or executive. K this 
should not be confirmed, — ^protest and remonstrate. 

'^ 5th. You are instructed to vote that all and every person or 
persons, seized or possessed of any estate, real or personal, agroe* 
able to the late establishment, be confirmed in their seizure and 
possession, to all intents and purposes in law, who have not for- 
feited their right to the protection of the State, by their inimical 
practices towaids the same. K this should not be confirmed, — 

^^ 6th. You are instructed to vote that deputies, to represent this 
State in a Continental Congress, be appointed in and by the su- 
preme legislative body of the State ; Uie form of the nomination 
to be submitted to, if free. And also, that all officers, the influ- 
ence of whose office is equally to extend to every part of the State, 
be appointed in the same manner and form. Likewise, give your 
consent to the establishing the old political divisions, if it should 
be voted in Convention, or to new ones if similar. On such estab- 
lishment taking place, you are instructed to vote, in general, that 
all officers, who are to exercise this authority in any of the said 
districts, be recommended to the trust only by the freemen of said 
division — to be subject, however, to tiie general laws and regula- 
tions of the State. If this should not be substantially confirmed, 
— ^protest. 

" 7th. You are instructed to move and insist that the people 
you immediately represent, be acknowledged to "be a distinct 
county of this State, as formerly of the late province, with the 
additional privilege of electing in their own officers, both civil and 
military, together with election of clerks and sherifi*8, by the 
freemen of the same : the choice to be confiirmedby the sovereign 
authority of the State, and the officers so invested to be under the 
jurisdiction of the State, and Uable to its cognizance and inffictions 
in case of malpractice. If this should not be confirmed, — ^protest 
and remonstrate. 

" 8th. You are instructed to vote that no chief justice, no sec- 
retary of State, no auditor-general, no surveyor-general, no prac- 
tising lawyer, no clerk of any court of record, no sheriff, and 
no person holding a military office in this State, shall be a reps^ 
sentative of the people in Congress or Convention. K this should 
not be confirm^ — contend for it. 

" 9th. You are instructed to vote that all claims against the pub- 

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lie, except such as accrue upon attendance on Congress or Con- 
yention, be first submitted to the inspection of a committee of nine 
or more men, inhabitants of the county where said claimant is resi- 
dent, and without the approbation of said cmnmittee it shall not 
be accepted by the pubhc ; for which purpose you are to move 
and insist that a law be enacted to empower the freemen of each 
county to choose a committee of not less than nine men, of whom 
none are to be miUtary officers. If this fjbould not be confirmed, 
— protest and remonstrate. 

*' 10th. You are instructed to refuse to enter into«ny combination 
of secresy, as members of Congress and "Conyention, and also to 
refuse to subscribe to any ensnaring tests binding you to unlimited 
subjection to the determination of Congress or Conyention. 

'^ 1 1th. You are instructed to moye and insist that the pubhc 
accoimts, fairly stated, shall be regularly kept in proper books, 
open to the inspection of all whom it may concern. K this should 
not be confirmed,— contend for it* 
> *^ 12th. You are instructed to moye and insist that the power 
of county courts be much more extensiye than under the former 
constitution, both with respect to matters of property and breaches 
of the peace. K not confiirmed, — contend for it. 

** 13th. You are instructed to assent and consent to the estabhsh- 
ment of the Christian reUgion, as contained in the Scriptures of the 
Old and New Testament, and more briefly comprised in the thirty- 
nine Articles of the Church of England, excluding the thirty-seyenth 
artkie, together with all the articles excepted and not to be im- 
posed on dissenters by the Act of Toleration; and clearly held forth 
in the Confession of Faith, compiled by the Assembly of Diyines 
at Westminster ; to be the religion of the State, to the utter exclu- 
sion, for oyer, of all and eyery other (falsely so called) reUgion, 
whether pagan or papal ; — and that full, and free, and peaceable en- 
joyment thereof be secured to all and eyery constituent member 
of the State, as then: unalienable right as freemen, without the im- 
position of rites and ceremonies, whether claiming ciyil or eccle- 
siastical power for their source ; — and that a confession and pro- 
fession of the religion so estabUshed shall be necessary in qualify- 
ing any person for pubUc trust in the State. K this should not 
be confirmed, — ^protest and remonstrate. 

*' 14th. You are instructed to oppose to the utmost, any particular 
church or set of clergymen being inyested with power to decree rites 
and ceremonies, and to decide in controyersies of feuth, to be submit- 
ted to under the influence of penal laws. You are also to o}q>ose tho 

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establishment of any mode of worship to be supported to the oppres- 
sion of the rights of conscience, together with the destruction of 
private property. You are to understand that under the modes of 
worship are comprehended the different forms of swearing by law 
required. You are, moreover, to oppose the estabUshing an eccle- 
siastical supremacy in the sovereign authority of the State. You 
are to oppose the toleration of popish idolatrous worship. If this 
should not be confirmed,-Tprotest and remonstrate. 

'^ 15th. You are instructed to move and insist that not less than 
four-fifths of the body of which you are members, shall, in voting, 
be deemed a majority. If this should not be confirmed, — contend 
for it. 

" 16th. You are instructed to give your voices to and for every 
motion, or bill, made or brought into Congress of Convention, 
when they appear to be for public utility, and in no ways repug- 
nant to the above instructions. 

" 17th. Gentlemen, the foregaaig instructions you are not only 
to look upon as instructions, but as charges, to which you are de- 
sired to take special heed, as the ground of your conduct as our 
Representatives ; and we expect you will exert yourselves to the 
utmost of your ability to obtain the purposes given you in charge ; 
and wherein you fail, either in obtaining or opposing, you are 
hereby ordered to enter your protest against the vote of Congress 
or Convention, as is pointed out to you in the above instructions." 

This paper will not suffer in comparison with any political pa- 
per of the age. In some respects it surpassed all with which Hr. 
Brevard and his compeers had any acquaintance. In the first 
and seventh resolutions there is a reference made to preceding 
events in North Carolina, to which nothing corresponds but the 
doings of the Mecklenburg convention. The Congress of North 
Carolina in session at the time this paper was drawn up, was not 
prepared for such a step as is referred to — the entire independence 
of the State. 

In the second and third resolutions, the democratic republican 
principles are announced in their full extent, — complete protection, 
and extended suffirage. In the fourth and fifth, aristocratic honors 
are done away ; and the right of property confirmed. In the 
seventh, the election of all officers, civil and military, is confirmed 
to the people at large. In the eighth, the jealous watchfulness of 
an abused community is seen in shutting out all public officers, 
bam whom any oppression had been suffered under His Majesty, 
the office df law-maker for the community. In the ninth, 

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tenth, and eleventh, the expenditure of the public money is guarded 
from all such impositions as had been complained of in times 
past. The object and amount of all ei^nditures to be fjBurly 
stated, that no impositions like those suffered in Orange, and 
from which the Regulators sprung, might be repeated. By the 
twelfth, the execution of the laws is brought more within the 
power of the people, or at least more carefully within their view. 
« But the thirteenth and fourteenth .resolutions are especially 
worthy of notice, as asserting religious liberty. He does not 
take the false ground that all religions are to be contemplated, in 
the constitution of a free people, as alike open for the adoption of 
the community at large ; and that any religion, or no reUgion, 
may become the public sentiment without detriment to liberty : — 
but having secured to all persons imdisturbed enjoyment of life, 
land, and estate, he takes the broad ground that there is one 
true reUgion, and that religion is acknowledged as true by the 
State. He believed the Bible, wd from it had drawn his princi- 
ples of morals, and religion, and politics : — ^from it, the people of 
Mecklenburg had drawn theirs, — and multitudes in Carolina had 
drawn theirs. To abjure reUgion would be to abjure freed(»n 
and the hope of immortality. The phrases confession and pro- 
fession in the thirteenth resolution, are not taken in a restricted 
sense or made denominational, but used in their enlarged mean- 
ing, embracing all Protestants, asserting the Bible to be tt|ie, and 
as a revelation containing the complete system of the only true 

To put beyond all doubt, however, what he understood by the 
Christian religion, he marks out the two well known and ac- 
credited systems of Articles with which he and his constituents 
had been familiar, and under which he arraigned all Protestants, 
both asserting the main principles of the Reformation, and one 
conjoining a system of efBcient government on which he had mo- 
delled his political creed, — ^a creed the inhabitants of a large 
part of North Carolina were prepared to defend. He would have 
the community disown Infidelity and all Paganism, and avow the 
religion of the Bible. 

Having asserted the paramount authority of the Christfan Re- 
ligion as the sole acknowledged religion of the community, — 
he then puts all denominations on a level, in political matters. 
North Carolina had suffered as little as any community bad, or 
perhaps could, from a religious establishment, that is, certain 
forms and doctrines supported at public expense, and defended 

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by law ; — bat the evils resulting had been so many and so great, 
that these resolutions require that no denomination, not even that 
of a majority of the citizens, should have any peculiar privileges 
guaranteed by law. The people of Mecklenburg were almost 
universally of the same faith as himself ; but he asked no favor 
by the power of law. But one other State in the Union had, 
at that time, acknowledged this grand principle, .and with this 
State the author of this paper had no communication. The idet 
was to him, and his constituents, a peculiar idea, — ^like the idea 
of independence under the supremacy of law, it was consistent 
and complete. 

Of all the forms in which reUgion, professedly drawn from the 
Bible, is presented in any part of the world, one only is excepted 
in the resolution, — that is the Popish. The ancestors of these 
people in Mecklenburg had brought with them, from the mother 
country, no kind remembrance of the spirit of the Popish clergy 
and their adherents. Turn to what period of the history of their 
Others they might, and the Romish priests appeared the enemies 
of that religious liberty and civil freedom for which they panted. 
Every page of the history was stained with blood. They fully 
believed the spirit of popery unchanged ; and to tolerate it, was 
to cherish in their bosom an enemy to the very privileges and 
enjoyments for which they had labored, and for which they were 
prepated to lay down their Uves. The principles of religious 
liberty, asserted by their ancestors the other side of the ocean, 
took deep root in the wilderness of Carolina, and grew as indi- 
genous plants. The people felt they were bom to be fr«e 
— were fi^ee ; and having made declaration of their freedom, would 
maintain it against all enemies unto death. 

Now that the subject of religious liberty has been discussed 
about three-quarters of a century, in the freest country on earth, 
the only exception that can be taken against these resolutions on 
religious liberty, is on this single point — ^the exclusion of popish 
rites and ceremonies. In other colonies the contention had been 
against foreign interference with the established religion of the 
province ; here, as in Rhode Island, the ground is taken against 
all State establishments whatever. It is instructive to observe 
how this principle, avowed by Roger Williams in exile and suf- 
fering, and proclaimed by the emigrants in North Carolma, has at 
length become the received opinion of the whole United States. 
And while, on principle, the free exercise of religious rites is 
guaranteed to all that claim to be Christians, of whatever sect or 

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denomination, there is a growing fear, manifesting itself in 
every section of comitry, lest the extension of popish rites and 
ceremonies shall be found at last injurious to civil liberty. 

The resolutions of the Mecklenburg Convention establish a go- 
vernment, and at the same time they set aside the authority of the 
king of Great Britain. In this paper the great principles on which 
to frame a constitution of the most entire freedom, fullest protection, 
tod most complete dominion of law, are laid down. The one is a 
beautiful expression of enthusiastic devotion to liberty and law ; 
and the other is a calm expression of the idea of that liberty for 
which these patriots panted. Neither were mere theories or paper 
declarations ; both were realities. The people felt themselves in- 
dependent, — and that they had a natural right to the freedom they 
enjoyed in their log cabins in the wilderness, and on the plains of 
the Catawba, far removed from the wealth and refinement of the 
seaboard. Their flocks and their plains, with the skilful hands of 
their wives and daughters, and the brawny arms of their sons, and 
the mines beneath their feet, supplied the wants, and even the luxu- 
ries of men who could sleep upon straw, be contented in home- 
spun coats, and find domestic peace in a log cabin. The liberty 
for which their fathers had sighed, these men had found. They 
knew the value of the pearl, and rejoiced in that liberty in which 
God, in his grace and wonderful providence, had made them free. 

This paper is the expression of the feeUngs of thousands in 
Carolina in 1T75, and the feelings of multitudes at this day. The 
merit of Ephraun Brevard is, not that he alone originated these 
principles, or was singular in adhering to them, but that he em- 
bodied them in so condensed a form, and expressed them so well. 
He thought clearly, — ^felt deeply, — ^wrote well, — ^resisted bravely, — 
and died a martyr to that liberty none loved better, and few under- 
stood so well. 

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About the year 1735, a race of people diverse in habits, man- 
ners, forms of religious worship and doctrinal creed from those 
who had previously taken their abode in Virginia and the Carolinas, 
and destined to exert a grand and controlling influence on the 
enterprise, wealth, and prosperity of those States, began to erect 
their habitations along the western frontiers, and form a line of de- 
fence against the savages of the mountains and the great west, by 
their strong neighborhoods of hardy, enterprising men, in that re- 
gion of country extending from the Potomac river to the Savannah, 
which now forms the heart of these States, and is most abundant 
in resources of men and things. 

Previously to that date, the emigrants to Virginia, whose descend- 
ants had spread out over the lower counties, and were progressing 
towards the mountains, were chiefly from England, with a few 
Scotch and Irish families intermingled, with one colony of Ger- 
mans in Madison county, and one of Huguenots a few miles above 
Richmond, each having its own peculiar forms of rehgious wor- 
ship, and ministers proclaiming the gospel in their native tongue. 

In North Carolina the first permanent settlements had been 
formed by fugitives from Virginia, who sought reftige in the mild 
climate and extended forests of this unoccupied region, — some 
from the rigid, intolerant law^ of that colony, which bore so heavily 
on all that could not conform to the ceremonies of the estabUshed 
church, — and some from a desire to escape from the jurisdiction of 
all law, deUghted ^'ith the license enjoyed in the plains and swamps 
of a country which, previous to the 18th century, scarce knew the 
exercise of civil authority. When the Puritans were driven from 
Virginia, some eminently pious people settled along the seaboard, 
safe from foreign invasion, and free from the domestic oppression 
of intolerant laws and bigoted magistrates. Next to these were the 
emigrants from the West Indies and from England, who preferred 
|he advantages oflered by this uninhabited country to those of a 
more populous state. About the year 1707, a colony of Huguenots 
was located on the Trent river ; and one of Palatines at Newbem, 

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in 1709 ; each imdntaiiffiig the peculiar habits, custtans, and 
religious services of the fatherland. The Quakers, at an early 
date, cast in their lot with the colony of Virginia ; and many 
were compelled to fly from the execution of the severe laws 
passed against their sect, and found refuge in CaroUua. They 
were of EngUsh descent, and at that time, too few, in either 
State, to exert a preponderating influence on the community at 

y The Presbyterian race, from the north of Iieland, is not found 
in Virginia and North Carolina, till after the year 1730, except in 
scattered families, or some small neighborhoods on the Chesapeake. 
Soon fiftnr thjs \period it is found at the base of the Blue Ridge 
in Albemarle, Nelson, and Amherst, in Virginia ; and then in the 
great viUley. - About the year 1736 a colony of Presbyterians, from 
the province of Ulster, Ireland, commenced their residence on the 
head springs of the Opecquon in Frederick county, near the pre- 
sent town of Winchester ; and their descendants are found in the con- 
gregation that bears the name of the creek in that county, and also in 
Kentucky, Tennessee, and Indiana. About the same time, or perhaps 
a Uttle earlier, John Caldwell, from the north of Ireland, commenced 
a settlement on Cub-creek, in Charlotte county, Virginia, then a pro- 
vince ; and persuaded a colony of his countrymen to unite with him. 
Their descendants are found in the Cub-creek congregation, and 
those congregations that have grown out of it : and also in Kentucky 
and South Carolina — ^the eminent political character, John Cald- 

. well Calhoun, being one of them. About the year 1736, Henry 
McCulloch persuaded a colony from Ulster, Ireland, to occupy his 
expected grant in Duplin county. North Carolina. Their descendants 
are widely scattered over the lower part of the State, and the south- 
western States, with an influence that cannot be easily estimated. 

About the same period, the Presbjrterian settlements were 
commenced in Augusta and Rockbridge counties, Virginia ; and 
speedily increasing, they formed numerous large congregations, 
which are still flourishing, having given rise to many other con* 
gregations in the counties further west, and also in the western 
States. From all these have arisen hosts of men that have acted 
conspicuous parts east and west of the Alleghanies, during the 
century that has passed since the emigrants built their cabins on 
the frontiers of Virginia and Carolina. 

^' The loss of the early records of Orange presbytery has left u» 
without the means of ascertaining the precise year the Presbyterian 
colonies in Grranville, Orange, Rowan, Mecklenburg, and, in fact, 

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in all that beautiful section extending frdm the Dan to the Catawba, 
began to occupy the wild and fertile prairies. But it 10 well known, 
that, previously to the year 1750, settlements of some strength 
were scattered along from the Virginia line to Georgia. On ac- 
count of the inviting nature of the climate and soil, and the com- 
parative quietness of the Catawba Indians, and the severity of the 
Virginia laws in comparison with those of Carolina, on the subject 
of religion, many colonies were induced to pass through the vacant 
lands in Virginia, in the neighborhood of their countrymen, and 
seek a home in the CaroUnas. As early as 1740, there were scat- 
tered families on the Hico, and Eno, and Haw — and cabins were 
built along the Catawba. 

The time of setting oflF the frontier counties is knovni, but is no 
guide to the precise time of the first settlements. Granville 
coun^ was set off from Edgecomb in 1743, and extended west to 
the charter limits ; Bladen was taken from New Hanover in 1733, 
its western boundary being the charter limits ; and in 1749 Anson 
was set off from Bladen with the same western boundary. The two 
counties, Anson and Granvflle, embraced all the western part of the 
State in 1749. Orange was set off from Bladen in 1751^ and Rowan 
from Anson in 1753, and Mecklenburg from Anson in 1768. These 
dates show the progress of emigration and increase of population, 
but do not fix the time when the cabins of the whites began to sup- 
plant the wigwams of the Indians. The dates of the land patents 
do not mark the time of emigration, as in some cases the landa 
were occupied a long period before grants were made, and the lands 
surveyed ; and in others, patents were granted before emigration. 
Some of the early settlements of Presbyterians were made before 
the lands were surveyed, particularly in the upper country. 

Emigration was encouraged and directed very much in its 
earUest periods, by the vast prairies, with pea-vine grass and cane- 
brakes, which stretched across the States of Virginia and Carolina. 
There are large forests now in these two States, where, a hundred 
years ago, not a tree, and scarce a shrub could be seen. These 
prairies abounded with game, and suppUed abundant pasturage, 
both winter and summer, for the various kinds of stock that ac- 
compaiiied the emigrants, and formed for years no small part of their 
wealth. In 1744, Lord Granville's share of North Carolina was 
set off by metes and boimds, having Virginia on the north ; a line 
drawn f^om the sea-shore westward on the parallel of 38^ 34^ 
north latitude, on the south ; the Atlantic Ocean on the east ; and 
the unexplored ocean on the west. The great inducements 

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offered by his lordship and l}is agents, the beauty «id healShiness 
of the country, the fertihty of the soil, and tSie low rate at which 
tracts of land Were set to sale, attracted attention,^and broa^ 
purchasers for residence and for speculation. Every additional 
colony increased the value of the remaining possessions of his 

The remaining part of the upper country was held by grants 
made from the crown, from time to time, and by the grantees sold 
out in smaller sections. There is nothii^, however, in the peculiar 
circumstances of making the land purchases, or in the country 
itself, or the time in which the settlements were made, that can 
account for the spirit, principles, and habits of the paople. These 
they brought with them, and left as a legacy Xq their children ; 
they had wrought wonders in the fatherland^ turning the scale of 
revolution in 1688, putting the crown on the head of William, 
Prince of Orange, and forking out purity of morals, Inspiring a 
deep sense of religious liberty and personal independence, under 
all the withering influences of prelacy, aristocracy, and royalty. 

While ihe tide of emigration was mtting fast and strong into 
the fertile regions between the Yadkin and Catawba, from the 
north of Ireland, through Pennsylvarfa and Virginia, another tide 
was flowing from the Highlands of Scotland, and landing colonies of 
Presbyterian people along the Cape Feat River. Authentic records 
declare that die Scotch had found the sandy plains of Carohna, 
maBy years previous to the exile and emigration that succeeded 
the crushing of the hopes of the house of Stuart, in the fatal byi- 
tie of Culloden, in 1746. But in the year following that event, 
large companies of Higfal^nders seated themselv^ in Cumberland 
county ; and in a few years the Gaelic language was h^ard feoni* 
liarly in Moore, Anson, Richmond, Robeson, Bladen, and Samp- 
son. Aiftong these people ^d their children, the warm*4iearted 
preacher and patriot, James Campbell, labored more than a quar- 
ter of a century ; and with them, that romantic character. Flora 
McDonald, passed a portion of her days. As many/C0ngre*» 
gations were formed among these Highlanders, who were all 
Prttebyterians, as that devoted, but tolitary man of God, Mr, 
Campbell, could visit in the performance of the duties of his wci^ 

In the upper part of the State, between the Virginia and Caro- 
lina line, along the track tmversed by the army .of ComwaUis in 
the war of the Revolution, there were above twenty organized 
churches^ with large congregations, and a great many preaching- 
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places. In Caswell county, McAden, the first minister that -^ 
became permanently settled in North Carolina, hid his dwelling 
and his congregaticms ; in Granville, and in Oraage, along the Eno, 
the -irioquent Pattillo taught impressively the wonder-working* 
truths of the gospel of Christ ; in Guilford, was the school and 
seminary of Caldwell, the nursery of so i^any eminent men ; in 
Rowan, the elegant scholar, McCorkle, preached and taught ; in 
Iredefl, Hall led his flock both to the sanctuary and the tents of 
war ; in Mecklenburg, Craighead cherished the spirit of indepen- 
dence which broke out in the declaration in Charlotte, May, 1775 ; 
and Bilch, McCaule, and Alexander, fanned the flame of patriot- 
ism in their respective chargas ; and Richardson, the foster uncle 
of Davie, ministered in holy things. All of these, with the excep- 
tion of Craighead, who was removed by death, were at one time 
leaching the principles of the gospel independence, and inculcat- 
ing those truths that made their hearers choose liberty, at the 
hazard of life, mther than oppression with abundance ; all were 
eminent men, whose influence would have beea felt in any 
generation ; all saw the war commence, and most pi them saw 
its end, and not a man of them left his congregation, not a man 
of them faltered in his patriotism, and two of them aerially bore 
arms. Their congregations were famous during the struggle of 
the Revolution, for skirmishes, battles, loss of libraries, persond 
prowess, individual courage, and heroic women. 

Gtivemor Tryon complained of the resistance the crown officeis 
struggled with in the upper country of Carolina, as the unprinci- 
pled tmtulence of an ill-informed and unreasonable people ; he 
marched his army, and dispersed the Regulators, on the Alamance ; 
and then trusted to (he solemn oath of thd sufferers, swearing alle- 
giance to the king for their spared lives, for the peace of the coun- 
try, without noticing, and perhaps without perceiving the fact, 
that there was % strong mond feeUng pervading this excited com- 
munity, that gave sanctity to an oath in the most unfavorable cir- 
cumstances. But the principles, that gave power to the oath, 
l^ve strength to the oppositian. The governor left the State with- 
out imdersttiniUng either the grievances of the people, or tht deep 
workings of those principles that would outlive all oppression, sure 
of a' triumph at last, though arrayed on the side of the few, and the 
poor, against the many, and the rich and the powerful. 

To trace out these principles and truths, destined by the wis- 
dom and goodness of Almighty God to get the mastery of the mis- 
rule of princes and men in authority, legitimate or ebctive, and 

6 • 

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.ultimately to prevail throughout the world, triumphing over human 
depravity itself, we must go back to the ancestry of these people, 
which, like tha origin of the proudest house and longest line of 
crowned heads «i Continental Europe — ^is firom the dust — ^the 
poorest of a shrewd and enterprising people. The farthest limit, 
however, to which the research will be carried, is about the com- 
mencement of the seventeenth century ; and as we trace the pro- 
gress of events, and the developments of truth through the seven- 
teenth century, and more than half of the eighteenth, we shall look 
with less surprise than did Governor Tryon, on the resistance to 
oppression he experienced in Orange ; or than Governor Josiah 
Martin, on the declaration of independence, made at Charlotte ; — 
these events will seem to flow as streams from the endurii^ foun- 
taips of Truth and Liberty, 
r^^jill advancement in society has been the fruit of the religions 
principle ; and of all religious principles that have influenced 
society, those have been most efiective that have most exalted 
God, and put the lowest estimate on the moral purity of human 
nature, and the means of human devising for the purification of 
our race. Those have done most for mankind that have first 
taught the creature to despair of himself, and next to trust in God ; 
think less of property than life, and less of life than principles ; 
and to value the hopes and expectations of eternity inmieasurably 
more than the things of time. With such principles men may be 
poor and unpolished, but can never be mean or undone ; they may 
be crushed, but never degraded. When Tryon returned to his 
palace in Newbem, after the bloodshed on the Alamance, he 
feasted. The people of Orange mourned under the oath of alle- 
giance exacted with terrible sanctions, and at the sight of the 
,,,^^ gajlows-tree where their neighbors had died ignominiously. He 
^V^ the minion of arbitrary power ; they were temporarily crushed. 
He^as finally driven from the provinces of America, and they 
bequeathed to their children the inheritance of a beautiful land, 
wiUi all that civil and religious freedom they ever desired. 

Looking back from the time of the bloodshed on the Alamance, 
or the Declaration of Independence in Charlotte, over a period of 
h^ a century, and then forward on the things that next succeeded 
in the space of another half century — ^the events of both wliich 
periods have passed away to the province of history, — and we have 
an exhibition of principles and men worthy of being written ^d 
read by all mankind, and through all time. The wonderful i«06« 
perity of the last quarter of a century but adds to the interest of 

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the previous thrilling events. Could the leaders of the people 
that formed the population of which we speaks for one generation 
in Ireland, and for two in America that immediM^ succeeded the 
first large emigration — ^and in both lands, fov that time, the real 
leaders were godly men — could these now rise from the graves to 
which they went down, some in peace, some in the sorrow of hope, 
and could they speak the language of earth, they would sing a 
Psalm of David louder than Merrill at the gallows — ^louder than 
they ever sang at a communion season, or revival, in Ireland or in 
Carolina — ^the beautiful sixty-sixth : " O bless our God, ye people, 
and make the voice of his praise to be heard ; which holdeth our 
soul in life, and suffereth not our feet to be moved. For thou, O 
God, hast proved us ; and thou hast tried us as silver is tried. 
Thou broughtest us into the net, thou layedst affliction upon our 
loins. Thou hast caused men to ride over our heads ; we went 
through fire, and. through water; but thou broughtest us out 
iitto a wealthy place. I will go into thy house with burnt oflFer- 
ings ; I will pay thee my vows ; which my lips have uttered and 
my mouth hath spoken when I was in trouble." And would not 
their posterity in and around the grand Alleghanies shout with a 
voice of thunder and a heart of love, — " The Lord God onmipo- 
tent reigneth ! Alleluia ! Amen ! " 

For about two centuries and a half this race of people have 
had one set of looral, reUgious, and political principles, working 
out the noblest frame-work of society ; obedience to the just exer- 
cise of law ; independence of spirit ; a sense of moral obligations ; 
strict attendance on the worship of Almighty God ; the choice of 
their own religious teachers ; with the inextinguishable desire to 
exercise the same privilege with regard to their civil rulers, be- 
lieving that magistrates govern by the consent of the people, and 
by their choice. These principles, brought firom Ireland, bore the 
same legitimate fruit in Carolina as in Ulster Province, whose 
boundaries travellers say can be recognized by the peace and 
plenty that reign within. Men will not be able fully to understand 
Carolina till they have opened the treasures of history, and drawn 
forth some few particulars respecting the origin and religious 
habits of the Scotch-Irish, and become familiar with their doings 
previous to the Revolution— during that painful struggle — and the 
succeeding years of prosperity ; and Carolina will be respected 
as she is known. 

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To find the origin of the Scotch-Irish Presbyterian settlements in 
Virginia and North Carolina, we must go back to Scotland and 
Ireland in the times of Elizabeth and' her successor, James. 
Elizabeth found Ireland a source of perpetual trouble. The 
complaints from the ill-fated island were numerous, and met 
little sympathy at the court of England ; right or wrong, Ireland 
must submit to English laws, and English governors, and Eng- 
lish ministers of religion ; and last, though not least in the esti- 
mation of the Irish, the English language was,* under sanction of 
law, about to supplant the native tongue, and the last work of 
subjugation inflicted on that devoted people. 

The Reformation in England had been accomplished partly by 
the piety and knowledge of the people at large under the guid- 
ance of the ministers of religion, and partly by the authority of 
the despotic Henry and his no less despotic daughter. The 
tyraimy of the crown for once harmonized with the desires of 
that great body of the people so commonly overlooked, and even 
in this case entirely unconsulted ; it pleased Henry to will what 
the people desired. In Ireland the Reformation was commenced 
by royal authority, and carried on as a state concern ; the ma- 
jority of the nobility and common people, as well as the ministers 
o£ rrii^on, being entirely opposed to the designs of the sove- 
reign, their wishes were as little consulted as the desires of the 
people of England. The chief agent employedan this work was 
George Brown, consecrated Archbishop of Dublin, March 19th, 

1535. Immediately after his consecration he proceeded to Ire- 
land, and in conference vrith the principal nobility and clergy, 
required them to acknowledge the king's supremacy. They 
stoutly, refused, withdrew from the metropolis, and sent messen- 
gers to Rome to apprise the Pope of the proceedings. In May, 

1536, A parliament was assembled for the purpose of taking 
measures for acknowledging the king's supremacy in religion, he 

t being considered head of the church in England and Ireland 

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o&ioiK or Ti»^«ctrrcH-iiii8H. 85 

instead of the Pope of Rome. The princip^J argument of the 
archbishop was, " He that will not pass this act as I do, is no 
true subject to his majesty:" this prevailed, and the king was 
proclaimed head of the church, and all appeals to Rome forbidden. 
Commotions and bloodshed followed the order for the removal of 
the images, which was made in 1538 ; and as the people and 
clergy were strongly in their favor, the order was evaded. 

The first book printed in Ireland was the Liturgy, in 1551, by 
Humphrey Powell, In 1556 John Dale imported the Bible from 
En^and, and in less than two years sold seven thousand, being 
excited to make trial of the sale of Bibles by the avidity of the 
people to read the present sent over by the Archbishop of York, 
a Bible to each of the two cathedrak, to be kept in the centre of 
the choirs, open for public perusal. 

Henry found the Irish a source of vexation, and delivered to his 
children the inheritance of a restless, dissatisfied people. Eliza- 
beth pursued the policy of her father, with his vigor, and subdued 
Ireland to the laws, and ostensibly to the religious rites of Eng- 
land, and delivered it to James I., in 1603, pacified as she hoped, 
and as James fondly yet vainly imagined. The few privileges 
that were left to the Catholics wereftsed by the priests and no- 
biUty to promote rebellion, and aggravate James, who had opposed 
the Catholic forms more from political interest than religious 
scYuples. A conspiituiy formed by the Earls of TpconnelLand 
Tyrone, of the province of Ulster, against the government of 
James, in the second year of his reign, in expectation of aid from 
the courts of France and Spuin, was discovered in time to pre- 
vent its execution. The earls fled, and left their estates to the 
mercy of the king. Soon after, another rebellion or insurrection 
raised by O'Dogherty was crushed,* its leader slain, and another 
hrge portion of the province reverted to the crown. In conse- 
quence of these and other forfeitures, nearly the whole of six 
counties in the province of Ulster, embracing about half a million 
of acres, were placed at the disposal of James. This province 
had been the chief seat of disturbances duriftg the time of Eliza- 
beth, and was fast becoming desolate or barbarous. With the 
hopes of securing the peace of this hitherto the most turbulent 
ptot of his kingdom, James determined to introduce colonies 
from England and Scotland, that by disseminating the Reformed 
ftith he might promote the loyalty of Ireland. In the fulfilment 
of this design he planted those colonies from which, more than 
century afterwards, those emigrations sprung, by which wertem 

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Virginia and the Carolinas were in a great measure peopled. 
The frequent attempts made, in the reign of Elizabeth, to plant 
colonies 6f EngUsh and'Scotch in Ireland, in the hope that tiiose 
doctrines of the Reformation, as odious to the crown as the peo- 
ple that professed them, might mould the Irish mind and heart to 
greater attachment to the English crown, had been conducted on 
a small scale, and attended with little success. The project of 
James was grand and attractive, and in its progress to complete 
success formed a race of men, law-loving, law-abiding, loyal, en- 
terprising firemen, whose thoughts and principles have had no 
less influence in moulding 'the American mind, than their children 
in making the wilderness to blossom as the rose. 

Sir Arthur Chichester, on whom the king had conferred a 
considerable estate' in Antrim, was appointed Lord deputy of 
the kingdom, in February, 1605 ; and by his sound judgment^ 
sense of religion, and /experience in the affairs of men, con- 
tributed not a little to the success of the royal enterprise. He 
had six counties in Ulster carefully surveyed, and the lands divided 
into sections of different magnitudes, some of two thousand acres, 
some of fifteen hundred, and some of a thousand. These he 
allotted to different kinds cA persons : first, British undertakers, 
who voluntarily engaged ip the enterprise ; second, Servitors of 
the crown, consisting of civil and military officers ; third. Natives 
whom he hoped to render loyal subjects. The occupants of the 
largest portions of land were bound, within four years, to build a 
castle and bawn, fiat is, a walled enclosure, with towers at the 
angles, within which was placed the icattle, — and to plant on their 
estates forty-eight able-bodied men, eighteen years old or upwards, 
of Enghsh or Scottish descent. Those who occupied the second 
class were obUged, within two years, to build a strong stone or 
brick house, and bawn ; and both were required to plant a propor- 
tionable number of EngUsh or Scottish rfamiUes on their posses- 
sions, and to have their houses furnished with a sufficiency of 

Under these and various other regulations, the escheated lands 
were disposed of to one hundred and four English and Scottish 
Undertakers, fifty-six servitors^ and two hundred and eighty-six 
natives ; these gave bonds to the State for the fulfilment of their 
covenants, and were required to render an annual account of their 
progress. Nearly the whole of the county of Coleraine was al- 
lotted to the corporation of the city of London, on condition of 
thefar building and fortifying the cities of Londonderry and Cole- 

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ratn6, and otherwise expending twenty thousand pounds on the 
plantations ; and the county is now called Londonderry, in allu- 
sion to that circumstance. In 1610, the l^ds began to be gene- 
rally occupied. The northeastern parts of the province were oc- 
cupied principally by emigrants from Scotland, on accoimt of the 
proximity of the. places, and the hardy enterprise of the people ; 
the southern and western parts were settled by the Enghsh. 
Great difficulties attended the settlement, arising principally from 
the plundering incursions of the irreclaimable natives. A con- 
temporary writer says : " Sir Toby Canfield's people are driven 
every night to lay up all his cattle, as it were, in ward ; and do he 
and his what they can, the wolfe and wood-kerne, within culiver 
shot of his fort, have often times a share. Sir John King and Sir 
Henry Harrington, within half a mile of Dublin, do the Uke, for 
those forenamed enemies do every night survey the fields to the 
very walls of Dublin." The country had grown Wild during the 
troubles of the past reign, and wa^ covered with woods and 
marshes that affected the healthiness of the chmate; this, together 
with the difficulties arising from the opposition of the native Irish, 
and the wild beasts that abounded in the desolations, greatly re- 
tarded the emigrations, and gave a peculiar cast to the emigrants. 

The Reverend Andrew Stewart, minister of Donaghadee from 
1645 to 1671, son of Rev. Andrew Stewart, who was settled min- 
ister of Donegore m the year 1627, wrote " A short account of the 
Church of Christ as it was amongst the Irish at first : — among 
and after the English entered : — and after the entry of the Scots J* 
He says, " of the English not many came over, for it is to be ob- 
served that, being a great deal more tenderly bred at home in 
England, and entertained in better quarters than they could find in 
Ireland, they were unwilling to flock thither, except to good land, 
such as they had before at home, or to good cities where they 
might trade ; both of which, in those days, were scarce enough 
here. Besides that the marshiness and fogginess of this island 
wereUBll found unwholesome to English bodies." He also adds : 
"the king had a natural love to have Ireland planted with Scots, as 
being, besides their loyalty, of a middle temper, between the 
English tender and the Irish rude breeding, and a great deal more 
likely to adventure to plant Ulster." 

He thus describes the progress of the plantation : — " The Lon- 
doners have in the Lagan a great interest, and built a city called 
Londonderry, planted with English. Coleraine also is builded by 
them ; both of them seaports, though Derry be both the moce 

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commodious and famous. Sir Hugh Clotworthy obtains the lands 
of^SpiS^both firuitful and good^ajd invites thither several of 
the^^ngHsh, very good men, th^^rJlljsj*, Leslies, Langfords, and 
. others^ Chichesi€r,Ti W6nh^ man, has 8n estate grren him in the 
county of Antrim, v^rhere he improves his interest, builds the 
prospering mart of Belfast, and confirms his interest in Carrick- 
fergus, and builds a stately palace there. Conway has an estate 
given him in the county of Antrim, and builds a tovm afterwards 
called Lisnegarvay, and this was planted vrith a colony of the 
English also. Moses Hill had woodlands given him, which being 
thereafter demolished, left a fair and beautiftil country, when a 
late hehr of the Hills built Hillsborough. All these lands and 
more were given to the English gentlemen, worthy persons, who 
afterwards increased, and made noble and loyal families in places 
where had been nothing but robbing, treason and rebellion." 

" Of the Scots nation there was a family of the Balfours, of the 
Forbesses, of the Grahames, two of the Stewarts, and not a few 
of the Hamiltons. The Macdonnells founded the earldom of 
Antrim by King James's gift, — the Hamiltons the earldom of Stra- 
bane and Clanbrassil, and there were besides several knights of 
that name, SirvFrederick, Sir George, Sir Francis, Sir Charles his 
son, and Sir Hans, all Hamiltons ; for they prospered above all 
others in this country, after the first admittance of the Scots 
into it." 

Con O'Neill, who possessed great extent of lands in Down and 
Antrim, being engaged in a rebellion, was apprehended and laid 
in the king's castle ; the Deputy intending to have him suffer 
capitally, expecting to gain a large portion of his lands, which feU 
to the king. His wife, indignant that her husband should be con- 
fined and appointed to an ignominious death, goes over to Scotland 
and lays her claim before Hugh Montgomery of Bip^adstone, pro- 
mising him, if he would get her husband's pardon frd^ the king, 
to be content with a third part of their estate, and cheeAlly to 
yield two-thirds to him under the king's grant. Montgomex^ en- 
tered into the scheme, and having a boat in readiness, and his wife 
canying to him, in his prison, ropes in two cheeses, O'Neill ef- 
fected his escape to Scotland. Montgomery ihen applied to Mr. 
James Hamilton, who had relinquished his fellowship in Dublin 
College, and was in high favor at the English court, to assist him 
in obtaining a pardon for O'Neill from the king, promising him 
half of his two parts of the estates. The pardon was obtained ; 
and grants were issued frt)m the king to each of these gentlemen 

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for a third part of O'Neill's estates. Both were made knights : 
but as Montgomery was an inheritor under the king in Scotland, 
and his vassal, he obtained the precedency. Hamilton, however, 
so managed the matter as to obtain the better share in the pos- 

Mr. Stewart says, — " These two knights, having received their 
lands, were shortly after made lords — Montgomery of Ards, and 
Hamilton of Claneboy. But land without inhabitants is a burden 
without rehef. The Irish were gone, the ground was desolate, 
rent must be paid to the king, tenants were none to pay them. 
Therefore the lords, having a good bargain themselves, make some 
of their friends sharers, as freeholders under them. Thus came 
several farmers under Mr. Montgomery, gentlemen from Scot- 
land, and of the names of the Shaws, Calderwoods, Boyds, 
and of the Keiths from the north. And some foundations are 
laid for towns and incorporations, as Newton, Donaghedee, Com- 
ber, Old and New Grey Abbey. Many Hamiltons also followed 
Sir James, especially his own brethren, all of them worthy men ; 
and other farmers, as the Maxwells, Rosses, Barclays, Moores, 
Bayleys, and others, whose posterity hold good to this day. He 
also founded towns and incorporations, viz., Bangor, Holywood, 
and Killileagh, where he built a strong castle, and Ballywalter. 
These foundations being laid, the Scots came hither apace, and 
became tenants willingly, and sub-tenants to their countrymen 
(whose manner and way they knew), so that in a short time the 
country began again to be inhabited." 

The progress of the plantation was slow ; and by order of the 
Crown, frequent inquiries were made into its advancement. The 
last was made in 1618 ; by that it appeared that one hundred cas- 
tles, with bawns, had been built ; nineteen castles without bawns ; 
forty-two bawns without ca9tle8 or houses ; and one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety-seven dwelling houses of stone and timber ; 
and about eight thousand men of English and Scottish birth, able 
to bear arms, were settled in the country. The appointment of Sir 
Arthur Chichester, as Deputy, was made in 1605 ; the survey was 
speedily commenced : the lands began to be generally occupied, 
in 1610, by the emigrants from Scotland and England; and by 
1618, against all the opposition of the native Irish, and the unfa- 
vorable circumstances of the country, a population, with some eight 
thousand fighting men, were gathered upon the escheated lands. 

The race of Scotchmen that emigrated to Ireland, retaining the 
characteristic traits of their native stock, borrowed some things 

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from their neighbors, and were fashioned, in some measure, by the 
moulding influences of the cUmate and country. Incontra-distinc- 
tion from the native Irish, they called themselves Scotch ; and to 
distinguish them from natives of Scotland, their descendants have 
received the name of Scotch-Irish, This name is provincial, and 
more used in America than elsewhere, and is appUed to the Pro- 
testant emigrants from the north of Ireland^ and their descendants. 
The history of this people from this period, 1618, till the emigra- 
tion to America, which commenced with a discernible current 
about a century after the immigration from Scotland, is foimd in 
the " History of Religious Principles and Events in Ulster Pro- 
vince." Their religious principles swayed their political opinions ; 
and in maintaining their forms of worship, and their creed, they 
learned the rudiments of repubhcanism before they emigrated to 
America. They demanded, and exercised, the privilege of choos- 
ing their ministers and spiritual directors, in opposition to all 
efforts to make the choice and support of the clergy a state, or 
governmental concern. In defence of this they suffered fines and 
imprisonment and banishment, and took up arms at last, and, victo- 
rious in the contest, they established the Prince of Nassau upon 
the throne, and gave the Protestant succession to England. 

Emigrating to America, they maintained, in all the provinces 
where they settled, the right of all men to choose their own reli- 
gious teachers, and to support them in the way each society of 
Christians might choose, irrespective of the laws of England or 
the provinces, — and also to use what forms of worship they might 
judge expedient and proper. From maintaining the rights of con-- 
science in both hemispheres, and claiming to be governed by the 
laws under legitimate sovereigns in Europe, they came in America 
to demand the same extended rights in politics as in conscience ; 
that rulers should be chosen by the people to be governed, and 
should exercise their authority according to the laws the people 
approved. In Europe they contended for a limited monarchy 
through all the troubles of the seventeenth century ; in America, 
their descendants defining what a limited monarchy meant, found 
it to signify rulers chosen by the people for a limited time, and 
with limited powers ; and declared themselves independent of the 
British crown. 

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The state of Religion among the emigrants was peculiar, though 
not strange or unexpected, in the circumstances. Many of the large 
landliolders, and also the proprietors of smaller sections, were gentle- 
men in the Scotch acceptation of the word, men of good birth, of good 
maimers, of some education and property. Some of them appear 
to have been truly religious. Among the tenantry and sub-tenantry, 
were also many of sound principles and correct lives, — ^and some 
were truly piou^. But the circumstances of the emigration were 
such as to hold out greater inducements to the restless than to 
the sedate, to those who were more anxious about temporal, than 
to those who were most engaged about spiritual concerns ; and 
consequently the province was occupied by settlers, who were 
willing enough to receive and respect ministers, who were sent to 
them, but were not characterized by any great desire to obtain 
either faithful ministers, who would warn them of their sins, or 
careless ones who would be content with their tithes. Of the 
latter class they had enough in Ireland, as the whole country had 
been divided into parishes, which were expected to support a 
minister of the Established Church of England. The former class 
were a terror unto them, as they always . are to those not fully 
intent upon their own salvation. Stewart draws a dark picture of 
the people soon after their emigration ; it is probably over colored, 
as the author was not conversant with the settling of colonies ; the 
only other one of which he had much knowledge, the Puritans that 
removed first to Holland, and then to New England, being a soli- 
tary example of excellence. " Most of the people were all void of 
godliness, who seemed rather to flee from God in their enterprise, 
than to follow their own mercy. Yet God followed them when 
they fled from him. Albeit, at first, it must be remembered, that, 
as they cared little for any church, so God seemed to care as little 
for them. For these strangers were no better entertained (i. e., by 
the clergy they found in Ireland, or that part of it where they were) 

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than by the relics of popery, served up in a ceremonial service of 
God under a sort of antichristian hierarchy, and committed to the 
care of careless men, who were only zealous to call for their gain 
from their quarter. Thus, on all hands, atheism increased, and 
disregard of God, iniquity abounded with contention, fighting, 
murder, adultery, &c., as among a people who, as they had nothing 
within them to overawe them, so their ministers' example (i. e., 
those they found in Ireland) was worse than nothing. And verily, 
at this time the whole body of this people seemed ripe for the 
manifestation either of God's judgment, or God's mercy." 

The situation of the emigrants, in matters pertaining to religion, 
was so diflferent firom the condition of the congregations in Scot- 
land, that with the more grave and religious in the mother country, 
it became a matter of abhorrence ; — so much so, that ^^ going to 
Ireland*^ was looked upon as a thing to be deplored, as going 
^..away from the privileges and enjoyments of religion. It became 
-N^ proverb expressive of disdain, " Ireland will be your latter end,^^ 
Mr. Blair said of their condition in religious things — " Although 
amongst those whom divine providence did send to Ireland, there 
were several persons eminent for birth, education and parts, yet 
the most part was such as either poverty, scandalous lives, or at 
the best, adventurous seeking of better accommodation had forced 
thither ; so that the security and thriving of religion was little seen 
to by these adventurers, and the preachers were generally of the 
same completion with the people." This condition of the emi- 
grants became at length a matter of deep sympathy and Christian 
benevolence — and faithful ministers of the gospel were encouraged 
to take their abode in Ireland, and expend their strength in labors 
which received a rich blessing from on high. Between the years 
1613 and 1626, seven preachers went over to Ireland, whose exer- 
tions for the advancement of religion were blessed to such an emi- 
nent degree, that others were excited to follow them ; and in a few 
years the church in Ireland became as famous for a spirit of 
revival, as the emigration had been for indifference to all religious 

The first, in point of time, was Edward Brice, M.A., who, on 
account of his strenuous opposition to all efforts to introduce Epis- 
copacy into Scotland, was compelled to leave his parish, Drymen 
in Stirhngshire ; turning his attention to Ireland, he directed his 
steps to Broad Island in County Antrim, where ah old acquaint- 
ance had settled in 1609. He began to exercise his minisfry there 
in 1613. " In all his preaching," says Livingston, " he insi 

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most on the life of Christ in the heart, and the Hght of His spirit 
and word on the mind ; that being his own continual exercise." 
The wrath of man, in his troubles at home in Scotland, was over- 
ruled of God to bring him to preach Christ to the desolate ; his 
being driven from his parish, was the leading of others to the 
Kingdom of God. He died in 1636, aged 67 years. 

The second was John Ridge, a native of England. He had 
been admitted to the order of Deacon by the Bishop of Oxford ; 
but feeling no freedom to exercise his ministry in England, on 
account of the requisitions made of the clergy, he removed to 
Ireland, and on presentation of Lord Chichester, was admitted to 
the vicarage of Antrim in July, 1619. Blair styles him — "the 
judicious and gracious Minister of Antrim." Livingston says of 
him : " he used not to have many points in his sermon ; but he 
so enlarged those he had, that it was scarcely possible for any 
hearer to forget his preaching. He was a great urger of charita- 
ble works, and a very humble man." After having witnessed the 
power erf religion in an uncommon degree in Antrim, as will be 
noticed more particularly in another place, when the great revival 
comes up for narration, he died about the year 1637. 

The third was Mr. Hubbard, a Puritan minister from England. 
He was Episcopally ordained ; but havii^g forsaken the commun- 
ion of the Established Church, and taken charge of a non-con- 
forming congregation, at Southwark, London, he was greatly 
oppressed by the intolerant measures of the times, and with his 
people resolved on removing to Ireland, in hopes of greater 
freedom in religion. Lord Chichester being informed of their in- 
tention, invited them to Carrickfergus ; they were peaceably 
settled there about the year 1621. Blair speaks of him as " an 
able and gracious man." He soon died ; but his congregation 
shared largely in the divine blessing that so unexpectedly was 
poured upon Ulster county. 

The fourth was James Glendenning, whose labors were pecu- 
liarly blessed, a native of Scotland, educated at St. Andrews, and 
early in life removing to Scotland, he succeeded Mr. Hubbard at 
Carrickfergus. The theatre of his greatest usefulness was Old- 
stone, near Antrim, where commenced, under his preaching, the 
Revival that spread oyer the province, and laid the foundation of 
the Irish Presbyterian Church. Mr. Glendenning was not 
esteemed as a man of much ability or learning ; but his preach- 
ing being full of life and earnestness was much admired, and 
greatly blessed of God. He left Lreland in a few years. 

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The fifth was Robert Cunningham. Having been chaplain to 
the Earl of Buccleugh, in Holland, on the return of the troops to 
Scotland he went to Ireland, and became curate of Holjrwood and 
Craigavad in County Down. His name does not appear upon the 
roll as curate till 1622, though he was in Ireland some years pre- 
vious to that time. Livingston says of him : " To my discerning 
he was the one man who most resembled the meekness of Jesus 
Christ, in all his carriage, that ever I saw, and was so far reve- 
renced, even by the wicked, that he was often troubled with that 
scripture — * woe to you when all men speak well of you.' " He 
died in Scotland, March 29th, 1637, having witnessed, in an extra- 
ordinary manner, the power of the gospel. 

The sixth was Robert Blair. He had been professor in the 
College of Glasgow, but was induced tp leave the situation on 
account of the measures used by Dr. Cameron to introduce Pre- 
lacy ; being invited by Lord Claneboy (James Hamilton), he went 
to Ireland in. May, 1623, and was settled in Bangor, in County 
Down. On his first landing in Ireland, his prejudices against the 
country were greatly increased by what he saw. Lord Clanejjoy 
interested himself very much in removing his difficulties, and Mr. 
Gibson, the first Protestant Dean of Down, then sick, invited 
him to preacb in Bangor, and afterwards united with the congrega- 
tion in urging him to make that his abode. Mr. Blair, in his 
narrative, says : Mr. Gibson " condemned Episcopacy more 
strongly than I durst to ; he charged me in the name of Christ, as 
I expected a blessing on my ministry, not to leave that good way 
wherein I had begun to walk ; and then drawing my head towards 
his bosom, with both «arms, he laid his hands on my head, and 
blessed me." 

On his first interview he frankly told Bishop Echlin his objec- 
tions to Prelacy. Echlin promised to impose no conditions on him, 
but said he must ordain him, or they could not answer the laws of 
the land. Blair objected to the performance of the ordination by 
him alone. The bishop finally agreed to associate Mr. Cunning- 
ham and the neighboring ministers with him in the ordination : and 
the service was performed July 10th, 1623. "Whatever you ac- 
couiii of Episcopacy, yet I know you account a presbytery to have 
a divine warrant," said the bishop to him. " Will you not receive 
ordination from Mr. Cunningham and the adjacent brethren, and 
let me come in among ihmx in no other relation than a pres- 

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Livingston says of Blair, — " he w^s a man of a notable consti- 
tution both of body and mind ; of a majestic, awful, yet aiffable and 
amiable countenance and carriage, learned, of strong parts, deep 
inventions, and solid judgment. He seldom ever wanted assurance 
of his salvation. He spent many days and nights in prayer alone, 
and with others, and was vouchsafed great intimacy with God." 

The seventh was James Hamilton, nephew to Lord Claneboy 
(James Hamilton, who obtained a part of O'NeilFs estate), whom 
Mr. Blair found in the employ of his uncle, as steward, or agent. 
Perceiving his piety, and knowing his education, he invited him to 
enter the ministry. " I invited him," says Mr. Blair, " to preach 
in my pulpit, in his uncle's hearing, who till then knew nothing of 
this matter. We were afraid the viscount would not part with so 
faithful a servant. But he, having once heard his nephew, did put 
more respect on him than before." Mr. Hamilton was ordained 
by Bishop Echlin in the year 1625. 

These seven fafethren labored with the spirit of missionaries of 
the cro8% and triumphing over all difficulties, were favored with 
an extraordinary measure of success. Their influence was first 
seen in a reformation of manners and a devout attention to religion ; 
and led, under the blessing of God, to a revival of religion, which 
spread over a large part of the counties of Down and Antrim, and 
is one of the most signal on record in the Protestant Church. This 
revival first appeared under the preaching of the weakest of the 
brethren, Mr. Glendenning. Mr. Stewart, in his narrative, thus 
relates the matter : " Mr. Blair, coming over from Bangor to Car- 
rickfergus on some business, and occasionally hearing Mr. Glen- 
denning preach, perceived some sparkles of good inclination in him, 
yet found him not solid but weak, and not fitted for a public place, 
and among the English. On which Mr. Blair did call him, and 
losing freedom with him, advised him to go,to some place in the 
country among his countrymen ; whereupon he went to Oldstone 
(near the town of Antrim), and was there placed. He was a man 
who could never have been chosen by a wise assembly of minis- 
ters, nor sent to begin a reformation in ttis land. For he was 
little better than distracted, — yea afterwards did actually become 

"At Oldstone God made use of him to awaken the consciences 
of a lewd people thereabouts. For seeing the great lewdness and 
ungodly sinfulness of the people, he freached nothing to them but 
law, wrath, and the terrors of God for sin. And indeed for nothing 
else was he fitted, for hardly could he preach any other thing." 

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But behold the success ! For the hearers finding themselves con- 
demned by the mouth of God speaking in his work, fell into such 
anxiety and terror of conscience, that they looked on themselves as 
altogether lost and damned ; and this work appeared not in one 
single person or two, but multitudes were brought to understand 
their way, and to cry out, * Men and brethren, what shall we do to 
be saved V I have seen them myself^stricken into a swoon with a 
word ; yea, a dozen in one day carried out of doors as dead, — so 
marvellous was the power of God, smiting their hearts for sin, 
•condemning and killing. And these were none of the weaker sex 
or spirit, but indeed some of the boldest spirits, who formerly 
feared not, with their swords, to put a whole market town 
in a fray; — ^yea, in defence of their stubbornness cared not 
to lie in prison and in the stocks, — and being incorrigible, 
were as ready to do the like next day. I have heard one 
of them, then a mighty strong man, now a mighty Christian, say, 
that his end in coming to church was to consult with his compa- 
nions how to work iome mischief. And yet at one of those 
sermons was he so catched, that he was fully subdued. But why 
do I speak of him ? we knew, and yet know multitudes of such 
men, who sinned, and still gloried in it, because they feared no 
man, yet are now patterns of sobriety, fearing to sin, because they 
fear God." 

" And this spread thi^ugh the country to admiration, especially 
about that river, commonly called the Six Mile Water, for there 
this work began at first. At this time of the people's gathering to 
Christ, it pleased the Lord to visit mercifully the honorable family 
in Antrim, so as Sir John Clotworthy, and my Lady his mother, 
and his own precious Lady, did shine in an eminent manner in re- 
ceiving the gospel and ofiering themselves to the Lord, whose 
example instantly other gentlemen followed, such as Captain Nor- 
ton and others, of whom the gospel made a clear and cleanly con- 

This religious excitement spreading wide, continued for a con- 
siderable length of time ; the demand for the pure word of the 
gospel was unceasing ; and the labors of the ministers unremitting. 
The mercy of the gospel was welcomed by the hearts wounded 
for sin and by sin ; and great numbers were hopefully awakened 
and converted to God. Among other things .that followed this re- 
vival was the Monthly Meeting at Antrwiy the effects of which 
were great and happy. Its origin is thus described by Stewart and 
Blair :— 

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"There was a man in the parish of Oldstone, called Hugh 
Campbell, who had fled from Scotland ; God caught hhn in Ireland, 
and made him an eminent and exemplary Christian until this day. 
He was a gentleman of the house of Duckethall. After this man 
was healed of the wound given to his soul by the Almighty, he 
became very refreshful to others who had less learning and judg- 
ment than himself. He therefore invited some of his honest 
neighbors, who fought the same fight of faith, to meet him at his 
house on the last Friday of every month ; where and when, be- 
ginning with a few, they spent their time in prayer, mutual edifi- 
cation, and conference, on what they found within them : nothing 
Uke the superficial superfluous meetings of some pold-hearted pro- 
fessorSy who afterwards made this work a snare to many. But 
these new beginners were more filled with heart exercises than 
head notions, and with fervent prayer rather than conceity notions 
to fill the head. As these truly increased, so did this meeting for 
private edification increase too; and still at Hugh Campbell's 
house, on the last Friday of the month. At last they grew so nu- 
merous that the ministers who had begotten them again to Christ, 
thought fit that some of them should be still with them, to prevent 
what hurt might follow." This took place in the year 1626. 
Here Mr. Stewart's narrative ends abruptly. Mr. Blair says : — 
" Mr. John Ridge, the judicious and gracious minister of Antrim, 
perceiving many people, both sides of the Six Mile Water, awak- 
ened out of their security, made an overture that a monthly meet- 
ing might be set up at Antrim, which was within a mile of Oldstone, 
and lay centrical for the awakened persons to resort to, and he 
invited Mr. Cunningham, Mr. Hamilton, and myself, to take part 
in that work, who were all glad of the motion, and heartily em- 
braced it." 

As the revival progressed, the news of it reached Scotland, 
and called the attention of the whole Christian community to Ire- 
land ; and in consequence, some very able ministers went over to 
take part in the work, and were blessed of God in being exten- 
sively useful in laying the foundation of the Irish Presbyterian 
Church. In addition to the seven who went previous to the revival, 
the following six, who entered the field during the great excitement, 
are worthy of particular notice. 

The firstf Josias Welch, son of John Welch, of Ayr, and 
grandson of John Knox, the Reformer, by his third daughter, 
Elizabeth. Having finished his education at Geneva, he filled a 
Professor's chair in Glasgow, till the movements of Dr. Cameron 


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for prelacy, which drove Mr. Blair from college, induced him also 
to surrender his office. At Mr. Blair's earnest instigation he went 
to Ireland in 1626, and like that good man, found that per- 
secution, as in the days of the death of Stephen, sometimes 
drives men into that part of the Lord's vineyard where they reap 
the richest harvest for eternal life. He preached for a time 
at Oldstone, where the excitement began ; and having been or- 
dained by his kinsman Knox, Bishop of Raphoe, in Donegal, 
was soon after settled at Temple Patrick, and, Livingston says, 
had many seals to his ministry. He died on Monday, June 23d, 

The second that came was Andrew Stewart, who was settled 
as minister of Donegore, adjoining Temple Patrick and Antrim. 
Blair styles him " a learned gentleman, and fervent in spirit, and a 
very successful minister of the word of God." He died in July, 

The third was George Dunbar. He had been minister of Ayr, 
and was twice ejected on account of his nonconformity, and for a 
time confined in Blackness, and then banished. On the arrival of 
the news of his second ejectment, he turned to his wife and said : 
" Wife, get the creels ready again ;" that is, the osier baskets in 
which he had carried his children in his first remove. He was 
driven to Ireland to be blessed in the Lord's vineyard. Being set- 
tled at Lama, county Antrim, his congregation participated in the 
great revival ; and among the subjects was the singular case of a 
deaf and dumb person, Andrew Brown, who, by his reformed life 
and expressions of piety, prevailed on the ministers, who met at 
Antrim, in their monthly meetings, to admit him to the Lord's 
table. A singular, and almost soUtary, case of a mute professing 
spiritual rehgion, previous to the recent successful eflforts at giving 
them instruction. 

The fourth was Henry Colwort, a native of England, ordain- 
ed by Knox, Bishop of Raphoe, on the 4lh of May, 1629, and 
settled at Oldstone, June, 1630. Blair says, " this able minister 
was a blessing to that people ;" and JJvingston speaks of him as 
one " who very pertinently cited much So ipture in his sermons, 
and frequency urged fasting and prayer." 

The fifth was John Livingston. Being silenced by Spotis- 
wood, Archbishop of St. Andrews, in the year 162?^, and being 
prevented by the bishops from obtaining a settlement, though invi- 
tations came to him from various quarters, he at length yielded to 
the storm, and following the hand of the Lord, went to Ireland, 

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August, 1630, and was settled in Killinchy, in county Down. He 
received ordination from Knox, in the same manner Blair had done, 
some years previously. In the month of June preceding his 
removal to Ireland, he had, in company with Mr. Robert Blair, 
assisted at the famous meeting in the Kirk of Shotts, which re- 
sulted in the hopeful conversion of so large a company. Under 
his sermon on Monday, which he delivered after hours of medita- 
tion and private prayer, the whole audience seemed under the con- 
victing power of the word, and as many ^sjive hundred^ of those 
that day impressed, afterwards professed faith in Christ. Some 
saj that, reckoning up all that from that day's preaching became 
hopefuDy religious, the number would be swelled to seven hun- 
dred ; as the audience was collected from a great distance, as 
usual on Scotch communion days, many of the hopeful converts 
were from distant congregations, and some who dated their reli- 
gious impressions from that day^ did not profess religion for a 
length of time. 

The great excitement produced at this meeting rendered Mr. 
Blair and Mr. Livingston more obnoxious than ever to the Pre- 
lates, who, under pretence of their having transgressed the order 
of the Church and the government, prevailed on Bishop EchUn, in 
Ireland, in September, 1631, to suspend both these men from their 
ministerial functions. No service done to God, in the conversion 
of men, could satisfy these Prelates for nonconformity to their es- 
tablished rules of Church government. 

Two others were extensively useful, though not settled in con- 
gregations. One was John McClelland, of whom Livingston 
says, — " he was first school-master at Newton- Ards in Ireland, 
where he bred several hopeful youths for the college. Being first 
tried and approved by the honest ministers in the county of Down, 
he often preached in their churches. He was a most straight and 
zealous man ; he knew not what it was to be afraid of man in 
the causft of God ; and was early acquainted with God and his 

The other was John Semple. According to the mode of com- 
mencing public worship, he, as clerk or precentor, was, as custom- 
ary, singing a psalm before the minister came in that was to 
preach. Thinking the minister tarried long,«he felt an impulse to 
speak something to tiie psalm he was singing ; and, as he said, — 
" he was carried out with great liberty." The ministers, looking 
upon his case as peculiar, made private trials of his capabiUty to 
teach, and gave him license '^ to exercise his gifts in private houses 

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and families.*' With this liberty he went through the country 
with great acceptance; the people flocked to hear him, fiUing 
dwelling-houses and bams ; and to very many he was the happy 
instrument of God in their conversion. 

These ministers were powerful auxiliaries in extending the re- 
vival in Ulster. The churches gathered by them multiplied and 
extended, and became a large body ; and from them were the 
emigrants whose descendants are found in Pennsylvania, western 
Virginia, North and South Carolina, in large bodies, and also in 
smaller companies scattered over the southern and western portions 
of the United States. 

The monthly meeting set up at Oldstone by Mr. Campbell, being 
altogether in the hands of the inexperienced, was likely to lead to 
the evils that result from zeal without knowledge. By the prudent 
exertions of Mr. Ridge of Antrim, a monthly meeting of ministers 
was formed, which took the place of the other, prevented the 
dreaded evils, and became instrumental of great good to the com- 
munity. The exercises of those meetings were very similar to the 
services performed at the conununion seasons in Scotland, and to 
the communion seasons and four day meetings held by the Pres- 
byterians in Virginia and the Carolinas, and indeed in the whole 
South and West. People flocked to them in crowds, and embraced 
the opportunity of conversation with their minister, and each 
other, on the great subjects of Religion ; and the minister took the 
opportunity of communicating instructions on important subjects, 
and for the exercise of necessary discipline, in which unity of 
purpose and action was required. 

Mr. Brice of Broad Island, and Mr. Dunbar, who was for a time 
his assistant, aud afterwards settled at Oldstone, were called to 
the exercise of prudence and judgment in another way. In Broad 
Island* and the adjaeent parish of Oldstone, there were several 
persons violently afiected during public worship with hard breath- 
ings and convulsions of the body. These new and stfange exer- 
cises they considered as evidences of the work of the Spirit. 
Messrs. Brice and Dunbar examined thenfcareftilly on this matter, 
and on conferring with them about their state of mind and heart, 
could not find that these bodily exercises either produced or ac- 
companied any discovery of their sinfrilness before God, nor any 
clear views of Christ, or desires after him. They therefore con- 
sidered the exercises to be ^ther an imposition or a delusion. 
The minist^al brethren were called together upon the matter ; 
^d after a patient examination they decided against the opinion 

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that the exercises were either a work of the Spirit or any etidence 
of its presence. Mr. Blair says — " When we came and conferred 
with them, we perceived it to be a mere delusion and cheat of the 
destroyer, to slander and disgrace the work of God." The putting 
down these irregularities did not hinder the progress of the good 
work, but rather gave confidence both to preachers stnd people. 
Instead of permitting the passions and feelings of their hearers to 
lead the pastors, or the heat of excitement to blind their eyes, 
they submitted all things in religion to the test of Scripture, and 
by its authority they chose to abide. This was their rule in 
church government, ordination and doctrine : and more than two 
centuries in Europe, and more than a century in America, has 
tested and proved the prudence and propriety of their decisions. 

The monthly meeting at -\ntrim, besides being a source of rich 
encouragement and high enjoyment to the people, became to the 
ministers a source of great consolation. In them they took coun- 
sel and gave advice, and comforted and exhorted each other ; and, 
until presbyteries were formed, it was their grand council. It 
must be borne in mind, that the whole country was under the 
Established Church of England; and in the space occupied 
by these laborers were some twenty ministers of the Established 
Church, who took no interest in the revival, but rather set them- 
selves against it, and were opposed to these ministers preaching in 
their parish bounds. Bishop Echlin, at first favorable to these 
ministers, soon became their bitter enemy : while Knox of Raphoe 
continued their firiend to the last. Mr. Livingston says that the 
brethren that formed this meeting lived in the greatest harmony, 
each preferring the other in love. 

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In the spring of the year 1631, the presbyterians of Ulster, 
wearied out by the intolerance of Charles I^ and Archbishop 
Laud, and the consequent exactions of the ministers of the crown, 
particularly the Lord Deputy Wentworth, afterwards Earl of 
Stafford, by which their cup of bitterness was made to overflow, 
turned their eyes to the new settlements in the wilds of America. 
T L41 PuiilAuu oL ^Eflgls^y who were contending and suffering for 
the same rights of conscience, had planted colonies in Massachu- 
setts, which cheered them with the expectation of a refuge from 
the ills they could neither be freed from, nor endure, in their native 
land. The flourishing colony had been planted at Salem, in the 
year 1628, and had been even more successful than Plymouth. 
These prosperous efforts to secure the enjoyment of liberty of 
conscience, turned the attention of the distressed congregations of 
Ireland to seek, in the deeper solitudes of distant America, what 
had been promised, and sought {or iu vain, in depopulated Ireland ; 
or enjoyed only while they reclaimd the desolations of the pre- 
vious rebellion. 

The ministers that had come over from Scotland, whose names 
have been enumerated, had not attempted to form a Presbytery. 
The whole country had been laid off into parishes and bishoprics 
of the Church of England ; and as the emigrants from England 
or Scotland found their residences, they were consequently tf - 
eluded in some parish, and the ministers that came over to i»reach 
to them were admitted to occupy parish churches, and enjoy their 
own forms and ceremonies. Archbishop Usher was most mild 
and tolerant in his views of church order and government ; 
and so, for a time at least, were some of his bishops ; and in the 
different Dioceses of Ulster might be seen priests and deacons of 
the Established Church, and here and there intermingled a Pres- 
byterian or Puritan minister, with a flock of their own peculiar 
creed and fonoos, under the bishop's siJ^ervision. The great 
revival had broken up some of this quietness and order that had 

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prevailed, by osciting jealousies between the favorers and 0{]^sers 
of that blessed work : the bishops mostly witlidrew their favor 
and protection, and were ready to carry into eflfect the rigid orders 
from Laud and the Deputy, and proceeded to silence those that 
would not conform strictly to the rites and ceremonies of the esta- 
blishment, and began with Blair and Livingston : but by the good 
offices of Archbishop Usher these men were restored to their 
ministry. Their enemies, however, made representations at Court 
which resulted in shutting out from the exercise of the ministry, 
Blair, Welch, Livingston, and Dunbar. 

These oppressed ministers, with many of their respective 
charges, began to make preparation for removal to America. Two 
persons were appointed delegates to visit New England, the Rev. 
John Livingston and Mr. Wilham Wallace, and, if circumstances 
were favorable, to choose a place for their future residence. 
They proceeded to England to find a passage to America ; but 
some unexpected difficulties caused their return to Ireland, and 
prospects in Ireland appearing more favorable, the project was for 
a time abandoned. In 1634, these ministers, who had been re- 
stored to their office, were three of them again suspended, and 
the next year the fourth, Livingston, shared the same fate ; their 
only crime charged was their opposition to Episcopal forms. 
During the same year four other ministers were forbidden the 
exercise of their ministry on account of their adherence to Pres- 
byterial forms ; Brice, who was amongst the earliest that visited 
Ireland, and after a laborious ministry of twenty years, died the 
next year after his suspension, aged sixty-seven years, — Ridge^ 
who went to Antrim in 1619, and had been most laborious and 
successful, and after his suspension returned to Scotland, and died 
1637, — Cunningham, who had gone over in 1622, and returning 
to Scotland, after his suspension, died in 1637, — and Colworty 
minister at Oldstone, where the great Revival began. 

Once more preparations for emigration were commenced, and a 
correspondence opened with the colonies in New England. Cotton 
Mather, m his Magnolia, tells ua^ Book 1st — " That there were 
divers gentlemen in Scotland, who, being uneasy under the eccle- 
siastical burdens of the times, wrote on to New England the in- 
quiries : — Whether they might be there suffered freely to exercise 
their Presbyterial church government ? And it was freely 
answered — that they might. Thereupon they sent over an agent, 
who pitched upon a tmct of land near the mouth of the Merrimac 
River, whither they intended to transplant themselves. But 

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althougb they had so fiar proceeded in their Toyagft as to be half- 
seas through, the manifold crosses they met withal, made them 
give over their intentions ; and the providence of God so ordered 
it that some of these very gentlemen vrere afterwaids the revivers 
of that well-known Solemn League and Covenant, which had so 
great an influence upon the nation." There is one error in this 
extract. The conclusion would naturally be, that the expedition 
was from Scotland ; and very probably Mather understood it to 
be from that country, — ^whereas, the company sailed fix)m the 
North of Ireland. The error arose undoubtedly fit)m the feet, that 
the correspondence was carried on from Scotland, and the agent 
was a Scotchman, the ministers were from Scotland, and of no 
small eminence, and the colonists themselves were either Scotch- 
men by birth, or the children of Scotchmen reared in Ireland. 

The deposition of their ministers, which took place August 12th, 
1636, hastened the preparations for emigration, and on the 9th of 
the following September, the Eagle Wing, a vessel pf one hun- 
dred and fifty tons, set sail from Lockfergus with one hundred and 
forty emigrants prepared for the voyage, and a settlement in a 
new country. The colonists took with them the necessary imple- 
ments for carrying on fisheries, and also a considerable amount of 
merchandise to assist them by traffic to meet the expenses of the 
voyage and necessities of the new settlement. Among the emi- 
grants were four noted preachers, Robert Blair, John Living- 
ston, James Hamilton, and John McClelland : all afterwards 
promoters of the cause of truth in Scotland and Ireland. Among 
the families that composed the company were the names Stuarty 
Agnew, Campbell, Summervil, and Brown, Many^single persons 
united in the expedition, and with them sailed Andrew Brown, a 
deaf mute, from the parish of Lame, who during tlie revival had 
been deeply aflfected, and had given satisfactory evidence, by 
signs connected with a godly Ufe, of having been truly converted. 
Like the voyagers in the May Flower, this devoted people met 
with difficulties. The New England Memorial traces them in 
the former case to the knavery of the shipmaster, first in spring- 
ing the leak, then in landing them far north of the intended har- 
bor ; in the present case the parties concerned referred them to 
the providence of God. 

" We had," says the Rev. John Livingston in his account of 
the voyage, " much toil in our preparation, ma^iy hindrances in 
our outsetting, and both sad and glad hearts in talong leave of our 
friends. At last, about the month of September, 1636, we loosed 

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firom Lockfergut, but were detained some time with contrary 
winds in Lock Regan in Scotland, and gromided the ship to 
search for some leaks in the keel of the boat. Yet thereafter, we 
set to sea, and for some space had fair winds, till we were be- 
tween three and four hundred leagues from Ireland, and no nearer 
the banks of Newfoundland than any place in Europe. But if 
ever the Lord spoke by his winds and other dispensations, it was 
made evident to us, that it was not his will that we should go to 
New England. For we met with a mighty heavy rain from the 
northwest, which did break our rudder, which we got mended 
by the skill and courage of Captain Andrew Agnew, a godly 
passenger ; and tore our foresail, five or six of our champlets, and 
a great beam under the gunney's room door broke. Seas came ^ 
in over the round house, and broke a plank or two on the deck, 
and wet all that were between the decks. We sprung a leak, 
that gave us seven hundred, in the two pumps, in the half hour 
glass. Yet W6 lay at hull a long time to beat out the storm, 
till the master and company came one morning and told us that it 
was impossible to hold out any longer, and although we beat out 
that storm, we might be sure in that season of the year, we would 
foregather with one or two more of that sort before we could 
reach New England. 

" During all this time, amidst such fears and dangers, the most 
part of the passengers were very cheerful and confident ; yea, 
some in prayer had expressed such hopes, that rather than the 
Lord would sufier such a company in such sort to perish, if the 
ship should break, he would put wings to our shoulders, and 
carry us safe ashore. I never in my life found the day so short, 
as at all that time, although I slept some nights not above two 
hours, and some not at all, but stood most part in the gallery 
astern the great cabin, where Mr. Blair and I and our families 
lay. For in the morning, by the time every one had been some 
time alone, and then at prayer in their several societies, and then 
at pubUc prayer in the ship, it was time to go to dinner ; after 
that we would visit our friends or any that were sick, and then 
public prayer would come, and after that, supper and family ex- 
ercises. Mr. Blair was much of the time sickly, and lay in the 
time of storms. I was sometimes sick, and then brother McClel- 
land only performed duty in the ship. Several of those between 
deck, being thronged, were sickly ; an aged person and one child 
died, and were buried in the sea. One woman, the wife of 
Michael Calver, of KiUinchy parish, brought forth a child in the 

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ship. I baptized it on Sabbath following, and called him 

The report of the master and company filled them with distress, 
— ^the storm was upon them and before them ;— oppression had 
driven them from Ireland, and waited their return. After prayer, 
and long and anxious consultation, they agreed to return ; trusting 
in the good providence of God for their future welfare. The next 
morning as soon as the day dawned, the ship was turned, and 
they made for Ireland. Qn the third of November, after a pros- 
perous sail, they came to anchor in Lockfergus, the place of their 
departure, after an absence of about eight weeks, cast down under 
this providence of God, and anticipating hostility, ridicule and 
sufTcring. Having sold their effects in preparation for the voyage, 
and having vested their property in provision and stock of mer- 
chandize, suitable for their expected residence, they experienced 
great loss in disposing of their cargo, and reinvesting the proceeds 
in things suitable to their emergency. The persons, they had 
hired to go with them to assist in .fishing and building houses, 
demanded their wages, and were dismissed at great disadvantage 
to their employers. 

Their reception by their friends, like their departure, was 
mingled with "gladness and sorrow;" — ^by their enemies with 
anxiety and disdain. Their friends conmiiserated their calamity, 
and rejoiced in their safety. Their enemies disliked their return, 
fearing the consequences, and were for a time divided in their 
opinion how they should be treated. Some were for exercising 
greater lenity; others poured out their ridicule in no measured 
terms, and in ballads, and notes to printed sermons, compared 
these oppressed and disheartened people to asses, which the scime 
vessel had a little before brought from France, — ^and their religious 
ministrations to brayings so sad, that Neptune had stopped their 
voyage, and sent them back to Ireland to be improved. 

The next year, 1637, the ministers finding no peace in Ireland, 
went over to Scotland, and met a most cordial reception firom 
ministers and people. Mr. Blair was settled at Ayr ; Mr. Living- 
ston at Stranrear ; Mr. Hamilton at Dumfries ; Mr. Dunbar at 
Caldir in Lothian; Mr. McClelland in Kirkcudbright; Mr. 
Temple in Carsphain ; Mr. Row at Dunfermline ; aAd Mr. Robert 
Hamilton at Ballantises. These nine were zealous promoters of 
the National Covenant, which was renewed for the third time in 
Edinburgh, 1st March, 1638. Four of them were members of 
the famous assembly that met in Glasgcm, in November of the 

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same year, and took an active part in the doings of that body, by 
which Prelacy in Scotland was abolished, — ^the bishops deposed, — 
and Presbytery re-estabUshed. Those, who were settled on the 
western coast of Scotland, kept up their intercourse with Ulster ; 
and many of their former hearers removed to Scotland to enjoy 
their ministrations. On the stated communions, great numbers 
would go over from Ireland to enjoy the privileges they could not 
have at home ; on one occasion five hundred persons went over 
from Dovm to Stranrear, to receive the sacrament at the hands of 
Mr. Livingston. At another time, he baptized twenty children 
brought over to him, for that purpose, by their parents, who were 
unwilling to receive the ordinance from the Prelatical clergy. 

The influence which this company of emigrants exercised on 
Ireland, and ultimately on America, is incalculable. It is scarcely 
possible to conceive, that any situation in New England could 
have aflTorded them such a theatre of action as the province of 
Ulster; perhaps none they might have occupied anjrwhere in 
America, even in founding a new State, could have afforded such 
ample exhibition of the power of their principles and godly lives. 
There had been a revival, a great revival in Ireland, among the 
emigrants from Scotland and their children ; but as yet, no 
Presbytery had been formed ; and the influence of the Presbyte- 
rian Protestants was circumscribed, and their principles not yet 
deep-rooted forpermanency. Had this colony succeeded in find- 
ing an* agreeable situation in America, in all probability so many 
of their friends and countrymen would have followed, that the 
North of Ireland would have been deserted to the native Irish, or 
the wild beasts, as in the times just preceding the emigration from 
Scotland. This company of men, as will be seen in the subse- 
quent history, were the efficient instruments in the hands of God, 
of embodying the Presbyterians of Ireland, of spreading their 
principles far and wride, and marshalling congregation after con- 
gregation, whose industry made Ulster blossom as the rose. The 
Presbyterians became the balancing power of Ireland. " You 
need not" — said an intelligent physician of Petersburg, Va., who 
is familiar with Ireland, and does not claim to be a Presbyterian, 
— " You need not ask when you are to pass from the Catholic 
counties to those of the Protestants. You will see and feel the 
change in everything around you." 

Had the principles of Usher prevailed, and these men been 
permitted to labor in peace in their parishes, it would in all proba- 
bility have been long before a Presbytery had been formed in Ire- 
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land ; and whan formed its influence and number of churches 
would have bee* really less than they were in 1642, the year the 
first Presbytery met. The intolerance of the Court and tlieir 
obedient bish«ps (drove these men out of the churches of the 
establishment. When the four set sail in 1636, for America, no 
faithful Presbyterian #as left ; the others were dead, or had re- 
tired to Scotland ; all bonds were broken that might have held 
them in connection with the Episcopal church. The tempest 
brought them back to do a work in Scotland ; and the rebellion 
and consequent massacre, by Ac native Irish, opened the way for 
their successful labors in Ireland, and for founding the Irish Pres- 
byterian church. The wrath of man, and the tempests of the 
ocean, together work the wonderful counsels of Almighty God. 

After the lapse of some two-thirds of a century, Ulster began to 
send out swarms to America ; shipload after shipload of men 
trained to labor and habits of independence, sought the American 
shore* ; year after year the tide rolled on without once ebbing ; 
and many thousands of these descendants of the emigrants from 
Scotland, disdaining to be called Irish, filled the upper country of 
Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Ulster, in Ireland, has 
been an exhausUess hive, a perennial spring ; and the form and 
fashion of its emigrants were moulded by these men, whom the 
storms bafiled and sent back to do a work for Ireland and America. 
Livingston and Blair lived for Posterity. 

In 1608, Jamestown, in Virginia, was founded by a sma]^ com- 
pany from England ; in 1620, the May Flower landed her little 
band of Puritans on Plymouth rock ; in 1636, the Eaglewing re- 
landed her company at Lochfergus ; and some few years after- 
wards King Charles forbade the sailing of the vessel that should 
have carried away from England the Spirits of the Revolution. 
Napoleon, with all his inunense hosts of savans and soldiers, did 
not, could not so change the condition of the world, as those four 
bands that, collectively, would scarce have formed a regiment in 
his immense army. Principles, not men, must govern the world 
under the Providence of God. 

It was well that the distressed people of Ireland turned their 
thoughts to America for a resting place ; it was better that they 
embarked for the wilderness, as it manifested an enterprise equal 
to the emergency ; but it was better still that God's wise provi- 
dence sent them back to labor for Ireland, and shut them up to the 
work ; and last, it was best of all, that they laid the foundation of 
that church which may claim to be the mother of the American 
Presbyterian Church, the worthy child of a worthy mother. 

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The first meeting of a regular Presbytery in Ireland took place at 
Carrickfergus on Friday, June 10th, 1642. Previously to that 
time the ministers in Ireland, who promoted the Revival, acted on 
Presbyterial principles, though by law of England imder the juris- 
diction of Bishops of the Church of England. At the Reforma- 
tion almost the entire Irish nation were Roman Cathohcs or Pa- 
pists ; and the majority of the nation are to this day. Henry VIII. 
of England commenced establishing a Protestant national church, 
and Elizabeth followed up the design ; and James perfected the 
plan as far as he was able. Bishops were sent over, and the clergy 
were appointed to parishes and supported by the authority of 
the state ; yet the mass of the people remained Papists, and 
maintained their own bishops and priests, and received the ordi- 
nances at their hands. The Scotch emigrants were divided, in 
their settlements, into parishes ; or rather, the boundaries of the 
old parishes remained, and clergy were suppUed by the state to 
the inhabitants, of whatever country or religious principles they 
might chance to be. The parishes occupied the same territory 
embraced by the Papists in their ecclesiastical divisions ; and 
neither the Scotch emigrants nor the native Irish Papists were 
permitted by law to enjoy their own clergy, or their own religious 
ceremonies; and both were sufferers under the severities of 
Charles I. and Archbishop Laud. The ministers who went over 
to Ireland to preach to the Scotch, a short account of whom has 
been given, were presented to parishes and admitted regularly ; 
some were ordained by the Bishop, in conjunction with other clergy 
as a Presbytery, objecting more or less strenuously to his prelati- 
cal character. 

A convocation of the Irish clergy was summoned in 1615, be- 
fore any nuQiber of ministers from Scotland had visited the island. 
As the Irish Church had always been independent of that of Eng- 
land, it was thought necessary to declare its faith^ and settle its 
form of government. The only statutes in force in the kingdom 
respected solely the celebration of public worship, which was made 

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conformable to that of the English churches. The English ritual 
was followed ; but the Irish Church had not adopted a Confession 
of Faith. Dr. James Usher, Professor of Divinity in the College 
of Dublin, and afterwards Archbishop, was appointed to draw up 
a Confession ; this task he performed to the approbation of the 
Convocation and the Parliament, and also to the satisfaction of the 
King and Council. The Confession was digested into no less than 
nineteen sections, and one hundred and four propositions ; and was 
as decidedly Calviiiistic as that afterwards drawn up by the West- 
minster Divines. The Pope was pronounced Antichrist ; the doc- 
trine of Absolution condemned; the morality of the Sabbath 
strongly asserted, in opposition to the King's well known senti- 
ments. The reason for this was, — that the intolerance practised 
in England induced many of the Puritans to emigrate to Ireland ; 
and there, the King, glad to have them out of England, gave them 
preferments. Heylin says : — " They brought with them hither 
such a stock of Puritanism, such a contempt of bishops, such a 
neglect of the public Liturgy, and other offices of the Church, 
that there was nothing less to be found among them than the go- 
vernment and forms of worship established in the Church of Eng- 
land ! He was understood also as implying the validity of ordina- 
tions out of the English Church as truly as those performed by 
Diocesan Bishops. His words are : — " And those we ought to 
judge lawfully called and sent, which be chosen and called to this 
work, by men, who have pubUc authority given them, in the 
Church, to call and send ministers into the Lord's vineyard." 

Robert Blair, one of the most eminent of those who went to 
Ireland, from Scotland, refused to be ordained by the Diocesan 
Bishop alone, or by him in conjunction with Presbyters, in any other 
light than as a Presbyter. With that express understanding, as 
he asserts, he was ordained by the Bishop and other clergy. 

John Livingston, another laborer of great eminence, objected 
to ordination by the Bishop of the established church, and, as the 
Bishop of Dovni, in which his parish was, had resolved, in obe- 
dience to the court of England, to require submission to the rules 
of the Established Church, he applied to Knox, Bishop of Raphoe, 
taking with him letters of introduction from Lord Claneboy, and 
others. He says Knox received him kindly, and said he knew his 
errand, and that he was aware he had scruples against Episcopacy, 
as Welch and others had, and then proceeded to say, " that if I 
scrupled to call him my Lord, he cared not much for it ; all that 
he would desire of me was, that I should preach at Ramelton the 

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first Sabbath, because they got there but few sermons, and that 
he would send for Mr. William Cunningham, and two or three 
other neighboring ministers to be present, who, after sermon, 
should give me imposition of hands ; but, although they perform- 
ed the work, he behoved to be present ; and although he durst not 
answer it to the State, he gave me the book of ordination, and de- 
sired that anything I scnipled at, I should draw a line over it on 
the margin, and that Mr. Cunningham should not read it. But I 
found that it had been so marked by others before^ that I need not 
mark anything^ Thus it appears Presbyterian ordination was 
introduced before the revival, and was acted on during that great 
excitement out of which grew the Irish Presbyterian Church. 

But the rigor of James, towards the latter part of his life, and 
the severity of Charles I., and Archbishop Laud, in their en- 
deavors to enforce conformity to the EstabUshed Church, had become 
more and more oppressive, tiU, after the failure of the attempt at 
emigration in the Eaole Wing, the Presbyterian clergy left the 
country in 1637, and retired to Scotland. The congregations to 
which they had ministered were left without instruction, except 
what they received from their more eminent laymen, who conduct- 
ed public worship for the people that would come together ; and 
many were inclined to do this, notwithstanding all the efforts of 
Lord Stafford, the Deputy in Ireland, to make them conform to 
the Established Church. By the petition selit by these Presby- 
terians to the Long Parliament, we learn that after all efforts for 
their destruction, they continued a numerous people. The re- 
vival had subsided, but religion had not died away ; and although 
King Charles had forgotten the obligations of his father to them, 
they had not forgotten their obligation to the great head of the 
church, or lost their love for his truth. 

The introduction of the Scottish army into Ulster, to quell the 
rebellion that broke out October 13th, 1641, changed the face of 
affairs in these congregations, and was the means of forming a 
presbytery, and restoring pastors to these suffering flocks. The 
Papists had made insurrection and fi^ous rebelUon, with design of 
cutting off the Protestants, and restoring the ceremonies and wor- 
ship of the Church of Rome. Their plans were laid for concerted 
action, and the energy with which they were carried out may be 
judged from the fact that in a few months, at the lowest calculation 
40,000, and as some Catholic writers, and some Protestants also, 
assert, 150,000 persons were brought to an untimely end. These 
sufferers were Protestants ; but a small part only were Presbyte- 

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rians, for the nobles and clergy of that denomination had fled to 
Scotland some time before, to escape the persecutions and impo- 
sitions of the Established Church. This rebellion was at first 
encouraged by King Charles, as an event that would operate fa- 
vorably upon his interests ; and both he and the Papists agreed in 
sparing the Scotch Presbyterians, — ^probably because they had not 
declared for the parliament against the king. The flight of the 
Scotch in 1637, and onwards, was pre-eminently their safety; 
they escaped from the imreasonable Prelates first, and then from 
the massacre of the Papists. God knows how to deliver his 
people. The company of emigrants in the Eagle Wing must not 
reach America, neither must it be cut ofi* in this massacre; 
it had a great and glorious work to accompUsh, and that work 
was to be done in Ireland, and the bright day of its accomplish- 
ment should break after a most tempestuous night. 

After many horrible massacres perpetrated during the winter of 
1641-2, Major General Monro was sent over from Scotland in the 
spring, vrith a force of 2,500 men ; with these, in conjunction with 
the Scotch and other Protestants in Ulster, after many battles and 
sieges, he succeeded in crushing the rebellion. The Lagan forces 
(or those from the northern part of Donegal) had signalized them- 
selves before the arrival of the Scotch army, and continued their 
brave and enterprising efibrts after that event, stimulating them by an 
honorable rivalry, to a speedy accomplishment of their mission, the 
suppression of the rebellion. The Scotch forces were from seven dif- 
erent regiments, each of which had its chaplain. The Rev. Hugh 
Cunningham was attached to Glencaim's regiment; Rev, Thomas 
PccftZes, to Eglenton's ; iJev./oAnBatrd, toArgyle's; Rev, James 
Simpson, to Sinclair's ; Rev, John Scott, to Home's ; Rev, John Aird, 
to Lindsay's, or Monro's ; and the Rev, John Livingston, who was 
so much beloved in Ireland, was sent along with the army by the 
Council. These ministers were active and fervent in their preach- 
ing to the army ; and in the parishes near the encampment, where 
their labors were highly appreciated, " as cold waters to a thirsty 
soul," ** and the shadow of a great rock in a weary land." The 
country was entirely without a Protestant clergy ; the Scotch had 
been driven off" before the rebellion, and the Prelates and their 
clergy fled from the murderous hands of the Papists. After the 
rebellion was crushed, public attention was turned to procuring 
pastors and spiritual guides for the vacant parishes ; and the incli- 
nation of the people was speedily manifested in the efibrts to obtain 
ministers. Those who had been Presbyterians previously, re- 

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mained so still ; and many others were now inclined to unite with 
them, very few of the laity being attached to the Prelates or the 
Established Church. Those who had fled to Scotland during the 
rebellion returned, and all declared for Presbytery ; and many that 
had been inclined to Episcopacy, were disgusted with the transac- 
tions in England, and united with the Presbyterians in settling their 
church in a formal manner as a distinct church. The plan of 
Archbishop Usher would probably have been acted out in Ireland, 
but for the intolerant disposition and principles of Laud and his 
master, King Charles. Whether under any circumstances it could 
prosper, can never be satisfactorily determined till a more complete 
trial be made than the few years of imperfect action during the re- 
vival in Ireland. 

The chaplains first formed regular churches in four of the regi- 
ments, — Argyle's, Eglenton's, Glencaim's and Home's — choosing 
the most grave and pious men for elders, and setting them apart 
to their office in due form, according to the Scotch Confession* 
On the 10th of June, 1642, five ministers, Messrs. Cunningham,. 
Peebles, Baird, Scott and Aird, Messrs. Livingston and Simpson 
being necessarily absent, with an elder firom each of the four 
sessions, met and constituted a Presbytery in the army. Mr. 
Baird preached firom the latter part of the 51st Psalm — ^^ Do good 
in thy good pleasure unto Zion ; build thou the walls of Jerusa- 
lem." Mr. Peebles was chosen stated clerk, and held the office 
till his death, a period of about thirty years. The ministers pro- 
duced their acts of admission to their regiments, and the elders 
their commissions firom the Sessions ; and the Presbytery was 
constituted in due form. As the formation of the Presbytery was 
speedily known in the country, applications poured in from all 
sides to be received into their connexion, and to obtain the regu- 
lar ordinances of the gospel ; and the ministers proceeding to visit 
the congregations, in a short time there were sixteen regular 
sessions formed in important parishes. 

By the prudent and zealous efforts of these seven ministers the 
foundations of the Presbyterian church were relaid in Ulster pro- 
vince, in conformity with the model of the Church of Scotland. 
From this period the complete organization of the Presbyterian 
church in Ireland takes its date, and the history of her ministers, 
her congregations, and her ecclesiastical councils, can be traced 
in uninterrupted succession ; the principles then adopted, and the 
form of worship then introduced, continue to this day ; and the 
government and discipline then adopted continue in all essential 


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points unaltered, and all are to be found in the Presbj^rian 
church in the United States, to which they have descended as 
from parent to child. 

T'he people agreed to petition the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland, which was to meet in July, for supplies, 
and various papers were drawn up and signed by the inhabitants 
of different parishes, requesting that those ministers who had 
formerly labored among them might be sent back to them, and 
others along with them, to fill the nimfierous vacancies in that 
spiritually desolate province. The Assembly listened kindly to 
these petitions, and appointed a commission of six ministers to 
visit Ireland and instruct and regulate congregatic»is, and ordain 
to the ministry such as might be found properly quaUfied. The 
ministers were to go two and two on a tour of four months. Mr. 
Robert Blair and James Hamilton for the first four months, Ro- 
bert Ramsay and John McClellan for the next four, and Robert 
Baillie and John ^Livingston for the last four. These brethren 
were everywhere received with joy ; congregations were organ- 
ized on Presbyterian principles, members received into the church, 
and the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper administered. 
Their preachings were incessant, and the congregations large ; 
people renounced prelacy, and those who had taken the Black 
oath, as it was termed, by which they solemnly engaged not to 
resist the king, were called to public renunciation and repent- 
.ance. No person was admitted to the privileges of the church 
who did not possess a competent degree of knowledge, or who 
'did not fully approve of her constitution and discipline, or was 
vunable to state the grounds of that approbation. The congrega- 
tions took possession of the parish churches that were standing 
vacant, and Jikely to remain so, and many who had been episco- 
pally ordained, came and joined the Presbytery, but were not 
recognized as members until they had been regularly called and 
inducted to the charge of some congregation. Thus those min- 
isters who had first been led to go to Ireland because they could 
not exercise their ministry in Scotland, and after being success- 
ful in Ireland were driven back to Scotland, now came again to 
Ireland, having been driven back from America by a tempest, 
and set up the Presbyterian church which has flourished so 
gloriously, and been the parent church of so many in America, 
particularly in Pennsylvania, Virginia, North and South Carolina. 
During the year 1643, the Solemn League and Covenant was 
adopted by the Westminster Assembly and the British Parliament 

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on the one side, and the Scottish nation on the other. This 
League and Covenant was presented to the Presbyterians in 
Ulster, and during the year 1644 was adopted by great numbers 
in Down, Derry, Antrim, Donegal, and parts of Tyrone and 
Fermanagh. The English parliament on the 16th of October, 
1643, requested the Scotch conunissioners to take steps that the 
Covenant " be taken by all the officers, soldiers, and Protestants 
of their nation in Ireland." After some correspondence and va- 
rious plans, this important business was committed to those mi- 
nisters who had been appointed by the assembly to visit Ireland, 
the Rev. Messrs. James Hamilton, John Weir, WilUam Adair, 
and Hugh Henderson. The civil and ecclesiastical autliorities of 
Edinburgh made choice of the first of these, Mr. Hamilton, mi- 
nister of Dumfries, to be the bearer of the Covenant ; the others 
were associated for the work of presenting it to the churches. 
In sending word to the forces in Ireland of their appointment, 
these ministers say, "As our cause is one, and has common 
friends and enemies, so we must resolve,* with God's assistance, 
to stand or fall together.** They reached Carrickfergus the last 
of March, and were all present at the Presbytery held there on 
the 1st of April, 1644. " The Covenant v^s taken on the 4th of 
that month, with great solenmity, in the church at Carrickfergus, 
by Monro and his officers, and in ten days afterwards, by all his 
soldiers. Major Dalzel (afterwards so well known in the dis- 
tresses in Scotland) was the only person who refused.** It pro- 
duced the same effects in Ulster it had in other ports of the king- ' 
dom, ascertaining and uniting the friends of liberty, and inspiring 
them with fresh confidence in the arduous struggle in which they 
were engaged, and diffused through the country a strong attach- 
ment to the Presbjrterian cause ; and what is of higher moment, 
it revived the cause of true. reUgion, so that from this period is 
reckoned the secmid Reformation. 

Notwithstanding the difficulties and trials to which the Presby- 
terians in Ireland were exposed, on one side by the authorities of 
King Charles, and on the other by the parliament, which ultimate- 
ly brought the king to the block, the church continued to prosper. 
In the year 1647, there were about thirty ordained Presbyterian 
ministers in Ulster, besides some chaplains of regiments ; on ac- 
count of some severe laws which drove many to Scotland, there 
were, in the year 1653, but about twenty-four ; and again in the 
year 1657, by the relaxation of the laws, there were about eighty 
in the different counties of the province of Ulster. 

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In the year 1655, it was agreed there should be what is called 
Meetings, in Down, Antrim, and Route with Lagan, consisting 
of the contiguous brethren who met for consultation, putting over 
the more important matters that required action, to the regular 
meeting of the whole Presbytery. Two years after, these meet- 
ings were increased to five, Route being separated from Lagan, 
and Tyrone being added ; and in a little time there became^ve 
Presbyteries^ by dividing the original Presbytery ; which number 
continued till 1702, when four more were added, making the whole 
number nine. At this present time there are twenty-four in the 
Synod of Ulster. From the close connection between Sjrnod and 
Presbytery in Ireland, it probably happened that the first Presby- 
terian Sjrnod in the United States, made by the division of a large 
Presbytery, frequently performed acts which are now, by conunon 
consent, performed only by the Presbytery or at their order. At the 
time of the Restoration, in 1660, there were in the province of 
Ulster not less than seventy regularly settled Presbyterian minis- 
ters ; — about eighty congregations, comprising not less than one 
hundred thousand souls. If the statement of one of their ene- 
mies be true, the population connected with the Presbyterian min- 
isters must have much exceeded that number ; he says — " in the 
north (of Ireland) the Scotch keep up an interest distinct in garb, 
and all formalities, and are able to raise 40,000 fighting men at any 
time." This number of fighting men would require a greater popu- 
lation than 100,000. That they would raise an army and fight 
for their Uves, their enemies knew from fatal experience. 

From six ministers, in about forty years of constant resistance 
to oppression, under the two Charleses, and of their predecessor, 
James I., the congregations had increased to about eighty; and 
the preachers to nearly the same nimfiber, though repeatedly driven 
off and kept in banishment for years, on every return increasing 
in numbers and influence. This perseverance of a harassed 
people impresses the mind with the strong conviction, that they 
felt in their consciences, that their principles of civil and religious 
liberty were the truth of God, and imperishable. In 1689, the 
time the Toleration Act came in force, there were in the five 
Presbyteries about one hundred congregations, eighty ministers 
and deven licentiates. The vine of the Lord's plapting grew, 
though " the boar out of the wood did pluck at her," and they that 
passed by did trample her down. 

The Presbytery of Lagan, embracing die northern part of the 
county of Donegal, principally that between the Foyle and the Swilly , 

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and containing in the year 1660 thirteen members, all of whom 
were ejected by Charles II. 1661, is peculiarly full of interest to 
the American Church, as that body which licensed the Rev. 
Francis Makemie, and afterwards ordained him, for the purpose 
of sending him to America, the first Presbyterian Preacher 
that ever visited the western continent. This honor belongs un- 
disputedly to the Church in Ireland, and the Presbytery of Lagan, 
Those in New England who have been called Presbyterians were 
not formed into regular Presbyteries as in Scotland and Ireland ; but 
had lay elders and held Presbyterian sentiments. The first preach- 
ers and the first regular congregations were from Ireland, which 
poured forth emigrants in swarms all the early part of the eighteenth 
century. It may be gratifying to many to know the names of 
those thirteen ejected ministers of the Lagan, worthy of everlasting 
remembrance. King Charies began the work of ejectment in 
Ireland under Jeremy Taylor in 1661, giving the front rank in this 
ecclesiastical martyrdom to the Presbyterians of Ulster. The 
Puritans of England were called to the same trial in August, 1662, 
when about 2,000 ministers were deprived of their parishes ; and the 
same scene of trial and heroic suffering was enacted the following 
October in Scotland. The ministers of the Presbytery of Lagan 
were, Robert Wilson, Robert Craighead, Adam White, William 
MooTcraft, John Wool, William Sample, John Hart, John Adam- 
son, John Crookshanks, Thomas Drummond, Hugh Cunningham, 
Hugh Peebles, and William Jack. The first three survived the 
happy revolution of 1688, when William, Prince of Orange, as- 
cended the throne of England ; and enjoyed the toleration proclaimed 
in 1689. 

The Rev. Thomas Drunomond, of Ramelton in Donegal, in- 
troduced Mr. Makemie to the Presbytery as a member of his 
charge, and worthy of their notice. In the year 1681, — ^the same 
year that four of the members of the Presb)rtery were put in con- 
finement, for keeping a fast, after having been fined £20 each, to 
be kept in confinement till they should give bonds not to offend 
again, and after eight months' confinement were released, — ^he was 
licensed to preach the gospel. These four ministers were William 
Trail, James Alexander, Robert Campbell, and John Hart ; three 
of them were members introduced after the ejectment by Jer^ny 
Taylor in 1661. The Church in Ireland was like the Israelites in 
bondage, — ^the more it was oppressed, the more it grew. From the 
minutes of this Presbytery it appears that Capt. Archibald Johnson 
had, as early as August, 1678, applied for a minister for Barbadoes ; 

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and in 1680^ Col. Stevens of Maryland applied for a minister to 
settle in that colony; and Mr. Makemie was designated as the man. 
As the clerk of the Presbytery and three others were imprisoned 
in 1681, there is a deficiency in the minutes, and the meetings 
of Presbytery being for some time irregular, no record is pre- 
served of the time or place of his ordination, though in all proba- 
bihty it took place in 1681 or 1682. This fixes the time of bis 
removal to America, whether to Barbadoes first, or to Virginia and 
Maryland, for he labored in all these places, as is now satisfactorily 
ascertained. He led the way for Presbjrterian ministers to Ame- 
rica, and was prominent in forming the first Presbytery, that of 
Philadelphia, in 1706, a Presbytery which has since spread out into 
the General Assembly of the United States of America. 

No little anxiety has been felt and expressed about the original 
component parts of this first Presbytery, and what interpretation 
of the Confession of Faith they may have given. The dis- 
cussion has been animated, and from the circumstantial evidence 
collected, the inference general that they did put a strict con- 
struction on the Articles of our Faith. The facts just related about 
Francis Makemie and the Presbytery that ordained him, are suffi- 
cient to justify our belief that the man that took the Solemn League 
and Covenant, as the candidates of the Presbyteries in Ireland then 
did, put a strict construction on the Articles of the Confession 4 
and the following facts, that th^ year before the Presbytery was 
formed, he brought over, from a visit to his native land, two minis- 
ters from the province of Ulster, John Hampton and George 
M'Nish, who formed part of the first Presbytery, — ^men educated as 
he had been, in trouble, and made to choose Presbytery in the face 
of great opposition and suffering, — ^will set the matter at rest- 
Three other ministers soon followed^ It is not likely that such a 
man as Makemie, with two others of like spirit, would have 
a^eed to form a doubtful Presbytery, to please Mr. Andrews and 
the Church in Philadelphia provided they wished such a Presby- 
tery, of which there is no evidence ; as there were ministers 
enough to form a decided and strict one, without going to Phila- 
delphia, the church of which city was weaker than the church at 
Snow Hill in Maryland. 

The solemn League and Covenant first firamed by John Craig, 
and called Craig's Confession, or the first National Covenant of 
Scotland, and subscribed by the leaders of the people, December 
3d, 1557 ; and subscribed by King James and household, and the 
nation generally in 1581 : enlarged and signed again in 1588 : and 

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again in 1638 enlarged, and made to consist of three parts — the 
first, the old Covenant by Craig, — the second, condemnijig Popery, 
by Johnston of Warriston, — third, the appUcation of the whole to 
the present time, by Alexander Henderson ; and signed by the 
people at large in 1638 : and again remodelled by. Henderson and 
adopted in August, 1643 : and also by the Westminster Divines and 
the Parliament of England, September 25th of the same year; and 
in the spring of 1644 by the Churches of Ireland; and continuing 
to this day a binding instrument in Scotland, and making a part of 
their printed Confession and Discipline, and also acknowledged as 
binding to this day by a large number of the descendants of the 
Scotch and Irish emigrants to America, — cleaves no rational doubt 
what views of the Confession of Faith those that lived so near the 
times of the grand national subscription of 1643 and 1644 must 
have had. In matters of conscience they had been 
resist the king ; they bound themselves by this solemn oath to do 
it ; and this solemn League was inseparably connected with their 
doctrinal creed and form of church government, which were 
strictly Presbyterian. 

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The religious sentiments of the emigrants haying been given, as 
Calvinistic and Presbyterian, for the holding of which they had 
suffered, and were ready to suffer again, we will glance at their 
poUtical principles, which had no small influence in their emigra- 
tion and location, and after life, — ^forming one of the three grand 
motives to cross the voters, — ReUgion, Politics, and Property. 

I. In the truest sense of the word they were lo3ral. They, 
and their ancestors, were well convinced of the importance of a 
regular and firm government ; and were true to their promises and 
their allegiance. James I. chose die Scotch for die colonizing 
Ireland, for two reasons : first, firom their habits they were more 
likely to overcome the difficulties of a settlement ; and second, 
from their principles of allegiance, most likely to make Ireland 
what he wished it — ^pacific and prosperous. In the first he was 
not disappointed ; and his hopes of the second were crossed only 
as he and his successors failed to extend to the emigrants that 
protection he had promised, and was well able to give. They 
always maintained the conceded authority of the king, as supreme 
ruler according to the Solemn League and Covenant, by which 
they held themselves bound firom the time it was taken in 1644, 
till they left Ireland about a |;entury afterward ; and some of their 
posterity in America profess to feel its binding power in some 
respects to this day. They opposed those violent measures, in 
parliament and out, which led to, or hastened, the king's death. 
They desired a reform of abuses, and a fulfilment of the Solemn 
League, on the part of the king, and designed a fulfilment of their 
own promises, and had not been found deficient in any emer- 
gency. They expected the king to be honest while they were 

Their views of the parliamentary authority, after the king's 
death, are well expressed by one of their .ministers, on examination 
before the military authority of the ParUament, at Carrickfergus, 
in 1650. Being required to take the Oathy or Engagement of 
submission to Parliament, which was to be in place of the Solemn 

\ • 

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League of obedience to the king ; the parliament having, by en- 
actment, made it high tr^son to acknowledge a government by 
King, Lords, and Commons : — " We must be convinced," said 
this minister in the name of the rest, " that the power which now 
rules England is the lawful parUamentary authority of that king- 
dom." Col. Venable replied : " They call themselves so T The 
minister replied : " It seems to us a strange assertion that they 
are a parliament because they say so ; or are a power because 
they place power in themselves. Kings and other magistrates are 
called by the ordinance of man, because they are put in their 
office by men. Men are called to the magistracy by the suffrage 
of the people, whom they govern ; and for men to assume unto 
themselves power, is mere tyranny and unjust usurpation, ^^ 

They would rather be governed by a lawful king than an usurp- 
ing or doubtful parliament ; by one they chose, ^ven though he 
might be a tyrant in disposition, than by a company they had not 
elected, though they might do some things well. They fully be- 
lieved that the liberties of the subject might consist with the regal 
authority ; that the privileges they asked were no infringement of 
the necessary rights of the crovni, and that their enjoyment would 
render the government more stable, entrenching it in the hearts of 
the people, in whose aflfections all governments rest at last. 

n. They claimed, and persisted in claiming, the privilege of 
choosing their own ministers, or religious instructors, as an inhe- 
rent right that could not be given up, and any civil or religious 
liberty be preserved. Here was the ground of all the difficulty of 
the Presbyterians in Ireland ; they would choose their own minis- 
ters, — and with the choice of ministers was of course connected 
the forms of religious worship, and the articles of their religious 
creed ; a difficulty that was removed only by first emigrating to 
America, and then toiling through the Revolution. They desired 
in Ireland what the Scotch are now asking in Scotland, the liberty 
of choosing their ovni ministry. The Irish conceded what the 
Scotch concede now, that the king might prescribe the way the 
minister should be supported ; they were willing to be taxed in 
large or small parishes, but insisted on the liberty of choosing their 
own teachers, and deciding on the forms vrith which they would 
worship God. They yielded to the civil authority all honor and 
service and money, and demanded protection for their persons in 
the enjoyment of their property and religion. Their foUy, if folly 
it might be called, in their circumstances, was, to expect that 
freedom in religion, under a monarchy, which never had been 

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found ; and which never has existed under any government except 
in these United Stateit These people had advanced far in the know* 
ledge of human rights ; W6Be in the high road to republicanism, with- 
out, perhaps, being aware of the lengths they had already advanced; 
that, judging from their answer to the parliamentary committee 
— that men are called to the magistracy by the suffrage of the 
people — ^they were already republicans . Perhaps they did not fully 
understand liberty of conscience ; or if they did, as there is some 
reason to believe, they had not room or opportunity for its exer- 
qise ; henuned in to choose one form of religion as the paramount 
one, they of course chose their own for the religion of the whole. 
How tliey would have acted had the power of the State been at 
their conunand, it is in vain perhaps to conjecture. 

They also demanded that their ministers should be ordained by 
Presbjrteries, and not by prelatic bishops ; the apparent yielding 
of some things under the iniSuence of Archbishop Usher, soon being 
turned to uncompromising sternness, by the exercise of arbitrary 
power to compel them to conform. The principle of the house 
of Stuart was, " no Prelate^ no King ;" that of the Presbyterian 
Irish was, " the king without Prelates ; all sufferings at home rather 
than Prelates ; exile rather than Prelates." 

III. Strict discipline in morals, and full instruction of youth and 
children. These were connected with the Presbyterian body in 
Scotland ; were transplanted to Ireland, there cherished, and were 
the foundation principles on which their society was -built ; were 
taken to America by the emigrants, and have been characteristic 
of the Scotch-Irish settlements throughout the land. Children 
were early taught to read, and exercised in reading the Bible every 
day ; and became familiar with the word of God in the family, in 
the school, and in the house devoted to the worship of the 
Almighty God. Their moml principles were derived from the 
words of him -Who lives and abides for ever ; and the commands of 
God, and the awful retributions <rf eternity, gave force to these 
principles, which became a living power, and a controlling influ- 
ence. The time has but just passed, when the schoolmaster from 
Ireland taught the children of the Valley of Virginia, and the 
upper part of the Carolinas, as they taught in the mother country, 
— ^when the children and youth at school recited the Assembly's 
shorter Catechism once a week, and read parts of the Bible every 
day. The circle of their instruction was circumscribed ; but the 
children were^taught to speak the truth, and defend it,-^lo keep a 

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conscience and fear God, — ^the foundation of good citizens, and 
tndy great men. 

\\Tierever they settled in America, besidet the common schools, 
they turned their attention to high schools or academies, and to 
colleges, to educate men for all the departments of life, carrying in 
their emigration, the deep conviction, that without sound and 
extensive education, there could be no permanence in religious or 
civil institutions, or any pure and undebased enjojrments of domes- 
tic life. The religious creed of the emigrants made part of their 
politics, so far as to decide that no law of human government 
ought to be tolerated in opposition to the expressed will of God. 
It was on this ground, their fathers in Ireland resisted the arbitrary 
exactions of the Charleses and the Jameses, whom they consi- 
dered lawful rulers, whom they had recognized in the solemn 
League, and whom they were bound, and willing to obey in all 
things that did not involve violation of conscience by sinning 
against God. 

Whether they were aware how far their principles actually 
led them, before they came to America, is doubtful; they 
had acknowledged that the authority of human ^ government 
was from the same divine hand that made the world, fashion- 
ing the fabric of human society to require the exercise of 
good and wholesome laws for the promotion of the greatest 
good ; — and had also claimed the right of choosing those who 
should frame and execute these laws ; — contending that rulers, 
as well as the meanest subject, were bound by law. These prin- 
ciples, modified by experience, and digested into extended form, 
are the republican principles of the Scotch-Irish in America. On 
matters of national policy, and the smaller concerns of political 
organizations, they have diflFered in opinion and diflfer stiU, 
and will probably diflfer for ever, from the nature of the 
human mind in the independent exercise of thought* But on the 
great principles of freedom of conscience in matters of religion — 
on the supremacy of the laws — on the choice of rulers by the ex- 
pressed will of a free people — -and the undisturbed enjoyment of 
life, limb and property, in submission to constituted govemment-7- 
there never has been, and probably never wiB be, any division of 
sentiment or feeling. In the blood shed on the Alamance, and in the 
declaration of independence in Mecklenburg, a casual observer 
must see^'it was opposition to tyranny, and not the execution of 
the laws <rf a just government, that urged the people on. A people 
educated as they had been for generations, and placed in circum- 

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Stances calculated to provoke independence of action, could not 
have act^d diflferently, and retain their identity of character. 

The siege of Derry was undertaken and sustained with its in- 
numerable and unpieasured sufferings, in opposition to a king they 
had repudiated, and a hierarchy they abhorred ; and to defend the 
government from which they hopod for freedom and quietness, and 
the exercise of their religious principles and forms without t5rran- 
nical interference. It is not probable that these men, — and some of 
the men of Derry emigrated to America, and laid their bones south of 
the Potomac, — or their immediate descendants, who lived in the days 
of the American Revolution (and there were many such), would 
hold back their hearts and hands, and belie the great principles that 
had done so much for Protestant England, and ultimately so much 
for America. Tyrannical government of colonies of such people 
must produce a revolution ; and had Governor Martin studied the 
character and circumstances of the people he marched to subdue, 
with any feelings of justice and humanity, he would first have re- 
dressed their grievances, and then bound to his government a wil- 
ling, grateful people, and at least for a time stayed the progress of 
revolution in North Carolina, and by the wholesome example, de- 
layed, if not prevented it, throughout the United Provinces. 

The Presbyterians in Carolina have ever been a law-loving, law- 
abiding people ; differing sometimes about the extent of powers 
to be granted to magistrates, all unite in reverence for the laws 
enacted by the regular authorities under the adopted Constitution. 
They have always felt it was better to endure some evils than en- 
counter the horrors of a revolutionary war ; but they have always 
felt it better to endure all the protracted miseries of a revolution- 
ary struggle than fail to enjoy liberty of person, property, and con- 
science. Their ideas of reUgious liberty have given a coloring to 
their political notions on all subjects ; perhaps it is more just to 
say, have been the foundation of their political creed. The Bible 
has been their text-book on all subjects of importance ; and the 
principles of the Bible carried out will produce a course of action 
like the emigration of the Scotch-Irish to America, — ^and their re- 
sistance to tyranny, in the blood shed on the Alamance, and their 
Declaration of Independence at Charlotte. 

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The time of the settlement of the first Scotch families up^n the 
river Cape Fear, is not knovvrn v^rith exactness. There were some 
at the tune of the sep^^tion of the province into North and South 
Carolina, in the yeaM72^ In consequence of disabilities in their 
native land, the entei^risiiig Scotch followed the example of their 
relations in Ireland, and sought refuge and abundance in America ; 
and some time previous to the emigration from the province of Ulster 
to the Yadkin, numerous families occupied the extended plains 
along the Cape Fear, in that part of Bladen, county, now Cumber- 
land. From records in possession otlKe descendants of Alexan- 
der Clark, it appears that he came over and took his residence on 
the river in the year 17§fc ^^^ ^^^ ^ " ship load" of emigrants 
came over with him. TtSlo appears that he found " a good many" 
Scotch settled in Cumberland at the time of his arrival, amongst 
whom was He^totJklcNeill, called Bluff Hector, from his resi- 
dence near the bluffs above Cross Creeka, or Fayelteville, and 
John Smith, with his two children, Malcolm and^Janet, his wife, 
Margaret Gilchrist, having died on the passage up the river. 

Alexander Clark came from Jura, one of the Hebrides. His 
ancestors, particularly his grandfather, had suffered much in the 
wars that had desolated Scotland, and feB heaviest on the Presby- 
terians. Being coastrained to flee for his life, his grandfather took 
two of his sons and went to Ireland, and saw many trials and suf- 
ferings, which were brought to a close by the battle of the Boyne, 
that decided the fate of the British dominions. Returning to 
Scotland after the peace, he sought his family ; leaving the vessel, 
he ascended a hill that overlooked his residence, and gazed in sad- 
ness over the desolation that met his eye ; to use his own words, 
" but three smokes in all Jura could be seen." Not a member of 
his family could be found to tell the fate of the rest. They had 
all perished in the persecutions. He returned to Ireland to find 
his cup of bitterness, overflovnng as it was, made still more bitter 

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by the death of one of his two sons. After some time he return- 
ed, and spent the remainder of his days in Jura, having for his 
second wife one whose suflferings had been equal to his own. Her 
infant had been taken from her arms, its head severed from its body 
in her presence, and used by a ruffian, twisting his hand in its hair, 
to beat the mother on the breast till she was left for dead. Gilbert, 
the only surviving child of his first wife, returned wifc his father to 
Jura, and there lived and reared a family. One of his (Gilbert's) 
sons, Alexander, married Flora McLean, and reared four sons and 
four daughters, and when his eldest son Gilbert was sixteen years 
of age, removed to America, and settled in Cumberland county, 
on the Cape Fear. Some of the descendants of Keneih Clark, 
half brother of Gilbert, came to America. From this stock arose 
numerous families in the soutli and west. 

When Alexander Clark emigrated to America, he paid the pas- 
sage of many poor emigrants, and gave them employment till the 
price was repaid. Many companies of Scotchmen came to Ame- 
rica in a similar way, some person of property paying their 
passage, and giving them employ upon their lands until they were 
able to set up t^ themselves. 

Could the history of families be traced out with certainty, there 
is little doubt that vague traditions of sufferings and trials from 
the hands of the Catholics, would jprove to have been derived from 
as sacTfealities as are found in the family ^f the Clarks. Almost 
without exception these Scotchmen were Presbyterians, who held 
the Confession'of Faith, the Solemn League and Covenant, and the 
Form of Government and Discipline now iuMse in Scotland. And 
for their creed they were willing to suffer ; for, as little as liberty 
of conscience was understood at that time, the Scotch had found 
that yielding their religious creed to authority was giving up tliem- 
selves to hopeless tyranny ; and through many political mistakes 
they held the palladium, their Confession of Faith and Form of 
Government, with an unwavering spirit. 

More than sixty years had passed from the decisive battle of 
the Boyne, July 1st, 1690, in which the forces of James IL were 
entirely routed by: William IIL, Prince irf Orange, and the royal 
fugitive James took refuge in Paris, abandoning his throne to his 
rival, when his grandson Charles Edward began to make pre- 
parations for a descent upon England. From his very cradle he 
was inspired with an unquenchable desire to regain the throne of 
his ancestors ; of this he talked by day and dreamed by night, 
and in his delusive plan was encouraged by the thoughtless and 

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the imaginative, till he came to believe that the principal men in 
the kingdom were discontented with the reigning hcmse of Han- 
over, and desirous of seeing a male descendant of the house of 
Stuart on the throne. After much soHcitation he obtained some 
encouragement from the King of France, but no public acknow- 
ledgment either of the present 'enterprise or the validity of his 
claim. On the 16th of July, a day remarked by some as fatal to 
hifi family, in 1746, he landed on the coast of Lochaber, in Scot- 
land, with some money, a few stands of arms, and scarce an at- 
tendant, relying on the national feelings of the Scotch, whom he 
expected to rally around his standard. Of the rising in his favor, 
or rebellion against the constituted authorities of the kingdom, 
which followed, an account may be found in any extended history 
of England or of Europe, suflScient to satisfy a general reader. 
The Pretender to the crown of England, Prince Charles Edward, 
soon discovered that while the Scotch loved his family from their 
hearts, as their own royal house, the Lowlanders had become so 
attached to the reigning house, or satisfied with their govenunent, 
that no solicitations could engage them in a hasty rebellion against 
George II. ; and that among the Highlanders, the most powerfbl 
chiefs were either so connected with the government as to be alto- 
gether averse to amy attempt to shake its peace and security, or 
were so convinced of its stability as to consider any eflforts to 
regain the crown /to their own royal house but a feeble rebellion. 
Tae head of the Makenzies, and also the head of the McLeods, 
were members of parfiament ; the head of the McDonalds, tbe 
strongest and most numerous of the claiis" that had favored the 
father and grandfather of Prince Charles Edward, was entirely 
opposed to a rising, or insurrection, or rebellion, having no hope 
of final success. In their view neither time nor circumstance 
was propitious ; nor were they prepared to say that any govern- 
ment they might hope for, under the house of Stuart, would be 
more favorable to Scotland and the united kingdom than the do- 
minion of the reigning family. 

Lord Lovat declared for him, and with him were united some 
of the feebler noblemen ; some of the smaller clans in tbe High- 
lands unanimously raised the standard for the Pretender ; Bqxd 
many of the young men of the clans of the McDonalds, the 
McLeods, the Makenzies, and others whose leaders would not 
favor the enterprise, gave way to the impulse of national enthusi- 
asm and chivalric enterprise, and joined his ranks. For a time it 
is well known that he was successful, and on his march towards 

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the capital of the kingdom, spread terror through the country, and 
struck alarm in the cabinet of Ki»g George. Whether his success 
had reached its boundary and ntcessarily subsided into misfortune 
and calamity, or whether his delays and revehies wasted the 
folden hours of enterprise, and sujBfered the rising enthusiasm of the 
nation, warmed for a young prinee claiming his ancestors' throne, 
to fPDW cool, his tide of success soon changed, and he retired, 
whether wisely or unwisely, first to the borders of Scotland, and 
then to the northern part, and took possession of Inverness. 
The disposition to declare for their royal house was spreading in 
Scotland, and could he have maintained his post in England, or 
have delayed a battle for a time, the mass of the nation would 
have taken arms in his cause. On the 16th of April, 1746, he 
fought, a few miles north of Invemess, against the Duke of Gunk- 
berland, the disastrous battle of Gulloden ; and with his defeat 
his hopes of empire vanished. Dismissing his followers, whose 
hopes and courage were better than his own, he wandered a fu- 
gitive among the mountains and crags, and, never again rallying 
his forces, sought his safety in secresy and flight. 

His followers were taken captive in great numbers ; three no- 
blemen, after summary trial, perished on the scafibld ; one of them, 
Lord Lovat, in his eightieth year, exclaiming with his latest breath, 
'* Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori." The English army rav- 
aged with fire and sword all that part of Scotland that had favored 
the prince. The men were hunted down like wild beasts, and 
shot on the smallest resistance ; the huts were burned over the 
heads of the womeft and children, and the cattle and provisions 
were carried away or destroyed. The very appearance of rebellion, 
and in many places even of population itself, was extinguished in 
the Highlands before the Duke of Gumberland returned to London. 
Yet in all this misery of the people, and the keen scrutiny of the 
soldiers, the prince finally escaped. In his wanderings he experi- 
enced all the variety of dangers and hair-breadth escapes that can 
be imagined from the efibrts of a chivalrous young man whose 
greatest errors and misfortunes had sprung from the success of his 
gallantry among the ladies of his court and country, — and a people 
rqiigh and untutored, but loyal to a proverb, and though poor, too 
s^unch to be bribed by the ofier of £30,000 to deliver up the 
fugitive whose hiding-places were known to many and could easily 
be guessed at by multitudes. During the five montiis of his wan- 
derings, ncf less than fifty individuals were in possession of his 
person, many of whom hi^d been opposed to the rising in his favor. 

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from the conyiction of its uselessness, ftnd had suffered thetoselyes 
to be drawn into tht rebeUion fay the enthusiasm of (heir nation 
for their own royal house. 

Many pleasing instances of heroic devotion to the princ^in his 
misfortunes are related to tfie everlasting honor of the Mighlanda^ 
Immediately after the battle of CuUoden, he took refuge in Ross- 
shire ; and to save him from the hot pursuit of the soldier% his 
adherents and friends not only fought, but suffered themselves to 
be slavi that he might escape. One gentleman, always known as 
opposed to the rebeUion, being apprehended for aiding him in his 
aecessity, pleaded before his judges — '^ I only gave fa&B what nature 
seemed to require, a night's lodging and an huojble repast, And 
who among my judges, though poor as I am, would have sought 
to acqxiire riches by violating the rights of hospitahty in order to 
earn Uie price of blood ?" This generous plea gained him his dis- 
mission with applause. Another by the name of Kennedy, who 
often exposed his life for his prince, and though poor, despised the 
large reward offered for betraying the royal fugitive, was some 
time after seized at Inverness and executed on the charge of steal- 
ing a cow. At the place of his execution he pulled off his bonno^ 
and looking round upon the assembly, exclaimed, ** I give most 
hearty thanks to Almighty God that I never proved false to an en- 
gagement of any kind; that I never injured a poor man ; and never 
refused to share whatever I had with the stranger and those in 

On the return of the army under the Duke of Cumberland, a 
large number of prisoners were taken along, and after a hasty trial 
by a mihtary court, publicly executed. Seventeen suffered death 
at Kemiington Conunon, near London ; thirty-two were put to 
death in Cumberland ; and twenty-two in Yorkshire. This was 
probably done by way of vengtance and alarm. But kinder 
thoughts prevailed with his Majesty George II. ; and a large num- 
ber were pardoned, on condition of their imigrating to the planta- 
tions, after having taken the solemn oath of allegiance. This is 
the origin of the large settlements of Highlanders on Cape Fear 
River. For a large number who had taken arms for the Pretender, 
preferred exile to death, or subjugation in their native land ; and 
during the years' 1746 and 1747, with their families and the fiuni- 
Ues of many of their friends, removed to North Carolina and settled 
along the Cape Fear River, occupying a large space of country of 
which Crosscreek, afterwards Campbelton, now Fayettpville, was 
the centre. Probably the report from those who had settled along 

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this riter, of the mild winters, the open forests, the abundant ^ane- 
brakes and ^Id grass, turned the attention of these emigrants to 
this part of America, where lands were abundant and cheap. Per- 
haps, too, the royal authority was exerted in fixing a location for 
..the pardoned exiles, that Carolina might have a hardy race of 
industrious people to occupy her waste lands, increase her popula- 
tion and her revenue to the royal coffers. This wilderness become 
a refuge to the harassed Highlanders ; and shipload after ship- 
load landed at Wihnington in 1746^ and 1747. The emigration 
once fairly begun by royal authority and clemency, was carried on 
by those who wished to improve their condition, and become 
owners of th^ soil upon which they lived and labored ; and in the 
course of a few years large companies of industrious Highlanders 
joined their countrymen in Bladen county. North Carolina. Their 
descendants are found in the counties of Cumberland, Bladen, 
Sampson, Moore, Robeson, Richmond and Anson, all of which 
were included in Bladen at the time of the first emigration ; and 
are a moral, religious people, noted for their industry and eccniomy, 
perseverance and prosperity ; forming a most interesting and im- 
portant part of the State. Their present descendants are to be 
found everywhere in the South and West. 

The religious principles of these emigrants have been better 
known and more generally understood, and better expressed, by 
vniters of American history, whether sectional or general, than 
those of the people who took possession of the upper country, and 
acted so nobly in the Revolution ; and better, perhaps, than those 
of any other section of the State in its earUer years. The religion 
of the Scotch Church is known to the world ; it is the reUgion of 
the nation. The reUgion of Ireland is part Protestant and part 
Papist ; the predominant being of the Church of Rome, and the 
Protestant being divided between the Presbyterian and the Church 
of England. To say a company of emigrants are firom Ireland 
does not decide either the political or religious creed ; to say they 
are from Scotland, in general, decides both. In the former case 
we inquire for their birth-place and their creed; in the latter, 
we take it for granted we know what their creed is, unless we are 
warned to the contrary. 

From the time of the introduction of the Christian religion into 
Scotland the bias of the national mind has been to the creed' aad. 
forms of Presbytery. The Culdees were to all mtonts and pur- 
poses Presbyleriaas ; they held strenuously to the pai-ity of the 
clergy ; had but one ordination ; and governed the Church by a 

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Council of Presbyters. Popery for a time did obtain tbe ascend- 
ency in Scotland, all the time straggling against th^ spirit of the 
nation that demanded independence in religion. But &om the time 
of John Knox, there has been no doubt respecting the religious 
forms or the creed desired by the great body of the people. The 
National Covenant adopted and signed publicly in 1638, and re- 
peated afterwards, and the Confession of Faith, which has been 
used now more than two hundred years by the Presbyterians in 
Scotland, England, and Ireland, and about a century and a half in 
America, leave no doubt what their views of church government, 
church order, and beUef, were. The feet that many of them had 
borne aims for the Pretender, a Papist sent over by the instigation 
of the Pope and his adherents, for the purpose of introcfaicing 
Popery once more into England, is easily and very truly accounted 
for mk other feelings and principles than any sympathy in reli- 
gious belief, of which it is known there was none. 

No minister of religion accompanied the first emigrants in 1746 
and 1747 ; nor is it known that any came with any succeeding 
company till^^the year 1770, when the Rev. John McLeod came 
direct firom Scotland and ministered to them for some time, though 
he was not the first preacher. This fact, that no minister of reli- 
gion came with these people, many of whom were pious, and all 
of whom were accustomed to attend on public worship, cannot 
easily be accounted for ; and it had an unhappy efiect upon the emi- 
grants and upon their children. Without public ministrations of 
the ordinances of the gospel a sense of reUgion will soon begin to 
pass away from the public mind ; and the fire will be kept burning 
only on here tnd there a private altar. The wonder is that in the 
circumstances of these colonists the sense of reUgion was so well 
maintained under the ministrations and labors of one solitary 
preacher, James Campbell, who pursued his laborious course alone 
among the outspreading neighborhoods in what is now Cumberland 
and Robeson, firom 1767 to 1770. 

This worthy evangeUst, the Rev. James Campbell, was bom in 
Campbelton, on the peninsula of Kintyre, in Argyleshire, Scotland. 
Of his early history little is known ; and too little has been pre- 
served of his pioneer labors in later life. About the year 1730 he 
emigrated to America, a licensed preacher in the Presbyterian 
. Chorch, and landed at Philadelphia. He soon became connected 
with a congregation of Scotch emigrants somewhere in Pennsyl- 
vania, and labored in the ministry with them £ar a time. His mind 
became clouded, and his heart full of fears, on the subject of his 

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call to the ministry, and even of his own personal piety ; and he 
ceased to perform the duties of a minister, believing that it was 
wrong for him to preach. In this state of mind he heard the fa- 
mous Whitefield preach, as he was traversing the country, and 
sought an interview with him. This eminent servant of God heard 
him state his case, removed most of his difficulties, and encouraged 
him to resume his ministry. He labored for a time in Lancaster 
county, on the Coneweheog, where the Rev. Hugh McAden visited 
him, as is recorded in his journal. His attention being turned to 
his countrymen on the Cape Fear, Mr. Campbell emigrated to 
North Carolina in the year 1757, and took his residence on the left 
bank of the Cape Fear, a few miles above Fayetteville, nearly 
opposite to the Bluflf church. 

For a long time he held his Presbyterial connection vrith a 
Presbytery in South Carolina, which was never united with the 
Synod of Philadelphia. About the year 1773 his connection with 
Orange Presbytery was formed, and in that connection he con- 
tinued till his death in the year 1781. Mr. Campbell left behind 
him no papers or memoranda from which anything can be gleaned 
respecting his religious exercises, or ministerial labors ; but he 
has left traditions which sprung from the experience of the people 
of his charge, that he was a zealous laborious man, who never 
wearied in his work, from the time he came to Carolina, but spent 
his days in affectionate and unremitting efforts to bring men home 
to God through Christ. His labors had no boimds but his strength. 
It is probable that, for a time, he supplied the Scotch population 
at the rate of a Sabbath once in three or four to a neighborhood, 
the people going in many instances a long distance to attend the 
ministrations of the sanctuary, and glad to hear, even at distant 
intervals, the gospel of Christ. 

It would be greatly gratifying to the church and the public 
generally could some pages of history, formed from the accredited 
doings of this laborious minister, be presented to the world. But 
for want of documents less place is given than his memory de- 
serves. God has been pleased to leave much of his doings covered 
up from posterity, to be revealed when the veil is taken off from 
all things. 

His preaching places appear to have been three, for regidar 
congregations, on the Sabbath, besides occasional and irregular 
preaching, as the necessities of the country required. For ten or 
twelve years he preached on the southwest side of the river below 
the Bli:^, in a meeting-house near Roger McNeill's, and called 

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** Roger's meeting-house." Here Hector McNeill . (commonly 
(tailed Bluff Hector) and Alexander McAlister, acted as Elders. 
AAer the death of Mr. Campbell, and about the year 1787, the 
"Bluff Church'' was built, and Duncan McNeill (of the Bluff, 
Hector being dead) and Alexander McAlister, and perhaps others, 
officiated as Elders. 

Soon after his removal to Carolina, Mr. Campbell commenced . 
preaching at Alexander Clark's, and continued his appointments 
for a number of years. About the year 1746, John Dobbin, who 
had married the widow of David Alexander in Pennsylvania, and 
had resided in Virginia, near Winchester, about a year, removed 
to Carolina ; and, while the Alexander families that came with him 
took their abode on the Hico or the Yadkin, he fixed his residence 
on the Cape Fear, somewhat against the inclinations of his wife 
and step-daughter. The situations on the river being esteemed 
less healthy than those more remote, Mr. Dobbin and others took 
their abode on Barbacue ; and about the year 1758 Mr. Campbell 
began to preach at his house, and continued so to do till the 
"Barbacue Church" was built, about the year 1765 or 1766. 
The first Elders of this church were — Gilbert Clark, eldest son 
of Alexander Clark, and step-son of John Dobbin (having married 
Ann Alexander), one of the first magistrates of Cumberland 
county, under the Colonial Government, — Duncan Buie, who early 
in the Revolutionary war removed to the Cape Fear River, nearly 
opposite the Bluff Church, — Archibald Buie of Green Swamp, — 
and Daniel Cameron of the Hill. These men were pious, and 
devoted to the cause of religion and their duties as Elders ; and 
for their strict attention to their duties got the name of " the little 
ministers of Barbacue.^^ The congregation, Uke the others under 
the care of Mr. Campbell, were trained in the old Scotch fashion 
of reading the Bible, attending church when practicable, and repeat- 
ing the Catechism ; and were accustomed to follow the minister 
in his proof texts. It was of this congregation the Rev. John 
McLeod said, '' he would rather preach to the most polished and 
fsEishionable congregation in Edinburgh than to the little critical 
carls of Barbacue." Not that they were so particularly captious 
about his manner and delivery, for he was esteemed an eloquent 
man, but they were so well-informed on the doctrines and usages 
of the church, that it required great particularity in his sermons 
to avoid their criticism. The kind of sermons demanded by that 
people might now seem novel or antiquated, but would be found 
full of instruction ; and even their length would be no objection in 

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congregations that can hear the gospel but once in a month or six 

Barbacue church was tlie place of worship of Flora McDonald, 
while she hved at Cameron's Hill, and though the congregation is 
less extended and flourishing than in former years, it is still in 
existence. May it revive and flourish ! 

Mr. Campbell also began to preach soon* after his coming to 
Carolina, at McKay's, now known as Long Street, one of the 
places visited by Mr. McAden in his first journey through Caro- 
lina. A church was built about the year 1765 or '66, the time at 
which Barbacue was built. The first elders were Malcom Smith, 
Archibald McKay, and Archibald Ray. This congregation is still 
in existence, and though much curtailed in extent and numbers, 

These three congregations were the principal places of Mr. 
Campbell's preaching, and for a time accommodated the greater 
part of the Scotch settled in Cumberland. As the emigration 
continued new neighborhoods were formed, and the limits of these 
congregations contracted : and one after another the numerous 
cliurches in Cumberland, Robeson, Moore and Richmond, and 
Bladen, were gathered, some of which now surpass in numbers 
these ancient mothers. 

At the time Mr. Campbell labored in Cumberland, the larger 
number of the people used the Gaehc language ; some could use 
both that and the English ; and there were some Lowland Scotch, 
and a few Scotch-Irish families, and some Dutch that could not 
use the Gaelic : divine service was therefore performed in both 
languages. Mr. Campbell, to accommodate his hearers, preached 
two sermons each Sabbath, one in English and one in Gaelic ; 
this he did in all three of his churches. In a few congregations, 
in the Presbytery of Fayetteville, this practice of preaching in the 
two languages is still continued. The influence of this language 
has been great upon the Scotch settlements in CaroUna. There 
have been some disadvantages attending it, and the language is 
fast passing away. But for a long time it was a bond of union, 
and a preservation of those feelings and principles peculiar to the 
Scotch emigrants, many of which ought to be preserved for ever. 
The change has been so gradual in putting ofl* the Graelic, and 
adopting the English, that the people of Cumberland have sufifered 
as little, firom a change of their language, as any people that have 
ever undergone that unwelcome process. They have retained the 

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fiiith and habits of their ancestors, things most commonly thrown 
away or changed by a change of the common dialect. 

Mr. CampbeU, for a few years, had an assistant in the ministry. 
The Rev. John McLeod came from Scotland some time in the 
year 1770, accompanied by a large number of famiUes from the 
Highlands, who took their residence upon the upper and lower 
Little Rivers, in Cumberland county. Barbacue and liong Street 
were part of the places in which he preached during the three 
years he remained in Carolina. In the year 1773, he left Ame»» 
rica with the view of returning to his native land ; being nevet 
heard of afterwards, it is supposed that he found a watery grave. 
He was a man of eminent piety, great worth, and popular elo- 

With this exception it is not known that he had any mmisterial 
brother residing in Cumberland, or the adjoining counties, that 
could assist him in preaching to the Gaels. McAden, who 
preached in Duplin, could give him no assistance where the lan- 
guage of the Hignlanders was the vernacular tongue. 

How the congregations of the Scotch maintained so much of a 
spirit of piety and true religion, can be accounted for on no other 
principles, than the pious, devoted labors of Mr. CampbeU and hia 
elders, accompanied by the blessing of the Holy Spirit. The 
children were taught the catechism, and called to frequent exami- 
nations by the church officers ; and the Bible was much read ; 
and himly religion very generally maintained. These forms were 
kept up even after the spirit of godliness had much decayed, in 
the old age of Mr. Campbell, and by the confusion and strifes and 
bloodshed of the Revolution, which were felt in all their terrors 
on the Cape Fear. 

Since the Revolution the congregations of the Scotch have been 
much better supplied with ministers than previously ; but it is 
doubtful whether family government and religion are as careftilly 
attended to now as in former days. One reason of the smaU 
supply of ministers, before the Revolution, may have been in the 
feict, Uiat the emigrants, while in Scotland, had been accustomed 
to the division of the country into parishes by the civil authority^ 
and the collection of the ministers' support by law, in some pa- 
rishes having a quaUfied voice in the choice of their pastor, and 
in others possessing no right of choice worth naming. In Carolina, 
all interference of law was to divide the county into parishes for 
the establishment of the English National Church, to which these 
emigrants were greatly averse. After the revolutionary, war, 

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nacMsitj lad the Scotch to voluntary efforts for the suppoit of their 
ministers, and these efforts were attended with success ; and their 
descendants enjoy gospel privileges in as high a degree as any 
section of the southern and western States. The Scotch-Irish 
had been more accustomed to these efforts in k^land, being left to 
provide for their own ministers by volimtary gifts, after they had 
paid what the law required for tiie nationsd deargy. They were 
more active in Carolina, before the Revolution, than the Scotch ; 
after that event, the efforts of both are worthy of hi^ comm^i;-' 

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The Scotch, never, id the land of their fathers, or in the United 
States of Amo'ica, have been inclined to radicalism, or the prostra- 
tion of all law. In their warmest aspirations for the liberty of 
choosing their own rulers, or framing, or consenting to the laws, by 
which they shoald be goTemed, they always acknowledged the ne- 
cessity of law and order; in fact, they never asked for anything 
else. The general run of Scottish history shows the nation to have 
been in favor of a government of sufficient strei^th to control its 
subjects in the exercise of their passions, and defend them from 
aggression and violence. 

They have ever been strenuous that their rulers should govern 
according to some established law, well known and understood, to 
which reference should be had in cases of dispute among themselves, 
or with their rulers ; and to the decision of this law, fairly inter- 
preted, there should be no opposition while the law was unrepealed. 

They contended that there is of necessity an agreement betwien 
the rulers and the people, the one, to govern by these fixed laws, 
and the other, to obey the directiona given by tiie constituted au- 

They ever contended that there is a conscience towards (rod, 
paramount to all human control ; and for the government of their 
conscience in all matters of morality and religion, the Bible is the 
storehouse of information, — ^acknowledging no Lord of the consci- 
ence, but the Son of God, the head of the Church, Jesus Christ ; 
and the Bible as his divine communication for the welfare and 
guide of mankind. 

They have held that tyranny and usurpation may be set aside by 
force ; that, in extreme cases, revolution by force is the natural 
right of man; not a revolution to throw down authority, and give 
license to passion, but a revolution to first principles, and to the 
unalienable rights of man. 

On these principles, they formed their various Covenants. The 
first made m 1557, Dec 3d, and the second on 31st of May, 1659 ; 
inbodi of which the leading men, and many others, bind themselves 

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to maintain their religion against all opposition from any and eyery 
quarter. TTie first National Covenant of Scotland was drawn op 
by John Craig, and sometimes has been called Craig's Confession ; 
was publicly owned and signed by the king himself, his household^ 
and the greater part of the nobility and gentry, throughout the 
kingdom, in 1581 ; the signing of it being greatly prcnnoted 
through the country by the ministers of religion. The same core* 
nant, with many additions, was publicly signed, with great solem- 
nity, by the people in Edinburgh, Feb. 28th, 1638. By this, they 
all bound themselves to preserve, at all hazards, their religions 
rights and liberties against opposers. And finally, the Solemn 
League and Covenant, drawn up by Alexander Henderson, and 
read by him in the General Assembly of the Churck of Scotland^ 
on the 17th of August, 1643, and was received and i^roved, with 
emotions of the deepest solemnity and awe, with whispered thanks* 
givings and prayers. It was then carried to the Convention of 
States, and by them unanimofusly ratified; subsequently, it was 
sent to London, where, on the 25tti Sept of the same year, it was 
accepted and subscribed by the English Parliament and the Assem- 
bly of Westminster Divines ; and afterwards carried over to Ireland, 
and taken generally, by the congregations of Presbyterians, ia 
Ulster province. The services attending the signing of this import- 
ant instrument were solemn and protracted, not only in Scotland, 
but in England and in Ireland. 

This Solemn League and Covenant, so generally taken, bound 
the United Kingdoms to endeavor the preservation of the Reformed 
Religion in the Church of Scotland, in doctrine, discipline, and 
government, — and the Reformation of Religion in England and 
Ireland according to the Word of (}od, and the example of the best 
reformed Churches, — ^the extirpation of Popery and Prelacy, — ^the 
defence of the King's person, authority, and honor, — and the pre- 
servation and defence of the true Religion and Liberties of the 
kingdom, in peace and quietness. Hetherington, a writer of note, 
in his History of the Church of Scotland, thus writes : ^^ Perhaps 
no great international transaction has ever been so much misrepre- 
sented and maligned, as the Solemn League and Covenant Even 
its defenders have often exposed it, and its authors, to severe cen- 
sures, by their unwise mode of defence. There can be no doubt in 
the mind of any intelligent and thoughdul man, that on it mainly 
rests, under Providence, the noble structure of the British OHistitu- 
tion. But for it, so far as man may ^ judge, these kingdoms would 
have been placed beneath the deadening bondage of absolute despot- 

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ism ; and in the fate of Britain, the liberty and civilisation of the 
world wotdd have sustained a fatal paralyzing shock. This con- 
sideration alone might be sufficient to induce the statesman to 
pause, before he ventures to condemn the Solemn League and Cove- 
nant But to the Christian, we may suggest still loftier thoughts. 
Hie great principles of that sacred bond are those of the Kble 
itself. It may be that Britain was not then, and is not yet, in a fit 
state to receive them, and to make them her principles and rules of 
national government and law ; but they are not, on that account, 
untrue, nor even impracticable : and the glorious predictions of the 
kiq>ired Scriptives foretell a time when they will be more than 
realized, and when all the kingdoms of this earth shaU become the 
kingdoms c^ Jehovah, and of his anointed, and all shall be united in 
one solemn league and covenant under the King of Kings and Lord 
of Lords. And who may presume to say that the seemingly pre- 
mature and ineffectual attempt to realize it by the heavenly-minded 
patriarchs of Scotland's second Reformation, was not the first faint 
struggling day-beam piercing the world's thick darkness, and reveal- 
ing to the eye of faith an earnest of the rising of the Sun of Right- 
eousness ? A sacred principle was then infused into the heart of na- 
tions which cannot perish ; alight then shone into the world's dark- 
ness which cannot be extinguished; and generations not remote may 
see that principle quickening and evolving in all its irresistible 
might, and that light bursting forth in its all-brightening glory." 

** It has often been said the Covenanters were circumvented by 
the English Parliament, and were drawn into a league vnth men 
who meant only to employ them for their own purposes, and then 
either cast them off, or subdue them beneath a sterner sway than 
that of Charles. Were it even so, it might prove the treachery of 
the English, but would expose the Covenanters to no heavier accu- 
sations than that of unsuspecting simplicity of mind. They ought 
.to have first ascertained, men say, what form of church government 
England intended to adopt, before they had consented to the 
League. And yet the same accusers fiercely condemn the Scottbh 
Covenanters for attempting to force their ovm Presbyterian forms 
upon the people of England. The former accusation manifestly 
destroys the latter. That the Covenanters did not attempt to force 
Presbyterianism upon England, is proved by the fact, that they 
entered into the league without any such specific stipulation, be- 
cause it was contrary to their principles either to submit to force 
in matters of religion, or to attempt using force against other free 
Qtflidan men. It argues, therefore, ignorance both of their prin- 

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ciples and of their conduct, to bring against them an accusation so 
groundless and so base. They consented to lend ther aid to Eng- 
land in her day of peril, in which peril they were themselves in- 
voWed ; but they left to England's assembled divines the grave and 
responsible task of refonning their own church ; lending, merel/, as 
they were requested, the assistance of some of their own most learned^ 
pious, and experienced ministers, to promote the great and holy 
enterprise. For that they have been and will be blamed by witr 
lings. Sciolists and Infidel philosophers 3 but what England's best 
and greatest men sought wiQi earnest desire, and received with re- 
spect and gratitude, Scotland need never be ashamed that her vene- 
rable covenanted fathers did not decline to grant" 

" And let it be carefully observed, that the difference bdween the 
conduct of the English Parliament in the great civil war, and of 
the Coyenanters in their time of struggle, consisted in and was 
caused by this — ^that in England it was essentially a contest in de- 
fence, or for the assertion of civil liberty, — in Scotland for religious 
purity and freedom. England's fierce wars for civil liberty laid her 
and her unfortunate assistant prostrate beneath the feet of an iron- 
hearted usurper and despot Scotland's calm and bloodless defence 
of religious purity and freedom secured to her those all-inestimable 
blessings, broke the chains of her powerful ndghbor, revealed to 
mankind a principle of universal truth and might, and poured into 
her own crushed heart a stream of life, sacred, immortal, and 

The famous book Lex ReXj by Rev. Samuel Rutherford, was foil 
of principles that lead to republican action, as the Scotch generally 
have understood republicanism, — to be governed by rulers chosen, 
and by laws framed according to the will of the people, — and reli- 
gious liberty untouched. 

These great principles the Scotch brought with them to America ; 
they are still held by their descendants, who differ* from their parent 
stock in insisting on and enjoying the form of government, which, 
while it protects the citizens, is elective, and is executed by the 
same persons but a short time in continuance. On the other side 
of the water, the Scotch enjoy but an implied choice in their here- 
ditary monarch, and but in part that freedom of conscience, and 
that liberty from legislative interference in matters of religion, they 
aimed at in their National Covenant 

James L had signed the first National ^Covenant, and Charles 11., 
on his being crowned at Scone, by the Scotch, January 1st, 1651, 
heard the National Covenant and the solemn League and Covenant 

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read, and solemnly swore to keep them both ; and when the oath 
to defend the Church of Scotland wws administered to him, kneeling 
and holding up his right hand, he uttered the following awful tow : 
^ By the Eternal and Almighty Gtod, who liveth and reigneth for 
ever, I shall observe and keep all that is contained in this oath/' 

Now with men who had felt that it was right to bind a heredi- 
tary monarch by a solemn covenant, to which they bound them- 
selves, and who, in emigrating to North Carolina, had come, some 
of them of their own free will, with the expectation of enjoying 
more liberty and acquiring more property, and some on compulsion, 
to save their lives after the rebellion of 1748, and loaded with a 
solemn oath of allegiance as part of the conditions of pardon ; and 
in Carolina kept a part of ^em in ignorance of the real state of 
the country, and imposed upon by the representations of the Gov- 
ernor, ia ^om they trusted, — it is not at all strange there should 
be diiSerence of opinion and action as the revolutionary struggle 
came on. Some were ready to carry out their principles at once, — 
and were republicans, doing away at once all hereditary claims to 
the tiirone or chair of state. Others had not felt the evils com- 
plained of in Carolina to any great degree, and were not hasty to 
enter into a contest. Others felt themselves bound to obey the 
long, to whose government and person they had taken the solemn 
oath of allegiance, as a condition of- their spared lives. And some 
were so convinced that the king's forces could not be successfully 
resisted, — and from what they knew or heard from their nation's ex- 
perience, they had some cause to fear, — ^that it was better to beer 
the evils they endured, than to suffer greater after a crushed rebel- 
lion. One man, William Bourk, was heard to say in the winter of 
1776, that <* we should all be subdued by the month of May, by the 
king's troops ; that General Gage ought to have let the GKiards out 
to Bunker Hill, and it would have settled the dispute at that time ;" 
and for this he was brought before the provincial council, March 
2d, 1776, and acknowledged his words, and added, — ^^ he wished 
the time would happen this instant, but was sure the Americans 
would be subdued by the month of August ;" whereupon he was 
sent to Halifax and committed to close gaol till further orders. 

Those that had come to the province of their own accord, pre- 
vious to the great emigration, by authority, in 1746 and 1747; 
and many of those who emigrated afterwards, followed out their 
inclinations and their principles in taking part in the revolution ; 
— and many, perhaps most of those who came in that emigration, 
took part for Uie kbg, — ^feeling themselves bound by their oath of 

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allegiance, and their presait position, to defend the rights and do* 
minions of the crown. For a time, at least, the majority of the 
inhabitants of what was Cmnberland were in favor of the crown, 
and even disposed to assist Governor Martin, who kept them in- 
formed of the preparations made by the crown for the subjugation 
of the colonies ; and appealed to their sense of honor and religion 
and loyalty to rally around his standard, which, after his flight firom 
Newbem on the night of April 24th, 1775, was raised at Fort 
Johnson, on the Cape Fear ; and from that removed to an armed 
vessel until the arrival of forces enabled him to take again his posi- 
tion in safety on land. 

The following paper shows that those in Cumberland who felt 
free to act for the revolution were no less spirited than those in 
Mecklenburg or any other part of the State. After th« Declaration 
made by the inhabitants of Mecklenburg, the different counties 
formed what were called associations ; a paper being drawn up ex- 
pressing their sentiments on the great questions agitating the public 
mind, they subscribed their names, pledging themselves to the de- 
fence of American Liberty. Within a month a paper was circulated 
in Cumberland county, of which the following is a copy. 


^^ The actual commencement of hostilities against the Continent, 
by the British troops, in the bloody scene of the 19th of April last, 
near Boston, in the increase of arbitrary impositions from a wicked 
»nd despotic Ministry, and the dread of instigated insurrections in 
the colonies, are causes sufficient to drive an oppressed people to 
the use of arms. We, therefore, the subscribers, of Cumberland 
county, holding ourselves bound by the most sacred of all obliga- 
tions, the duty of citizens towards an injured country, and thoroughly 
convinced that, under our distressed circumstances, we shall be jus- 
tified in resisting force by force, do unite ourselves under every tie 
of religion and honor, and associate as a band in her defence against 
every foe, hereby solemnly engaging, that, whenever our continental 
or provincial councils shall decree it necessary, we will go forth 
and be ready to sacrifice our lives and fortunes to secure her freedom 
and safety. This obligation to continue in full force until a recon- 
ciliation shall take place between Great Britain asd America, upon 
constitutional principles, an event we most ardently desire, and we 
will hold all those persons inimical to the liberty of the colonies, 
who shall reftise to subscribe to this association ; and we will in all 
things follow the advice of our general committee respecting the 

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purpose aforesaid^ the preservation of peace and good order, and 
the safety of individual and private pr^erty.^ 

This paper was the composition of Robert Rowan, whose name 
stands first on a long list of subscribers ; it is still in existence in 
Robeson County. The phrase, " instigated insurrections^* in the 
aboTe paper refers probably to a charge made against Governor 
Martin, that he favored the effort that was made for an insurrection 
of the Slaves, planned by the captain of a coasting vesseL 

The difference of opinion in Cumberland county led to much 
distress and trouble, not from the foreign foe, for the firitish forces 
never visited the county, except in the hasty retreat of Cornwall is 
to Wilmington, after the battle of Guilford ; but from the inhabit- 
ants themselves. Some of the most ardent Whigs in the State 
were citizens of Cumberland county, who hesitated not to give the 
Royalists much trouble. We shall not stop to dwell upon or re- 
count the plunderings, the skirmishes, and battles, the personal ren- 
counters between the two parties in Cumberland and the surround-' 
ing counties, though they afforded many thrilling scenes of courage 
and of suffering ; and shall relate the circumstances of only one 
engagement between the Whigs and Tories in the lower part of the 
State, as the consequence? were of importance to the country through 
the whole war. 

Governor Martin had issued a Commission of firigadier General 
to Donald M'Donald, a leading man among the Scotch, and perhaps 
the most influential among the Highlanders ; and had sent him « 
proclamation without date, which the General might send forth at 
any time he should think it advisable, commanding all the king's 
subjects to rally around the General. On the 1st day of February, 
1776, M'Donald erected the Royal Standard at Cross Creek, and 
issued his proclamation. In a short time fifteen hundred men were 
assembled under his command, well armed and provided with proper 
military stores for a march to join the Governor at the mouth of the 
river. The celebrated Flora M'Donald, whose history will fill 
another chapter, is said to have used her influence over her clans- 
men and neighbors to join the standard of the old veteran, who had 
held a commission in the army of the Pretender, Charles Edward, 
and taken part in the battle of Culloden, in 1745, and had saved 
his life by the oath of allegiance and emigration to Carolina, and 
iras now prepared to fight for his king as his only proper sovereign 
ruler. Her husband took a Captain's commission ; and others of 
the name held commissions, and were in the camp, which was well 

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supplied by contributioiis, and the king's money, a large amount of 
which was secured by the Whigs after the battle. 

Colonel James Moore of New HanoTer, who had been commis- 
sioned by the Provincial Congress of North Carolina, in 1776, and 
had a regiment under his command of five hundred men, four hun- 
dred of whom had been stationed at Wilmington, marched, with 
his regiment, and a detachment of the New Hanover militia, to- 
wards Cross Creek, and fortified a camp on Rockfish River, about 
twelve miles south of M'Donald head-quarters; and by his scouts 
and spies broke up the regular communication betweai the General 
and the Grovemor. The first move of M'Donald was towards 
Moore. Halting a few miles from his camp, he sent a decided but 
friendly letter to the Colonel, ui^ng him to prevent all bloodshed 
by joining the royal standard ; and offering, in the name of the 
king, a firee pardon and indemnification for past rebellion, — *^ other- 
wise he should consider them as traitors to the constitution^ and 
take the necessary steps to conquer and subdue them." Moore, 
after the delay of some days, returned his answer — ^that he and his 
men were engaged in the most glorious cause in the world, the de- 
fence of the rights of mankind, and needed no pardon ; — and urged 
the Greneral to sign the test proposed by the Provincial Congress, 
— otherwise he might expect that treatment which he had threatened 
him and his followers. 

McDonald havii^ in the meantime received information that Sir 
Henry Clinton and Lord William Campbell had arrived at the head- 
quarters of the Governor, determined, if possible, to avoid an en- 
gagement with Moore, and decamped at midnight, and conmienced 
his march to join the Governor. By rapid marches and crossing 
the Cape Fear, he eluded the pursuit of Moore, and was bending 
his course to the sea shore, intending to leave Wilmington to the left, 
when, on the third day's march, crossing the South River from Bladen 
into Hanover, he comes to Moore's Creek, which runs from north to 
south, and empties into the South River about twenty miles above 
Wilmington, and finds the encampment of Cols. Alexander Lil- 
lington with the minute men of the Wilmington district, and Rich- 
ard Caswell, with the midute men of New Berne district, who 
assembled their forces on hearing of McDonald's proclamation, and 
had united their regiments, and were in search of the army of the 

McDonald's situation admitted of no delay 3 Moore was in rapid 
pursuit, and these Colonels in front ; he determines upon an attack 
upon the forces in firont A certain individual, who claimed to be 

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neutral, risited the camp of Lillington that night; and informed 
him that an attadc would be made the next morning. The Colonel 
drawing up his men in a very advantageous position, to command 
both the road and the bridge, and remoYing the planks from the 
bridge, keeps his men under anns all night About day, the 27th 
of February, the Scotch forces advance for battle, under the com- 
mand of Colonel McLeod, the General himself being confined to 
his tent, too unwell to lead his forces. McLeod is speedily killed, 
and also Colonel Campbell ; and the forces of Lillington Itnd Cas- 
well rushing on with great spirit, the forces of McDonald, deprived 
of their leaders, are thrown into confiision, and routed, and either 
taken prisoners or entirely dispersed. McDonald was found sitting 
on a stump near his tent, alone; — and as the victorious officars 
advanced towards him, waving the parchment scroll of his commis- 
sion in the air, he delivers it into their hands* Colonel Moore 
aorlred in camp a few hours after the battle was over, and his for^ 
ces ^1 came up during the day. 

By this batde the spirits of the loyalists were broken, and they 
never again were embodied in large companies till the fate of the 
war became doubtful by the movements of the army of Comwallis. 

The Provincial Congress determined to show kindness to the 
prisoners and their families, respecting their principles, though op- 
posbg their course ; and on the 29th of April published a mani- 
festo fix)m which the following are extracts. " We have their secur- 
ity in contemplation, not to make them miserable. In our power, 
their errors claim our pity, their situation disarms our resentment 
We shall hail their reformation with increasing pleasure, and re- 
ceive them among us with open arms. Sincere contrition and 
repentance shall atone for their past conduct Members of the 
same political body with ourselves, we feel the convulsion which 
such a severance occasions ; and shall blens the day which shall 
restore them to us, friends of liberty, to the cause of America, the 
cause of God and mankind." 

" We war not with helpless females, whom they have left behind 
them ; we sympathize in their sorrow, and wish to pour the balm 
of pity into the wounds which a separation from husbands, fathers, 
and the dearest relations has made. They are the rightful pension- 
ers upon the charity and bounty of those who have aught to spare 
from their own necessities, for the relief of their indigent fellow 
creatures; to such we recommend them." 

^< May the humanity and compassion which mark the cause we 
are engs^ed in, influ^ce them to such a conduct as may call forth 


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our utmost tenderness to their friends, whom we have in our power/ 
Much depends upon the fiiture demeanor of the friends of the insur- 
gents who are left among us, as to Qie treatment our prisoners may 
experience. Let them consider these as hostages for their own 
good behavior, ^d by their own merits make kind offices to their 
friends a tribute of duty as well as humanity from us, who hate 
them in their power." 

The Congress granted to General McDonald and his son, who 
held a colonel's commission, a liberal parole of honor; and com- 
plimented both these officers on their candor. Some time in the 
summer, the general and twenty-five of the officers taken prisoners 
in the battle at Widow Moore's Creek Bridge, were taken to Phila- 
delphia, and held in confinement for the purpose of promoting an 
exchange of prisoners between the two armies. 

We cannot but admire the integrity of these men, though we 
lament their course; we reverence their moral principles, whUe 
we deplore their mistake. We pass by their error, and glory in 
receiving and instructing others in the principles of religion and 
morality which governed these men. Their descendants are among 
the best citizens of the States. The great principles of their an- 
cestors still reign among the descendants along the Cape Fear ; 
and though divided on the party questions of the day, as might be 
expected in a nation of freemen, they are united on ^e great prin- 
ciples of republicanism. 

The descendants of these men are altogether in favor of an en- 
lightened ministry ; and are patrons of efforts for the instruction of 
&e rising generation. They are firm friends to the grand princi- 
ples of the supremacy of law^ and yield a cheerfrd obedience to the 
laws of the land enacted by the legislators, chosen by freemen from 
their own body. Not given to change either in their politics or 
their friendships, they support the government of their choice ; and 
are divided only on the question respecting the powers of a repub- 
lican government 

When once it was settled, by the surrender of Yorktown, that 
monarchical government was at an end in the colonies, those along 
the Cape Fear that had felt themselves bound to support the royal 
authority while that authority could be supported, joined heartily 
with their countrymen, who had all along been struggling for the 
independence of the colonies, in preparing and adopting and de- 
fending the constitution that guards our liberties. But it is to be 
remembered that^ Ihe most earnest defenders of the rights of the 
crown, along Cape Fear, contemplated monarchy as hedged in 

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and centralled by the principles of their Solemn League and Cove- 
nant, which in due time lead all men that adopt them, to struggle 
as for life, for the liberty of conscience and freedom of property and 
person. The free church of Scotland have struggled nobly for 
the first ; one more step, and they are republicans of the American 
stamp. Martin, who knew the power of an oath over the Scotch 
on Gape Fear, used it skilfully to keep them to their allegiance. 
He saw its power in Orange and Mecklenburg, but knew not 
how to ingratiate himself with that peculiar race of people, in whose 
politics, as among the Scotch, a strong religious principle pre- 

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Among the emigrants to the Scotch settlements on the Cape 
Fear, was Flora McDonald, a name held in the highest reverence 
in the traditions of North Carolina and the Highlands of Scotland, 
though English history has given her neither a name nor a place 
in her pages, crowded with the events and personages of that day, 
that no human art can save from the obUvion they deserve. With 
or without history, the descendants of the Highlanders in North 
Carolina will love the name of Flora McDonald, while female ex- 
cellence can be found among their sisters and daughters. 

In those heart-stirring events that succeeded the rising in favor 
of the Pretender, and led to the emigration of the Scotch settle- 
ment on the Cape Fear river. Flora McDonald first makes her ap- 
pearance, a young and blooming girl ; in the troubles and dis- 
tresses that affected the honest yet divided Scotch in Carolina, at 
the commencement of the American Revolution, she is the digni- 
fied matron ; before the disasters and radical principles of the 
French Revolution troubled her country and employed her chil- 
ren, she was carried to the cemetery of Kilmuir. 

The most romantic escape of the Pretender, Prince Charles 
Edward, in his five months' wanderings in the Highlands of Scot- 
land, himted from mountain to dell, from crag to cavern, by day 
and by night, by the soldiers of the Duke of Cumberland, and a 
price set upon his head as a ftigitive felon, was planned and ex- 
ecuted by the McDonalds, the most powerftil of whom had op- 
posed the attempt to place the Prince upon the throne, as a hope- 
less rebellion, and many of whom were bearing arms for the 
house of Hanover ; and some even then leading forces in search 
of the Royal ftigitive, into the wilds and fastnesses of the High- 
lands and the Western Isles. 

Roderick Mackenzie aided the flight of the Prince by his chival- 
rous death ; Flora McDonald by her romantic spirit and womanly 
contrivance. " This young man," says one, " sought conceal- 
ment in the mountains of Ross-shire after the battle of Culloden, 
and was surprised by a party of soldiers sent in pursuit of Charles 
Edward. His age, his figure, his air, deceiving the military 

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FLORA m'dONALD. 1%9 

c(»npletely, they were going to secure him, believing they had 
got hold of the true prince. Mackenzie perceiving theur mistake, 
with great fortitude and presence of nund instantly resolves to 
render it useful to his master. He drew his sword, and the 
courage with which he defended himself, satisfied these soldiers 
that he could be no other than the Pretender. One of them fired 
at him ; Mackenzie fell, and with his last breath exclaimed — ^ You 
hare killed your Prince.' This generous sacrifice, suspended for 
the time all pursmt, and afforded an opportunity for the unfor- 
tunate Charles to escape firom the hands of his enemies." 

The escape by the aid of Flora was less bloody and more ro- 
mantic. With great difficulty he had made his way across the 
Highlands to the western shore, and setting sail in an eight-oared 
boat firom the him of Arasag, after encountering a most furious 
storm, such as are frequent on that northern sea, when, in the 
language of Ossian, " The thimder of the skies, as a rock, 
penetrated the heavens, and a fiery pillar issued firom the blac^ 
cloud,^ he landed on one of the western islands. South Uist, and 
found a shelter for a time at Ormaclet, with Laird McDonald, of 
Clan Ronald. The keen scent of his pursuers at length traced 
him to this place, and three thousand soldiers, red coats as they 
were called, were sent to search the island, through every dell, 
and rockf and crag, and cottage ; and armed vessels were station- 
ed all around to intercept every ship or boat that might attempt to 
leave the shore and convey away the royal fugitive. Many pro- 
jects for his escape were proposed by his anxious friends, and laid 
aside in rapid succession. At length Lady McDonald suggested 
a romantic plan, — that, arrayed in female clothes, he should ac- 
company a lady as her waiting woman, or servant maid. Two 
difiiculties were to be encountered ; what lady would engage in 
the dangerous, though romantic enterprise ? and how should they 
obtain a passport firom the hostile officers for such a company to 
leave the island ? Two young ladies in the house of McDonald 
were appealed to, but their courage was less than their tenderness. 
At this critical time, who should come to the house of Laird 
McDonald but the kind and beautiful Flora, firom Millburg, in the 
same island, to visit her relations, on her return firom Edinburgh, 
having just completed her education in that metropolis. The father 
of this accomplished young lady had been some time dead, and 
her mother was united in marriage vrith Captain Hugh McDonald, 
the one eyed ; the son of Samuel, the son of great James, the son 
of young Blue Donald, of Armadale, in the Isle of Skye. Her 

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Step-father, Capt. Hugh McDonald, was then in Uist, in commancl 
of a company of the clan McDonald, in the senrice of King 
George, searching for the Prince. 

The peculiar feelings of the Scotch towards the Royal family 
of theur nation is beautifully exhibited in the occurrences connect- 
ed with that young lady's visit. While these McDonalds could 
not take arms to place the prince upon the throne, esteeming the 
effort madness, and were defending the reigning house of Hano- 
ver, and even then in arms in search of Charles, henmied in 
among the crags of Uist, they could not find it in their heart to 
seize him, now in their power, though some of them were so 
pressed with debt that the large reward offered might have been 
a temptation, and the fines and confiscations that would follow sus- 
picion of their favor for the Pretender, might have been a sufii- 
cient reason to hold them back firom any effort for his escape. 
" Will you," says the lady of Laird McDonald to Flora, after 
making her iux]uainted with the presence and hiding-place of the 
Prince on the island, and the plan she was meditating for his 
escape, " will you expose yourself to this danger to aid the escape 
of the Prince firom his enemies that have him here enclosed I" The 
maijlen answered, '^ Since I am to die, and can die but once, I 
am perfectly willing to put my life in jeopardy to save his Royal 
Highness from the danger which now besets him." DeUghted 
with this response, the lady opened the matter to an offioer named 
O'Neill, who expressed the same romantic desire to aid the escape 
of the very man for the apprehension of whom he was then in 
arms. He accompanied Flora to Carradale, a rocky, craggy, wild, 
sequestered place, where the Prince lay concealed, in a cave, that 
they might concert with him the details of the plan of his escape. 
On entering the cave they foimd the Prince alone, broiling a small 
fresh fish upon the coals for his lonely repast. Startled at their 
approach, and supposing his retreat had been discovered by the 
soldiers, and escape to be hopeless, he put himself on the defence 
to sell his life as dearly as his dignity required. The gallant 
young officer and the beautiful lady do him reverence as a prince. 
At their kind salutations his alarm gives place to astonishment ; 
and the unfolding of the plan for his escape from his desperate 
condition, filled his heart with unmeasured delight. After a short 
interview. Flora left him, and calling on her brother at Millburg, 
finds a youth, Neill McDonald, the son of Hector, as noble, gen- 
erous, and romantic as herself, who entered with devotion into the 
plan for the escape of the Prince, in whose company she returns 

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FLORA m'dONALD. 151 

to Ormaclet, to complete the inreparations for the departure from 
the island. 

The most important step was to procure a passport from the 
island, that might protect them from the search of officers, and 
detention by the vessels on the coast. Flora at length obtained 
one from her step-father, Captain Hugh McDonald, for herself, 
her youthful companion Neill McDonald, and three others, to con- 
stitute a boat's crew, and also for her serving maid, Betsey 
Burke, a stout Irishwoman, whom Flora pretended she had en- 
gaged for the special purpose of becoming her mother's spinster, 
at Armadale, in Skye. As the Captain gave the passport, and 
wrote by Flora a letter recommendatory of Betsey Burke as a 
spinster, it is conjectured, not without reason, that he was not 
altogether unaware of the designs of his fair step-daughter, though 
he wisely kept himself in ignorance. 

While the arrangements were in progress for this visit of Flora 
to her mother, in Skye, Allan McDonald, of the hill, arrived at 
Ormaclet with a company of soldiers in search for the Prince, 
without any particular suspicions that the fugitive was near, or 
any thought that his fair kinswoman was concerting a plan of 
escape which his presence might particularly discommode. There 
was now no time to be lost. Flora, hastening to his hiding-place, 
clothes the Prince in the attire of an Irish serving woman, and on 
the afternoon of Saturday, the 28th of June, 1746, the party em- 
bark from Uist for the isle of Skye. Soon after they launch forth, 
there comes upon them a ftirious storm of wind. Tossed to and 
fit), and driven about all night, the courage of the maiden never 
forsakes her ; anxious for her charge, rather than for herself, she 
encourages the men not to turn back. Inspirited by the exhorta- 
tions of the maiden, the oarsmen exert their utmost strength, and 
surmounting all the dangers of the tempest, at dawn of day they 
approach Point Vatermish in the Isle of Skye. As they draw 
near, however, the sight of a band of soldiers drawn up upon the 
shore to receive the boat, turns them back to the ocean ; and the 
voUeys discharged at them by the soldiers hasten their flight, while 
the balls are whistling by and rebounding from the waves. Turn- 
ing eastwardly they pursue their course, and about noon, on Sab- 
bath, land at Kilbride, in the parish of Kilmuir, near the Magustat- 
house, the residence of Sir Alexander McDonald, the Laird of 
Sleite, to repose like the dove after her flight over the waters, for 
a httle space, in the ark. 

Concealing the Prince in a hollow rock on the beach. Flora re- 

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paired to the chieftain's mansion, and met a most cordial reception 
from Lady McDonald, in the absence of the Laird. The hall was 
full of officers, whose sole business was to search for th^ royal 
fugitiye ; and the Laird himself was known to be hostile to his 
pretensions. The maiden, more self-possessed from the danger^ 
with confiding enthusiasm makes known to the lady the hiding- 
place of the Prince, and the circumstances of his escape ironn 
Uist. The lady's heart answers to the maiden's confidence, and 
she espouses her cause, and sends by Alexander McDonald, the 
Laird of Kingsburg, Baillie to Sir Alexander, h^ husband, who 
happened to be in the house, refreshments of wine and other 
comforts suited to the necessities of the fatigued and distressed 
wanderer. By advice of Lady McDonald, who feared discovery 
from the numerous officers and soldiers then on the estate, Flora 
and Betsey Burke set out inmiediately for Kingsburg, about 
twelve miles distant, accompanied by the Baillie as their guide. 
On their way they met many of the country people returning from 
church, whose curiosity was much excited by the coarse, negli- 
gent, clumsy-looking, long-legged female figure that accompanied 
the Laird and the maiden. Without any indignity or suspicion 
they reached the place of their destination about sunsei, wearied 
from the storm and perils of the preceding night, and the escapes 
and journeys of the day. The next morning Flora accompanied 
the Prince to Portaree, and there bid him adieu. On parting he 
kissed her, and said, '' Gentle, faithful maiden, I entertain the 
hope that we shall yet meet in the Palace Royal." They never 
met again ; the hopes of the Prince were as unsubstantial and 
evanescent as the shadows of the clouds, and the fogs that rest 
upon the hills. His escape was the work not of his chivalry or 
courage, but of woman's tenderness, and the loyal feelings of 
Scottish hearts. 

From Portaree, the Prince took passage to Raarsay ; and from 
that island he went to Straith McKinnon, having for his guide a 
poor man, Malcolm McLeod, whose pack he carried as a paid 
servant, to escape observation. From thence, he took passage by 
water to Arasag, and then wandered through Arasag and Moodart 
and the roughest of the Highlands, enduring incredible hardships, 
till about the middle of autumn he found vessels to convey him 
and a few friends to France, leaving Scotland as unattended as he 
entered, hopeless of his crown, multitudes of his friends butchered, 
and others beggared or in exile, his resources all exhausted, him- 
self the scorn of France and pity of the world. With him 

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sailed to France Neill McDonald, who assisted in his flight from 
Uist, and had shared his fortunes during his wanderings. The 
enthusiasm of his fair kinswoman dwelt in his bosom, and spread 
itself through the youth of the Highlands, and rendered the cap- 
ture of the Prince more hopeless ; after the exploit of the maiden 
and the two ladies McDonald^ who would hesitate to give him 
succor and conceal his retreat? Neill McDonald remained in 
Prance ; and his son became famous in the wars of the French 
Revolution, being made marshal by Buonaparte, and for his suc- 
cess created Duke of Tarentum. Had the unfortunate Charles 
Edward possessed a spirit to command, equal to the courage and 
daring of his friends, the house of Stuart might now occupy the 
throne of England. 

After the escape of the Prince to France, the troubles of Flora 
McDonald commenced. Incensed at the loss of their victim, and 
not satisfied with the possession of the kingdom, and the execu- 
tions that the plea of necessity may have justified, the officers of 
the crown seized on those who were known to have aided the 
Prince in his flight, and conveyed them to London as state pri- 
soners, for sending from the island the cause of the late disturbance, 
routed, broken dovm and discouraged, and at once delivering the 
crown from farther cause of uneasiness, and the country from 
agitation. Flora was arrested, and together with Malcolm Mc- 
Leod, whose pack the princ^had carried, McKinnon of the 
Sttaith, who received him from McLeod, and McDonald of Kings- 
burg, who aided Flora on the 29th of June, were taken to London 
and confined in the Tower as prisoners of state, to be tried for 
their life, as aiding and abetting attempts against the life and 
crown of King George. The example of the young lady in 
rousing up her countrymen, however friendly to the house of 
Hanover, to promote the escape of one whom they could not, and 
perhaps on account of his reUgion, would not make king, turned 
the indignation of those who had lost the splendid reward offered 
for the Pretender dead or alive, upon herself and her friends. 
During their confinement, the nobility of England became deeply 
interested in the beautiful and high spirited Flora, especially as she 
was not a partisan of the Pretender, nor of his religious faith. 
Her devotion to royalty, so romantically expressed, won the favor 
of Prince Frederick the heir apparent, great grandfather of Vic- 
toria, the present queen of England ; visiting her in prison, he 
became enlisted in her favor most strongly ; she awakened in his 
bosom the chivalric gallantry she had called forth in her country- 

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men ; and by his strenuous exertions he procured her release, 
greatly to his own honor and the prosperity of the kingdom, and 
the popularity of the king. 

After bemg set at liberty, her residence, while she remained in 
London, was surrounded by the carriages of the nobiUty and 
gentry, who paid their respects p«rsonally, congratulating her on 
her enterprise, her courage, her loyalty, and her release. Lady 
Primrose, a favorer of the Pretender, a lady of wealth and distinc-^ 
tion, introduced her to the court society, wnd by her example and 
influence, obtained large presents to make her forget her captivity, 
and to meet the expenses of her detention and her return to her 
own country. The tradition in Carolina, where she afterwards 
lived, is, that ** she received golden ornaments and coin enough to 
fill a half bushel." She was introduced to the king, George K. ; 
and to his somewhat ungallant inquiry — " How could you dare to 
succor the enemy of my crown and kingdom?" rfie replied 
with great simplicity — " It was no more than I would have done 
for your majesty, had you been in like situation." A chaise and 
four were fitted up for her return to Scotland ; for her escort she 
chose a fellow prisoner, Malcolm McLeod, who used afterwards 
to boast, " that he went to London to be hanged — ^but rode back in 
a chaise and four with Flora McDonald." 

Four years after her return to Scotland she was married to Allan 
McDonald, son of the Laird of Kingsburg, who, at the death of his 
father, succeeded to the estate and title; and thus she became 
mistress of the very mansion in which the Prince passed his first 
night in the Isle of Skye, June 29th, 1746, after the romantic escape 
from Uist. Dr. Johnson and Mr. Boswell, in their tour to the 
Hebrides in 1773, were hospitably entertained by Allan and Flora 
McDonald, and were greatly gratified by being put to sleep in the 
same bed in which the unfortunate Charles Edward had slept the 
night he passed upon the island. Flora, though then more than 
twenty years a wife, and the mother of numerous children, still 
retained her blooming countenance and genteel form, and was fiill 
of the enthusiasm of her youth. On account of the pecuniary em- 
barrassments of her husband, they were then, the doctor tells us, 
in his journal, contemplating a removal to North Carolina, to join 
their countrymen and friends on the Cape Fear river, sent thither 
immediately after the rebellion of 1745. From that period the 
sandy country of the Carolinas had been the refiige of the High- 
landers, whether they fled from poverty or oppression, or were 
drawn by the desire of being independent landholders and wealthy 

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men. In the year 1775, just as the troubles in the American colo- 
nies were turning into rebellion against the tyranny of England, 
and the assertion of independence of all foreign control, Allan and 
Flora, with their family and some friends, landed in North Carolina 
and took their abode for a short time at Cross Creek, now Fayette- 
ville. The place of her residence was destroyed by the great fire 
that swept off a large part of the town one Sabbath in the summer 
of 182-. The ruins of this dwelling are still to be seen as you 
pass from the market-house to the court-house, on your right hand, 
just before you cross the creek, not far from the office built out 
over the stream. After a short stay in this place, they removed to 
Cameron's Hill, in the Barbacue congregation, about twenty miles 
above Fayetteville, in Cumberland county. While residing at 
this place, Mrs. Smith, now living in Robeson county, from whom 
much of the information respecting Flora was derived, remembers 
seeing her, at the Barbacue qhurch, a dignified and handsome 
woman, to whom all paid great respect. They afterwards removed 
farther up the country into Anson county. While residing there, 
Donald McDonald, a relation of Flora's, who had been an officer 
in the Pretender's army in 1745, and had taken the oath of allegi- 
ance and emigrated to save his life, was commissioned by Governor 
Martin as general in the service of his Majesty George III. On 
the 1st of February, 1776, he issued his proclamation calling on 
all loyal and true Highlanders to join his standard at Cross Creek. 
Some fifteen hundred men soon assembled in arms ; some of whom 
were sincerely attached to the house of Hanover, and others were 
under oaths of allegiance to which they owed their life, and, as 
some believed, their property. With these were assembled Kings- ^ 
burg McDonald, the husband of Flora, with their kindred and 
neighbors, animated by the spirit of this matron, who now, on her 
former principles, defended George HI. as readfly as she had aided* 
the unfortunate Charles Edward about thirty years before. Tra- 
dition says she accompanied her husband and neighbors to Cross- 
wicks, and communicated her own enthusiasm to the assembled 
Scotch. From this fact it has been supposed by some, that she 
followed the army in its march to join Governor Martin at the 
mouth of Cape Fear. Mrs. Smith, however, expressly asserts that 
she did not follow the army ; but returned to her residence in An- 
son, when the army first moved up Rockfish, as it did in a short 
time, in preparation to march down the river. 

On their march down the river the forces of General McDonald 
were met by Colonels Lillington and Caswell, near the mouth of 

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Moore's Crej^k, in New Hanover, and after a severe engagement, 
on the 27th, were entirely routed and dispersed, taken pri8<Hier8 or 
killed. Among the prisoners was the husband of Flora, who 
served as captain. 

After the release of her husband firom Halifax jail, the place of 
confinement for the officers taken in the battle, having suffered 
much in their estate from the plunderings and confiscations to which 
the Royalists were expo9ed, they with their family embarked in a 
sloop of war for their native land. On the voyage home, the sloop 
was attacked by a French vessel of war ; and as the engagement 
grew warm the courage of the sailors deserted them, and capture 
seemed inevitable. Ascending the quarter deck, she animated the 
men to renew the conflict with activity and courage, nothing 
daunted by a wound she received in her hand. The sight ci the 
courageous and wounded woman aroused the spirit of the crew to 
the highest pitch. Having beaten off the enemy, they landed 
Flora and the family safe on their native soil, from which she 
never agaimdeparted. She used sometimes to remark pleasantly 
on the peculiarity of her condition, " I have hazarded my life botfi 
for the house of Stuart and the house of Hanover ; and I do not 
see that I am a great gainer by it." 

To the close of her life she was of a gentle, affable demeanor, 
and greatly beloved ; her modesty and self-respect were blended 
with kindness and benevolence. There were none of those mas- 
culine passions and habits, or tempers, so commonly connected in 
our thoughts with acts of braveqr performed by females. She was 
always womanly in her course, and always lovely. The mother 
of a numerous family, five sons and two daughters, she inspired 
them all with her spirit of loyalty and adventure ; the sons all be- 
came miUtary offitwrs, and were faithful to their king and country ; 
the daughters were married to miUtary men, and maintained their 
loyalty and their honor, as .true descendants of such a mother. 
Loyalty in these ladies had no serviUty in it ; it was a sense of the 
necessity of a firm and established government to execute laws 
for the peace of the community, and a conviction that a restricted 
monarchy was the best form of government, and tlrttt a hereditary 
was better than an elective crown. The most desolating wars 
in the history of their country had been waged by disputants for 
the crown. 

The eventful life of this amiable lady was closed March 6th, 
1790. We have no record of the mevlal and religious exercises 
of her last moments. She was educated, lived, and died in the 

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FLOEA m^DOV JlLD. 157 

Presbyterian faith, the faith of the Church of Scotland ; and never 
sympathized in the religious creed pf the Pretender, whose life she 
saved. It was not so much admiration of the Prince, as a charac- 
ter or a man, as the workings of her own kind heart and noble 
soul in looking upon her hereditary Prince in distress, that moved 
her to the romantic and hazardous enterprise of his escape from 
Uist. An immense concourse of people were assembled at her 
funeral ; not less than three thousand persons followed the corpse 
to the grave in the cemetery of Kilmuir, in the Isle of Skye. Ac- 
cording to a request long previously expressed, her shroud was 
made of the identical sheets in which the Prince reposed the night 
he slept at Kingsburg, — ^thus carrying to her grave the romantic 
spirit of her youth. 

A writer who visited the cemetery in September, 1841, says : 
" There is not so much as one of that family in the land of the 
living. At the end of two years the body of her husband was de- 
posited in a grave by her side, — ^where, alas, all her offspring now 
silently slumber. 'Thus is Flora McDonald, she who once was 
beautiful as the flower of the morning, now reposing beneath a 
green hillock ; and nO monument, as yet, has been erected to per- 
petuate the memory of her faithfulness or her achievements ! 
Thus the beauty of the world shall pass away !" 

Though no monument be erected in England or in Scotland to 
her memory ; though no page of English history shall inscribe her 
worth, because displayed in an unpopular cause ; though from the 
time of that ill-planned and ill-fated rebellion, the whole policy of 
England towards her native country has been to annihilate the 
habits, and the very language and dress of the Highlands, and of 
her youth, her memory will live in North Carolina while nobleness 
has admirers, and romantic self-devotion to the welfare of the 
distressed can charm the heart. And will not ihat be for ever ? 
Will not posterity admire her more than Prince Charles who 
led his followers to slaughter? or George II., who envied the 
popularity of his own son ? and draw more instruction from her 
romance, and affection, and boldness, and devotion, and womanly 
graces, and feoamne loveliness, than firom all the court of Eng- 
land that fill the histories of that by-gone period ? 

Massachusetts has her Lady Arabella ; Vir|pnia her Pocahontas ; 
and North Carolina her Flora McDonald. 

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The first ordained minister that took his abode among the Pres- 
byterian settlements in North Carolina, was the Rev. James 
Campbell, on the Cape Fear river. The first missionary whose 
journal, or parts of journal, has been preserved, is Hugh McAden 
(or as sometimes spelled McCadden), who was also the first 
missionary that settled in the State. 

The first Presbyterian minister that preached in North Caro- 
lina of whom we have any knowledge, was WiUiiLm Robinson, 
famous in the annals of 'the Virginia churches, of whom the 
Jlev. Samuel Davies says, — "that favored man, Mr. Robinson, 
whose success, whenever I reflect upon it, astonishes me.** This 
eminent missionary passed through Virginia to North Carolina, 
and spent ar part of the winter of 1742 and 1743, among Pres- 
bjrterian settlements. It was on his petum firom Carolina, and 
while preaching at Cub Creek, in Charlotte county, that the mes- 
senger from Hanover county waited upon him and persuaded him 
to visit that county, in which werje no settlements of Presbyterian 
emigrants, and which of course had not been included either in 
his original mission, or his intended route homeward. 

We are not able to asoertain the places with precision, which 
he visited, but as the Presbyterian settlements in the county of 
Duplin and New Hanover were the oldest in the State, and there 
were none othfew at that time of much strength, the probability 
is that Duplin and New Hanover were the places he visited, and 
the scattered settlements then commenced in the upper part of 
the State also received some attention. Mr. Davies tells us that 
the success attending the ministry of this eminent man, so abun- 
dant in Virginia, was very smsdl in Carolina. It is probably 
owing to that fact that the whole history of his mission is cir- 
cumscribed in the single statemant, that he visited the country 
through much exposure, and many hardships, owing to the un- 
settled wilderness through which he had to pass. 

Supplications were sent from Carolina to the Synod of Phila- 

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HUGH m'abbn. 159 

delphia as early as the year 1744. The records spealc of them as 
having come ''from many people,'* but do not tell us from what 
section of the State they were sent. In the year 1 753, two mission- 
aries were sent by the direction of the Synod to visit Virginia and 
North Carolina, Mr. McMordie and Mr. Donaldson ; but there is 
no mention made of the settlements they were to visit, further 
than they were "to show special regard" to the vacancies of 
North Carolina, especially betwixt Atkin (Yadkin) and Catawba 
rivers. In the year 1754 the Synod of New York directed four 
ministers, Messrs. Beatty, Bostwick, Lewis, and Thane, to visit 
the States of Virginia and North Carolina, each three months, but 
no particular plaoes are specified. In 1755, the same S)mod ap- 
pointed two other missionaries, and named some places in the 
upper part of the State ; but owing to the disturbances in the 
country from the depredations of the Indians, this mission was 
not fulfilled. 

The settlemtnt of Presbyterians in Duplin county is probably 
the oldest large settlement of that denomination in the State. 
About the year 1736, or perhaps 1737, one Henry McCulloch 
induced a colony of Presbyterians from the province of Ulster, in 
Ireland, to settle in Duplin county. North Carolina, on lands he 
had obtained from his majesty, George II. The stipulated con- 
dition of the grant, or promised grant, was, that he should pro- 
cure a certain number of settlers to occupy the wide forests, as 
an inducement to other emigrants to seek a residence in the un- 
occupied regions of Carolina. His son reported oetweej three 
and four hundred emigrants, for whose introduction he retained 
about sixty-four' thousand acres of land. The descendants of 
these emigrants are found in Duplin, New Hanover, and Samp- 
son counties — ^the family names indicating their origin. The 
Grove congregation, whose place of worship isj|^|ut three miles 
southeast of Duplin court-house, traces its ori^Ko the church 
formed from this, the oldest Presbyterian settlement in the State, 
whose principal place of worship was at first called Goshen. 

Nearer Wilmington was a settlement on what was called the 
Welch Tract, on the northeast Cape Fear. 

This was composed at first of Welch emigrants, but after a 
short period other families were located on the tract, ond then 
were associated families enough to form a congregation sufficient^ 
large to invite the services of a minister. 

These two settlements, one in Duplin and the other in Hanover, 
formed the field of labor in which McAden passed the first part of 

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his settled ministry. As you pass rapidly on the cars from Rich- 
mond, Virginia, to Wilmington, North Carolina, after crossing the 
Tar River, and entering upon the extended sandy level that 
stretches, without an elevation of an ordinary hill, through the 
State, abounding in the species of pine that pours forth the tur- 
pentine of commeice, you enter up6n the country roamed over by 
McAden, in his ministry in Duplin. Passing on, with scarce an 
elevation or a turn, through that country, and the unchanging 
groves of pines in New Hanover, till you cross the Cape Fear, 
you have measured the space allotted to him for the exercise of 
his ministry. A singular country ; the wealth of the inhabitants 
is in the endless forest of pines, and their principal employment is 
gathering the product of diese forests in the shape of turpentine, 
tar, and lumber, for foreign markets. The grain and grass crops 
are a secondary consideration, and scarcely supply the home de- 
mand. The supply from the forest has hitherto been unfailing, 
abundant, and often very profitable. To one accustomed to the 
cultivated fields of western Carolina, or the more northern States, 
this country, in passing hastily through it in the steam cars, ap- 
pears one vast solitude. The turpentine groves present little of 
romance or beauty in their constantly recurring sameness, while 
they are pouring out streams of wealth to an industrious people. 

Hugh McAden was bom in Pennsylvania; his parentage is 
traced to the North of Ireland. His Alma Mater was Nassau 
Hall ; his instructor in Theology, John Blair, of New Castle Pres- 
bytery^ He was graduated in 1763, and was licensed in 1766, by 
the Presbytery to which his instructor belonged, and ordained by 
the same Presbytery in 1757 ; and dismissed in 1769 to join Han- 
over Presb3rtery, whose limits extended indefinitely south. Com- 
paratively httle is known of his early life; as his papers were 
almost entirol^^^troyed by the British soldiers, in January, 1781, 
while the armyBR Cwnwidlis, in the pursuit of Green, was en- 
camped at the Red House, in Caswell county. Of the few papers 
that escaped was the Journal of his first trip through Carolina, and 
is the only document of the kind known to be in existence. As 
it contains many facts, incidentally stated, that will now be <lseful, 
all the important and interesting parts of this brief document will 
be presented, either verbatim, or in a condensed form, leaving out 
repetitions, and things that are likely to be in a journal not intend- 
ed for the public, and which are not of lasting importance. 

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HVOH m'aBEN. 161 

" Tuesday, June 3d, 1755. — Took my journey for Carolina from 
Mr. Kirkpatrick's in the evening ; came to Mr. Hall's, where I tar- 
ried all night. Next day crossed the river in company with Mr. 
Bay and his wife. Spent the day in visiting her friends on b#th 
sides," — ^that is, the old and new sides into which the church was 
then divided. " Thursday we set off and came to York, forty 
miles, with some difficulty, the weather being extremely hot, and 
no food for our horses. A very bad prospect of crops appears 
everywhere, the ground being quite burned up with drought, and 
the com much hurt by the frost ; the green wheat and meadows, 
in some places, entirely withered up from the roots as if they had 
been scorched by &e. Here I left Mr. Bay and his wife, rode 
out in the afternoon aAd lodged in the congregation. Next day 
set off in the morning and came to his house, where I stayed for 
breakfast," This Mr. Bay was a Presbyterian minister, of New 
Castle Presbytery, of the new side, and he speaks as if it were 
remarkable that he visited both sides with Mrs. Bay. York is the 
first town mentioned ; and the bearing of his journey, and cross- 
ing " the river," would seem to fix the location of Mr. Kirkpatrick in 
Lancaster county. The mention he here makes of the grwit drought 
is repeated through all the summer and fall ; from which it ap- 
pears a severe drought prevailed extensively the same summer that 
Braddock's war raged so disastrously. 

The second Sabbath of June he was at Rock Springs and con- 
tinued till the Friday after ; the people making prepardtions to 
attend tbe administration of the Lord's Supper in the two congre- 
gations, that lay on each side, of one of which the Rev. James 
Campbell, who was the next year in Carolina, was the pastor. 
In this he passed the third Sabbath of June, in c^3|pany with the 
pastor and the Rev. Andrew Bay, whom he says I^P heard preach 
with great satisfaction." This Mr. Campbell he had for his neigh- 
bor, in Carolina, on the Cape Fear, in about a year from this ; 
the patriarch of the Scotch churches. 

" Monday, June the 16th, set out from Connegocheg, upon my 
journey for Carolina, crossed the Potomac, and lodged at Mr. 
Caten's, where I was very kindly entertained, and civilly used. 
Next day (Tuesday) set off about 12 o'clock, and came to Win- 
chester, forty miles, and tarried all night. In the morning rode 
out to Robert Wilson's, where I was kindly entertained. Spent 
the day with Mr. Hogg" (or Hoge) This Mr. Wilson Ijved a 


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\ - X 


short distance from the present Opecquon meeting-house, and 
was proverbial for his hospitality. , IJis house, which is still stand- 
ing, on the east side of the great turnpike, part of stone and part 
of wood, was the resort of preachers in his day ; and during the 
time that Washington was encamped in Winchester, the resort of 
his Excellency. The Mr. Hogg, or Hogge, or Hoge, for the name 
has been spelled all these ways, had been ordained by New Castle 
Presbytery about the time that Mr. McAden was licensed. He 
was graduated at Nassau Hall, in 1748 ; how long he had been at 
Opecquon is not known. He was the first settled minister in that 
congregation, the oldest in the yalley. 

On Thursday, the 19th, he set off up the valley of the Shenan- 
doah, of which he says : " Alone in the wilderness. Sometimes 
a house in ten miles, and sometimes not that.** On Friday nighty 
he lodged at a Mr. Shankland's, eighty miles from Opecquon, and 
twenty from Augusta court-house. On Saturday he stopped at a 
Mr. Poage's — " stayed for dinner, the first I had eaten since I left 
\ • Pennsylvania." 

From Staunton he went with Hugh Celsey to Samuel Downey's, 
at the North Mountain, where he preached on the fourth Sabbath 
of June, according to appointment, and being detained by his horse, 
preached there the fifth Sabbath also. The same cause detaining 
• him another week, he consented to preach in the new court-house 
on the first Sabbath of July. " Rode to widow Preston's Satur- 
day evening, where I was very kindly entertained, and had a com- 
. modious lodging." This is probably the widow of John Preston, 

• whose family have since been so famous in Virginia. The North 
Mountain congregation has long since given place to Bediel and 

• Hebron. On Monday he rode out to John Trimble's, more en- 
couraged by the appearances at North Mountain than in Staunton. 

" On Tuesday ^taoassed on to the Rev. John Brown's, who was 
the first sett^^ minister of Providence and Timber Ridge. 
" Here I was vehemently desired by Mr. Brovim to preach in one 
of his places, having set apart a day of fasting and prayer, on the 
account of the wars and many murders committed by the savage 
Indians on the back inhabitants. To this I agreed, having ap- 
pointed the Forks of James River for the next Lord's day, where 
I could easily reach on Saturday. So I tarried, and preached at 
Timber Ridge on Friday, which was the day appointed, to a pretty 

• large congregation ; felt some life and earnestness in alarming the 
people of their dangers on account of sin, the procuring cause of 
all evils that befal us in this life, or that which is to come ; en- 

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coaraging them to turn to the Lord with all their hearts, to wait 
upon him for deliverance from all their enemies, the only sure 
refiige in every time of diflSiculty ; and exciting them to put them- 
selves in the best posture of defence they could, and endeavor, by 
all possible means in their power, to defend themselves from such 
barbarous and inhuman enemies. Great attention and solemnity 
appeared throughout the whole assembly ; nay, so engaged were • 
they that, though there came up a pretty smart gust, they seemed 
to mind it no more than if the sun had been shining on them. 
But in a little time the Lord turned it so about that we were little 
more disturbed than if we had been in a house. 

" Came to Mr. Beyer's, where I tarried till Sabbath morning, a 
very kind and discreet gentleman, who used me exceedingly 
kindly, and accompanied me to the Forks, twelve miles, where I 
preached the second Sabbath of July, to a considerable large con- 
gregation, who seemed pretty much engaged, and very earnest 
that I should stay longer with them ; which I could by no means 
consent to, being determined to get along in [my] journey as fast 
as possible ; and proposed to preach at Round Oak next Sabbath. 
Rode home with Joseph Lapsley, two miles, from meeting, where 
I tarried till Wednesday morning. 

*^ Here it was I received the most melancholy news of the 
entire defeat of our army by the French at Ohio, the General 
killed, numbers of the inferior officers, and the whole artillery 
taken. This, together with the frequent account of fresh murders 
being daily committed upon the frontiers, struck terror to every 
heart. A cold shuddering possessed every breast, and paleness 
covered almost every face. In short, the whole inhabitants were 
put into an universal confusion. Sc€u:cely any man durst sleep in 
his own house — ^but all met in companies with their wives and 
children, and set about building little fortifications, |ftdefend them- 
selves from such barbarians and inhuman enemi^ whom they 
concluded would be let loose upon them at pleasure. I was so 
shocked upon my first reading Col. Innes's letter, that I knew not 
well what to do." 

This was the defeat of Gen. Braddock. The consternation that 
followed through all the fit)ntiers of Virginia, which were then all 
in the valley, is well described in the few lines given above. The 
difficulties and dangers increased till many of the inhabitants of 
Augusta fled to the mdte quiet frontiers of North Carolina, as will 
be seen in the progress of this journal. Among others who fled, 
and in a few years took his residence on Sugar Creek, was the 

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Rev. Mr. Craighead, who had been some year^ in Virginia, re- 
siding on the cow pasture. His congregation was not in the track 
of Mr. McAden's journey, which left Mr. Craighead's residence to 
the right, and Mr. Craig's to the left. 

After much consideration whether he should remain where he 
was, or return to Pennsylvania, or go on to his destined field of 
labor in Carolina, he determined, in the fear of God, to go on. " I 
resolved to prosecute my journey, come what will, with some 
degree of dependence on the Lord for his divine protection and 
support, that I might be enabled to glorify him in all things, 
whether in life or in death, though not so sensible as I could wish 
for and earnestly desired." 

On Wednesday, the 16th of July, he left Mr. Lapsley's, in 
company with a young man from Mr. Henry's congregation, in 
Charlotte, who had been at the Warm Springs, and was fleeing 
from the expected inroads of the savages. Giving up the appoint- 
ment at Round Oak, he took the route by Luny's Ferry, which 
was distant about twenty-six miles — " because it was now too 
late to cross the mountain, nor did I think it quite safe to venture 
it alone : but here I thought we might lodge with some degree of 
safety, as there, were a number of men and arms engaged in 
building a fort, round the house, where they were fled with their 
wives and children." 

The next day Major Smith sent a guard with them across the 
mountains ; and after riding thirty-two miles they reached Mr. 
I. Sable's, about three miles from Bedford court-house. Here 
he was out of danger from the Indians, but found the same op- 
pressive drought he left in Pennsylvania. The next day he reach- 
ed " Mr. Thomas Dickson's, at Falling River, twenty-three miles, 
JSL place where Mr. Henry preached once a month. The people 
insisted very jmch -upon my staying here till Sabbath day : as it 
was now FricS^evening, it was impossible to get over to Dan River 
(which was the first vacancy I could preach at) in time to warn a 
congregation before Sabbath day, therefore I tarried and preached 
at Falling River.'' 

On Monday, the 21st, he rode thirty miles to the Rev. Mr. 
Henry's — " where I was much refreshed by a relation of Mr. 
Henry's success among his people, who told me of several hope- 
fully brought in by his ministry, and frequent appearance of new 
awakenings amongst them, scarcely a SAbath passing without 
some life and appearance of the power of God. So likewise in 

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HTJOH h'aden. 165 

Mr. Wright's congregation, I hear, there is a considerable appear- 
ance of the power of God." 

On Wednesday, 23d of July, he left Mr. Henry's, rode ten 
miles, and preached at a Mr. Cardwall's, in Halifax county, and 
passed on that night to Ephraim HilPs, five miles. The country 
was then thinly settled, and the people appeared to Mr. McAden 
as sheep without a shepherd. On the next day rode twenty miles 
to Capt. Moore's, on Dan River, where he remained and preached 
the Sabbath, July 27th. On Tuesday he left Capt. Moore's, pro- 
ceeded five miles up the Dan, crossed over, and preached at Mr. 
Brandon's ; and on the same evening, riding twelve miles, came 
to Solomon Debow's on Hico, an emigrant from Bucks county, ' 
Pennsylvania. Here he remained, and preached the first Sabbath 
of August. " Having now got within the limits prescribed me by \ 
the Presbytery, I was resolved not to be so anxious about getting 
along in my journey, but take some more time to labor among the 
people, if so be the Lord might bless it to the advantage of any. 
May the Lord, of his infinite mercy, grant his blessing upon my 
poor attempts, and make me in some .way instrumental in turning 
some of these precious souls from darkness unto light, and from / 
the power of Satan unto God, that the power may be known to be 
of God, and all the glory redound to His own name." 

Mr. McAden was now out of the sphere of alarm occasioned by 
Braddock's defeat ; and he was also now beyond the southern 
bounds of any settled minister of the Presbyterian denomination 
in connection with the Synods of New York and Philadelphia. 
There were some Presbyterian churches built in North Carolina, 
and many worshipping assemWies, but few, if any, organized 
churches at this time, and no settled minister. Mr. McAden was 
of the New Side, as they were termed. This is discoverable from 
a very few sentences in his journal which occasionajfty appear, when 
he meets with some opposing circumstance from the other side ; 
for through Virginia and in the settlements in Carolina the differ- 
ence of opinion had spread, and the fierceness of the dispute had 
yet scarcely passed away. 

We shall follow him with interest from this first Sabbath in Caroli- 
na, August 3, 1 765, at Solomon Debow's, on Hico, through the settled 
part of the State. Some of his preaching-places can be identified, 
and others witli difficulty conjectured ; as they were at private 
houses generally, or in the open air. As might be expected, some 
became permanent preaching-places, and others gave way to more 
ccmyenient locations. 

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On Tuesday, 6th, he preached at Mr. Debow's ; on Wednesday, 
rode ten miles to the chapel on South Hico, where — " I preached 
to a number of church people and some Presbyterians. After ser- 
mon they seemed exceedingly pleased, and returned abundance of 
thanks for my sermon, and earnestly entreated me by all means 
to call upon them as I came back, and showed a very great desire 
, that all our ministers should call upon them as they travel back 
i and forward." He went home with Mr. Vanhook, five miles, and 
. preached at his house on Thursday ; and on Friday was conducted 
by Mr. Vanhook " to Eino " (Eno), about twenty miles, to a Mr. 
^derson's. The second Sabbath of August, the 10th day, he 

< preached at Eno — " to a set of pretty regular Presb)rterians," who 
appeared to him to be in a cold state of religious feeUng. " In the 
evening returned to Mr. Anderson's ; here I tarried till Tuesday, 
the 12th of August ; preached again to the same company." From 

<&ese expressions it would seem there was a house for public wor- 
ship on the Eno. 

" Being sent for, and very earnestly entreated to go to Tar River, 
I took n»y journey the same evening, with my guide, and rode to 
Bogan's, on Flat River, twenty miles. Next morning, set off 
again, and rode to old Sherman's, on Tar River, and preached that 
afternoon to a small company, who seemed generally attentive, and 
some affected." Next day he went to Grassy Creek, sixteen miles, 
where was a Baptist meeting-house, and preached to a people 
" who seemed very inquisitive about the way to ^ion." The next 
day he accompanied his host, old Mr. Lavnrence, to Fishing Creek, 
to the Baptist Yearly Meeting ; and on Saturday and Sabbath 
preached to large and deeply interested audiences. " Here I think 
the power of God appeared something conspicuous, and the word 
seemed to fall with power." Being earnestly pressed, he preached 
again on Sabbath afternoon, with some hope of success. On Mon- 
day he preached again with greater appearance of usefulness. The 
inhabitants, he was informed, were principally firom Virginia, and 
/some from Pennsylvania and Jersey. " I was obliged to leave 

""^ them after I had preached to and exhorted them with many words, 
that they should carefully guard against taking shelter under the 

\ shadow of their own righteousness, conunitting them to God, who, 
I know, is able to make them wise unto salvation." On Monday, 
P. M., the 18th, he rode to Granville court-house, twenty-five 
miles. On Tuesday he rode to Mr. Sherman's, on Tar River, at 
about 11 o'clock, twenty miles ; and preached in the afternoon " to 
a middling congregation, who appeared very devout, and some of 

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HUGH m'aden. 167 

them much affected." On Wednesday, returned to Mr. Anderson's, 
on Eno. On Friday evening he rode "to the Hawfields, where I 
preached the fourth Sabbath in August, to a considerable large 
CMmgregation, chiejQy Presbyterians, who seemed highly pleased, 
and very desirous to hear the word. Preached again on Tuesday ; 
the people came out to hear quite beyond expectation. Wednes- 
day, set out upon my journey, and came to the Buffalo Settlement, 
aboutthirty-five miles ; lodged at William Mebane's till Sabbath day ; 
then rode to Adam Michel's, where I preached ; the people seemed 
solenm and very attentive, but no appearance of the life of reU- 
gion. Returned in the evening, about a mile, to Robert Rankin's, 
where I was kindly received and well entertained till Tuesday ; 
then returned to the former place, and preached ; no stir appeared, 
but some tears." On Wednesday, September 3d, he set out for the 
Yadkin, having Robert Rankin as his guide, and having ridden forty- 
five miles, lodged at John Vannoy's. " Next morning, came to Henry 
Sloan's^ at the Yadkin Ford,, where I was kindly entertained till 
Sabbath day ; rode to the meeting-house and preached to a small 
congregation." Here there appears to have been a congregation 
of some strength that had a meeting-house, but had become di- 
vided, — " Many adhere to the Baptists that were before wavering, 
and several that professed themselves to be Presbyterians ; so that 
very few at present join heartily for our ministers, and will in a 
little time, if God prevent not, be too weak either to call or sup- 
pUcate for a faithful minister. may the good Lord, who can 
bring order out of confusion, and call things that are not as though 
they were, visit this people !" One cause of the divisions in this 
congregation arose from the labors of a Baptist minister among 
them by the name of Miller. \ 

After preaching, he visited some sick people, and went home 
with James Smith, about four miles. On Tuesday, he preached 
again at the meeting-house, and went home with Cornelius Ander- 
son, about six miles — " a judicious, honest man, I hope, who 
seems to be much concerned for the state of the church and perish- 
ing souls." On Wednesday, 10th, he visited Captain Hunt, who 
was sick with an intermitting fever, and found his visit welcome \ y 
and returned to Mr. Sloan's. On Friday, 12th, he crossed the 
Yadkin, and rode about ten miles to James Alison's. (Tn Satur- 
day, he went three or four miles to Mr. Brandon's — " one of my 
own countrymen." On Sabbath, 14th, he preached at '' the meet- 
ing-house ta a considerable congregation of professing people ;" 
and on Monday, rode to John Luckey's, about five or six miles. 

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"Preached again on Wednesday, being appointed as a day of 
fasting and prayer, to entreat the Lord for deliverance from these 
sad calamities, with which the land seems in general to be threatened, 
being in very great danger both of sword and famine." In the 
evening, he paid a faithful visit to a man, about to die, from a fall 
from his horse, in a very unprepared state of mind. " Went home 
with John Andrew, a serious, good man, I hope, with whom my 
soul was much refreshed, by his warm conversation about the 
things of God. How sweet to meet one in the wilderness who 
can speak the language of Canaan ! The next day, he rode to 
Justice Ckrruth's, about eight miles, and remained till Sabbath, 
21st, and then preached at the meeting-house about two miles off, 
'* to a pretty large congregation of people, who seemed generally 
pretty regular and discreet." The next day, he set out for Mr. 
David Templeton's, about five miles from Mr. Carruth's ; on his way 
— " came up with a large company of men, women and children, 
who had fled for their lives from the Cow or Calf pasture in Virgi- 
nia ; from whom I received the melancholy account, that the 
Indians were still doing a great deal of mischief in those parts, by 
murdwing and destroying several of the inhabitants, and banishiog 
the rest from their houses and livings, whereby they are forced to 
fly into desert places." Rode on that evening to William Denny's, 
four miles further ; who presented him with what he considered a 
great present, " a pair of shoes, made of his own leather, which 
was no small favor." On Tuesday, he returned to David Temple- 
ton's, and on Wednesday, a day appointed for fasting and prayer, 
rode to " the meeting-house and preached." After sermon, he 
went home with Captain Osborne, about six miles ; here, he 
remained till Sabbath, the 28th, when he preached " at the new 
meeting-house, about three miles off ;" — and " again on Wednes- 
day, being appointed for fasting and humiliation." In the evening, 
he rode home with William Reese, about seven miles, and 
remained till Sabbath, the 6th of October, when he preached at 
Captain Lewis's, about three miles distant — ** to as large a con- 
gregation as any I have had since I came to these parts." The 
whole of the succeeding week he lodged at Captain Lewis's. On 
Wednesday, he preached again, it being the day appointed by the 
governor and council, for humiliation, fasting and prayer, on 
account of the distress upon the land. 

On the Sabbath, the 12th of October, he rode seven miles 
to Justice Alexander's, ** when I preached in the afternoon, a consi- 
derable solemnity appeared." Though it was now near the middle 

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HUGH m'aden. 169 

of October, the drought was still so great that he says — " I have 
not seen so much as one patch of wheat or rye in the ground." 
On Wednesday, he went over to Major Harris's, about three miles, 
and preached ; on Friday, he preached at David Caldwell's, about 
five or six miles, to a small congregation, and went on to William 
Alexander's, and tarried till Sabbath, the 19th, and then rode about 
twelve miles to James Alexander's, on Sugar Creek, and preached 
— " where there are some pretty serious, judicious people — may 
the Lord grant his blessing !" That evening, he rode home with * 
Henry Knealy (or Neely, as he spells the name both ways), six 
miles ; and on Monday, the 20th, took his journey for Broad Vs^ 
River — "sixty miles to the southward, in company with two 
young men, who came thus far to conduct me thither — a 'place y 
where never any of our missionaries have been" / 

On this journey, he passed through the lands of the Catawba 
Indians. On the first night, they prepared to encamp in the 
woods, about three miles south of the Catawba — " there being no 
white man's house on all the road." This was his first night 
" out of doors." On the next day, they passed one of their hunt-\ 
ifig camps unmolested; but when they stopped to get their 
breakfast, they were surrounded by a large number of Indians, 
shouting and hallooing, and firightening their horses and rifling their 
baggage. Accordingly, they moved oflF as fast as possible, without 
staying to parley ; and to their great annoyance, in a little time 
they passed a second camp of hunters, who prepared to give them 
a similar reception, calling them to stop, from each side the path. 
Passing on rapidly, they escaped without harm ; and after a ride 
of twenty-five miles, were permitted to get their breakfasts in/ 

{Here some leaves of the journal are missing,] 

On Sabbath, the 2d of November, he preached " to a number 
of those poor baptized infidels, many of whom I was told had 
never heard a sermon in all their lives before, and yet several 
of them had families." This seems hardly credible. But he re- 
lates an anecdote told him here of an old gentleman, who said to 
the governor of South Carolina, when he was in those parts, in 
treaty with the Cherokee Indians, that he " had never seen a 
shirt, been in a fair, heard a sermon or seen a minister, in all 
his life." Upon which the governor promised to send him up a 
minister, that he might hear one sermon before he died. The 
minister came and preached ; and this was all the preaching that 

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had been heard in the upper part of South Carolina before Mr. 
McAden's visit. 

How far he penetrated the State is not known, on account of 
the loss of a few leaves of the journal. " On Monday, the 10th 
of November, returned about twenty miles, to James Atterson's, 
on Tyger river ; preached on Tuesday, which was the first they 
had ever heard in these parts, but I hope it will not be the last, 
for there are men in all these places (blessed be God), some at 
least, that have a great desire of hearing the gospel preached. 
Next day rode to James Love's, on Broad River : Thursday, 
preached." On Broad River his congregation was eflfected under 
his preaching. It is not unlikely that son^ latitude of expression 
was used by those who gave him the statements he records. It 
is very Ukely that he was the first minister the people heard in 
those neighborhoods ; but those who had never heard a sermon 
were comparatively few, as the mass of the early settlers were of 
a parentage that taught their children the way to church. There 
were, however, some settlers from the older parts of the State that 
had not been much accustomed to any religious forms. 

" Friday, the I4th, took my leave of these parts, and set out 
for the Waxhaws, forty-five miles, good; that night reached 
Thomas Farrel's, where I lodged till Sabbath day ; then rode to 
James Patton's, about two miles, and preached to a pretty large 
congregation of Presbyterian people. Wednesday, preached 
again in the same place, and crossed the Catawba river and came 
to Henry White's." Here he remained till Sabbath ; part of the 
time sick of the flux, but was able to preach on Sabbath, the 
2dd, at " the meeting-house " five miles ofi*; and went home with 
Justice Dickens. On the Monday following he set out for the 
Yadkin, retracing his steps ; lodging that night at Henry Neely's, 
where his disorder returned upon liim, and kept him till Sabbath, 
when he rode six miles, to James Alexander's, and preached. 
From thence he proceeded to Justice Alexander's, on Rocky 
River^ twelve miles ; thence on to* Captain Lewis's, in the Welch 
settlement, and there tarried some days as before, and preached 
the first Sabbath of December (the 7th); thence to William 
Recce's ; and on the next Sabbath (the 14th) he preached in the 
" new meeting-house," near Mr. Osborne's ; the next, at Coddle 
Creek ; and passing on he called on David Templeton, William 
Denny, Justice Carruth, and John Andrew, and preached on 
Sabbath, the 28th, at Cathey's meeting-house, now called Thya- 
tira, to a large audience. Here he was urged to remain and 

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divide his time with that congregation and Rocky River. The 
congregation, however, was divided in their preference, some for 
the old side, and some for the new ; and the movements to settle 
a minister mifortmiately became a party question. Being ur- 
gently solicited, he preached the next Sabbath at the same church, 
and his firiends made out their subscription. On the whole, he 
thought it unadvisable to prosecute the matter. After visiting 
Second Creek, and preaching at Captain Hampton's, he passed on 
to the Yadkin, and having crossed it with difficulty, he lodged 
with his former host, Mr. Sloan, and preached in '' the meeting- 
house " on the second Sabbath of January, the 11th day, in com- 
pany with Mr. Miller, the Baptist minister, from Jersey, of whom 
as a Christian man he speaks favorably. 

On Tuesday, January 13th, 1756, he set out on a journey down 
the Cape Fear river, to Wihnington, in company with a Mr. Van 
Clave, and reached Huary, thirty miles, and preached the next 
day, Wednesday. The next day he reached Smith's, at the Sand 
HUls, and remained till Sabbath ; in public worship he could find 
no one to join in singing a part of a psalm. On Monday, the 19th, 
set off in company with Mr. Smith, who was going to court, and 
rode fifty miles to McKay's. Next day rode thirty miles to Anson 
court-house. Here he met with an old acquaintance, James 
Stewart, and went home with him and remained till Saturday, and 
preached at the court-house, and rode to the New Store. On 
Sabbath, the 25th, he rode to Hector McNeill's, " and preached to^ 
a number of Highlanders, — some of them scarcely knew one 
word that I said, — the poorest singers I ever heard in all my hfe./ 
Next day rode to David Smith's, on the other side of Little River, 
fourteen miles ; on Tuesday, preached to a considerable nimiber 
of people who came to hear me at Smith's. Wednesday, rode up 
to Alexander McKay's, upon the Yadkin road, thirty miles ; 
Thursday, preached to a small congregation, mostly of Highland-^ 
ers, who were very much obliged to me for coming, and highly \ 
pleased with my discourse. Though, alas, I am afiraid it was all 
but feigned and hypocritical." His reason for this fear was, some 
stayed around the house all night and indulged in drinking and 
profane language, in spite of his remonstrances, and ahnost entirely 
prevented his rest. ^ 

On Friday he " set off down the river, thirty miles, to Neill 
Beard's ;" then he preached on Sabbath, 1st of February, to a 
'* mixed multitude, some Presbyterians, some church pe(^le, some 
Baptists, and don't know but some Quakers." However, they ex- 

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pressed themselves highly pleased with his visit. On Monday, 
the 2d, l^ rode to a Mr. James Semes's, about five miles, a sick 
family whom he visited, and preached in their house to the neigh- 
bors assembled ; and in the evening rode on to Mr. Robinson's, ** a 
very aflfable gentleman," with whom he tarried till Wednesday, 
and then accompanied to the court-house in Bladen county, 
where he preached to a considerable congregation ; and " in the 
evening went home with old Justice Randle, about two miles." 
On Thursday he preached at George Brown's, three miles off, and 
went on three miles further to Neal Shaw's, and the next day to 
Duncan McCoulsky's ; and on Sabbath, the 8th, rode to Esquire 
McNeill's, where he preached to a small congregation, the day 
being wet. " After the sermon a proposal was made to get me to 
come and settle among them ; and I think I never saw people 
more engaged, or subscribe with greater freedom and cheerfulness 
in my life. May the Lord, in much mercy, prepare me for some 
usefulness in the world, and direct me to what will be most for 
his own glory, and the good of precious souls !" 

" On Monday, 9th, crossed tbe swamp and came to Baldwin's, 
on the Whitemarsh, about five miles, where I tarried all night, and 
preached the next day to a very few irregular sort of people, who, I 
believe, know but little about the principles of any religion." In the 
evening he rode home with Mr. Kerr, four miles. On Wednes- 
day he set out for Wilmington, and rode thirty miles to young Mr. 
Granger's, " a very discreet gentleman, who entertained me with a 
great deal of courtesy ;" on Thursday he rode fifteen miles to Pre- 
sident Roan's ; and on the next day fifteen miles further to the 
ferry, and then crossed by water, four miles, to Wilmington. 

Here he preached. Sabbath, the 15th, " in the A.M., to a large and 
'^ splendid audience, but was surprised when I came again in the 
P.M., to see about a dozen met to hear me." This small number 
\^eatly depressed his spirits, and probably hastened his departure 
from the place on the Tuesday following. On that day he rode 
twenty-five miles, to Cowen's, up the Northeast Cape Fear, and on 
the next day to old Mr. Evans's, in the Welch Tract. 

There he preached on Sabbath, 22d, designing to move on 
homeward, " but I was detained by the affection and entreaties of 
this people, who earnestly pressed upon me to tarry with them 
another Sabbath ; their design herein was that they might have 
time to get a subscription drawn up, that they might put in a call 
for me." On Sabbath, the 29th, he preached again to the same 

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HUGH m'aden. 173 

people, who expressed great desire for his return, and made out a 
call for him as their pastor. 

On Tuesday, March 2d, he rode to Mr. Bowen's, about ten 
miles, on Black River ; and on the next day six miles further, and 
preached, then crossed the river and rode about five miles to South 
River, where he lodged with Mr. Anderson. On Thursday crossed 
Collie's Swamp, then in a bad condition — " lodged at old Mr. Grife 
Jones's ;" on the next day crossed the Northwest, and lodged at 
George Brown's, where he preached on Sabbath, March 7th. 
While in this neighborhood, he was grieved to find some, who had 
been brought up under the influence of the gospel in other parts, 
become dissolute and indulging infidel notions, since their abode 
in this region where the gospel was not regularly preached, and in 
fact scarcely heard. 

On Monday, the 8th, crossed the Northwest, and being de- 
tained by the rain, and some other business, he rode but about ten 
miles, to Mr. Isaac Jones's, **a good honest Quaker, and an 
assemblyman." The next day, crossed Colhe's Swamp again, 
which was now overflowed, and caused much trouble by swim- 
ming the horses — " and got to Mr. Anderson's again about 12 
o'clock ;" that same day, he rode on to Mr. Lewis's, on Black 
River, about twenty-five miles. On Wednesday, he went fifteen 
miles, to John James's, and preached. By the high waters he was 
detained in the Welch Tract till after the second Sabbath of March. 
On Thursday, 18th, he rode to Jeremiah Holden's, about twenty 
miles ; and on the next morning, about three miles, to Mr. Dick- 
son's, the clerk of Duplin county, where he preached on Sab- 
bath, the 21st, to a considerable congregation, most of whom were 

" The people here being very desirous to join with the Welch 
Tract, in putting in a call for me, and many of their best friends 
being abroad upon business, they insisted so strongly upon me, that 
I was forced to consent to stay with them another day. Tuesday, 
rode up to Goshen in company with Mr. Dickson, and several 
more. Came to Mr. Gaven's, twelve miles, where we tarried all 
night ; next day preached, and returned to Mr. Dickson's." On 
Sabbath, 28th, he preached at John Miller's, about two miles 
distant. The people seemed all very hearty in giving him a call, 
and making a proper support for him. 

On Monday, the 29th, he set out from Mr. Dickson's home- 
ward ; tarried that night at Mr. Gaven's, twelve miles ; next day 
crossed Neuse, and tarried with Joshua Herring, about thirty 

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miles. This man was out early in the morning, and assembled 
his neighbors, and detained him to preach to them at noon. In 
the evening, rode to Mr. Herring's, senior, about twelve miles. 
" The next morning, set out upon my journey for Pamlico, and 
rode about ten miles, to Major McWain's, where I had opportunity 
of seeing and conversing with Governor Dobbs, who is a very so- 
ciable gentleman." That night he lodged at Peter's Ferry, on 
Cuttentony, about twenty miles, it being too late to go fiarther. 
The next day, he rode about forty miles, to Salter's Ferry, on 
Pamlico. The next day, being Saturday, he came to Thomas 
Little's, where he remained over Sabbath, April 4th. ' This man 
had not heard a Presbyterian minister in the twenty-eight years he 
had lived in Carolina, and took the opportunity of sending round 
for his neighbors, and collected a congregation ; and kept Mr. 
McAden till Wednesday, to preach again. " I found some few 
amongst them, that I trust are God's dear children, who seemed 
much refreshed by my coming." 

On the 7th day of April, Wednesday, after sermon, he rode to 
Mr. Barrow's, about five miles ; and the next day, about five or 
six miles, to the Red Banks, " where I preached to a pretty large 
company of various sorts of people, but fewer Presbyterians. In 
the evening, rode up the river, ten miles, to Mr. Mace's, who is a 
man of considerable note, and a Presbyterian." Here he remained 
till Sabbath, the 11th, and preached in the neighborhood. 

On Tuesday, April 13th, he set out homeward, and rode twenty 
miles, to Mr. Toole's, on Tar River ; this man he describes as 
unhappy in his notions of unbelief. On Wednesday, he rode 
thirty miles, to Edgecomb court-house ; the next day he reached 
Fishing Creek, about twenty-five miles ; and on Friday, he rode 
about ten miles up the creek, and was kindly received by the 
Baptist friends he made on his journey through the country the 
last fall. On Sabbath, 18th, he preached at their meeting-house. 
Here many came to converse with him about their experience. 
On the next day, he went home with Joseph Linsey, who had 
heard him preach. 

" He insisted very hard upon me to stay at Nut Bush, and give 
them a sermon, as they were very destitute and out of the way. I 
went home with him, about twenty-two miles, it being pretty much 
in my way, and preached." He found them a cheerful people, 
without the regular preaching of the gospel, and in a situation as 
might be expected, vrith abundance of wealth, and full leisure for 

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nuoH m'aden. 175 

On Wednesday he reached Captain Hampton's, about 35 
miles ; and on Thursday got to John Anderson's, — " who seemed 
Tcry joyful to see me returned so far back again ; " tarried till Sab- 
bath, and preached. On Tuesday, 27th, he preached at Hawfields ; 
on Wednesday at Eno : on Thursday rode down to Aaron Van- 
hook's ; and next day to John McFarland's, on Hico ; and there 
preached, Sabbath, the 2d of May. 

" Got ready to take my journey from Carolina, Thursday, the 
6th of May, 1756 ; that day rode in company with Solomon De- 
bow, who came to conduct me as far as John Baird's, on Dan 
River, twenty miles from Hico." From thence he set off alone. 
Passing through Amelia, we find him, on Sabbath, the 9th of May, 
at the house of Mr. Messauz, on James' River. Here the journal 
abruptly closes. 

It is interesting to follow the track of this early missionary. 
Many of the neighborhoods he mentions have at this day regular 
preaching ; in some there are large congregations and flourishing 
churches ; and some few have passed from the list of Presbyte- 
riai4 congregations. 

The time, and distances from place to place, have been given 
for the purpose of enabling those in the region of his route to trace 
his track. A comparison of the state of things as they appeared 
ninety years ago, vnth the present, may lead to profitable reflec- 
tions. These data are left with those who may feel interested in 
seaicjiing out the '* beginning of things." 

m'aDEN's labors as a pastor in north CAROLINA. 

Mr. McAden returned to Carolina, and became the settled minis- 
ter of the congregations in Duplin and New Hanover. He was 
ordained by the Presbytery of New Castle, in 1757 ; and in 1759 
was dismissed to join Hanover Presbytery, which then included 
a greater part of Virginia, and extended indefinitely south. He 
presented his credentials at a meeting of the Presbytery on Rock- 
fish, July 18th, 1759, having previously sat as a corresponding 

With these people he remained about ten years ; when, believ- 
ing that the influence of the climate upon his health was too un- 
favorable to justify his remaining longer in the lower part of the 
State, he removed to Caswell county, and there finished his days. 
At a meeting of Hanover Presbytery, at Buffalo, March 2d, 1768, 
for the purpose of ordaining Messrs. David Caldwell and Joseph 
Alexander, *' a call from thd churches of Hico, Dan River, and 

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County Line Creek," was put in for his pastoral services. At the 
same meeting he presided at the installation of the Rev. David 
Caldwell over the congregations of Buffalo and Alamance. This 
year, if not earlier, he became a resident of Caswell. An intima- 
cy had existed between him and this people for years, and he had 
laid their destitute condition before the Presbytery in 1759, " giving 
a moving representation of their difficulties." The names of these 
churches wera changed; and also the place of his labors in part. 
At the lime of his death he was preaching at Red House (Middle 
Hyco), Greer's (Upper Hyco), and to a church in Pittsylvania, 
" about half a day's ride " from his dwelling, near the Red House. 

Mr. McAden was united in marriage with a Miss Scott, of 
Lunenburg county, Virginia, whose family name was given to the 
neighborhood, formed by a company of emigrants from the North 
of Ireland, and called Scott's Settlement. A number of children 
were born to him in DupUn, the eldest of whom died in Caswell, 
in the year 1845. 

The following extract from a letter dictated by Dr. John Mc- 
Aden, the eldest son of the preacher, in his 8^ year, contains all 
we know of the habits of this pioneer of Carolina. The letter 
bears date — " Hyco Hills, Caswell county, Jan. 5th, 1845. My 
father was a very systematic man, — and he always spent one or 
two days every week in private study, — and if he walked into the 
fields he always carried his Bible with him. He visited with his 
elders once a year, all the famiUes within the bounds of his con- 
gregations, — and he would exhort and pray with them during his 
stay. He would collect all of his congregations once a year at 
his churches, and hold an examination of those present. He 
administered the sacrament at each of his churches twice every 
year. He spent his life in attempting to convince all of their sins, 
and in rendering happy those who were members of his congrega- 
tions, — ^respected and beloved by all who knew him. During the 
Revolution, tlie Lord God Almighty thought proper to remove this 
venerable man, whose influence will always be acknowledged with 
pleasure ; and he departed this life January 20th, 1781, leaving a 
wife and seven children. Two weeks after his death, the British 
encamped in the yard of the Red House church. They remained 
there some time, going about over the country, committing many 
depredations upon all the neighbors. And my father's long minis- 
terial services did not free him from their ravages, but tliey came 
to his kouse and searched it throughout, destroying nftiny things, 
and ibo many of his most valuable papers, on accomit of which, 

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HUGH m'adsn. 1T7 

the knowledge of my father is 00 limited, having been absent a 
greater part of my life at school in Guilford, !$» C, under the late 
Dr. Caldwell, and having arrived at home a few days before the 
death of my father. During the end||npment of the British in 
the yard of de Red House, they committed many depredations 
upon the chureh which were not repaired for many yeaj*." 

The visit df tbfi British referred to in this letter, took place, 
after Green had crossed the Dan, in the memorabh retreat before 
Comwallis, by which the march of Morgan into Virginia, with 
the prisoners taken at the Cowpens, was covered, and the American 
forces placed beyond the reach of the enemy, till reinforcements 
from Virginia' came in, and Greene could venture to f^ the enemy 
and provoke the famous battle of Guilford. It is a well-known 
iact that Comwallis's army ever showed a dislike to Presbyterian 
ministers, as the immediate cause of much of the stubborn resist 
ance which met them at every step in Carolina. McAden had 
rested from his labors before his house was plundered, like Cald- 
well's ; and he was spared the trial of being witness of the miseries 
of his congregation, and flying; like a criminal, to the forests and 
the dens of the earth, like his brother, of Guilford. 

Mr. McAden lies buried in the grave-yard, near the Red House, 
in Caswali county, about five miles from the flourishing town 
of Milton, the Pioneer in Duplin, New Hanover, Caswell, and 



For a long period there was no successor to Mr. McAden in 
Duplin and New Hanover. The congregations were serwd only 
by the precarious and desultory labors of occasional missionaries, 
and were dwindUng away. In 1793, John Robinson was licensed 
by Orange Presbytery, and directed to labor in Duplin. The 
mutual interest resulting from his first visit, led to his settlement ; 
and till the close of the century, hi0 successful labors were devoted 
to the remains of the congregations served by McAden for about 
ten years. They revived under his ministry. In the year 1800 
he removed to Fayelteville. 

The Rev. Samuel Stattford became a member of Orange Pres- 
bytery in 1796, and visited the low country before Mr. Robinson 
left, and became his successor. He extended his labors over the 
greater part of Duplin as a minister, and conducted a classical 
chool with success. The Aj^Aeray at the Grove has been J^ept 


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in operation, with some intermissions, for a long series of years. 
The pastors that have succeeded Mr. Stanford have been patrons 
or teachers of a classical school either at the Gtove, or near their 
own residence, and have kept alive the spirit of classical education, 
without w&ich there is no permanent attention to poUte literature, 
and sound philosophy, and true science. Mr. Stanford wore out 
his strength and days in the service of the people of Duplin, and 
finished his course in the year 1828. 

For a few years the Rev. S. D. Hatch labored with great suc- 
cess in Duplin ; and left the county for a more southern residence 
much against the desires of ah afiectionate people. 

Rev. Alexander Mclver ran a short race in Duplin, being 
arrested by sudden death, in the midst of his days and his use- 
^ Wilmington had no organized Presbyterian church till long 
/^ after the Revolution, engaging occasionally the services of well- 
educated men, who acted in the capacity of classical teachers and 
\ ministers of the gospel. Rev. James Tate, a Presbyterian minis- 
ter, came from Ireland to Wilmington, about the year 1760 ; and 
, for his support opened a classical school, the first ever taught in 
the place. He educated many of the yoimg men of New Hanover, 
who took an active part in the Revolution. While residing in 
Wilmington, he was accustomed to take excursions for preaching 
through New Hanover and the adjoining counties, particularly up 
the Black and South Rivers. In the course of his visits he bsyp- 
tized the children of the Scotch and Irish families, that chose to 
jpresent them, without any particular inquiry into the Christian 
experience of the parents, which would perhaps have been una- 
vailing of any good in the destitute condition of the country. It 
is supposed, however, that he practised upon the principle of ad- 
mitting to the ordinance the children of all those who had been 
themselves baptized, if not guilty of scandalous lives. He re- 
ceived a small fee for each baptism, either in money or in cotton 
yam ; and this appears to have been all his salary and all the 
remuneration for his joumeyings and services. 

During the Revolutionary war, being a staunch whig in his 
principles, he found it prudent to leave Wilmington and seek a 
residence in the upper country. He declined all ofiers to be con- 
nected with a congregation ; engaged in frequent preachings in 
destitute neighborhoods desirous of hearing the gospel. He made 
his home in the Hav^rfields, in Orange. Courteous in his manners, 
especially to females, he was never married. Particularly neat in 

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his dress, and winning in his conversation, his company was prized 
by young people ; and his influence oyer them was highly, Anprov- 
ing to their manners, morals, and mental culture. 

About the ye^ 1T70, the first church building was ^t up on 
Black River, near where the Black River Chapel now stands. 

About the year 1785, Rev. William Binghani, from Ireland, 
conunenced preaehing in Wilmington and the surrounding country. 
He sustained himself by a classical school, in the management of 
which he attained great excellence and ^clat. He removed to the 
upper country, and taught with great success in Chatham and in 
Orange. His mantle, as teacher, fell upon his sons. 

About the year 1790, the Rev. Colin Lindsey, a man of exten- 
sive education, fine appearance, and superior talents as a speaker, 
came over from Scotland on invitation, and settled on Black River, 
on the place now owned by Mr. Sellars. His stay was shortX 
Difficulties of a moral nature arose ; and in about two years he 
removed to Robeson. Having bought a yoke of oxen on a Satur- 
day, at a sale, he permitted them to be driven home on the Sab- 
bath, alleging as a reason, want of food at tlie place of sale ; a 
member of his church remonstrating, he expressed strong dissatis- 
faiction at the liberty taken by a private member to reprove the 
minister. Hard words and hard feelings succeeded ; the congre- 
gation enlisted, and divided. To this grievance was added a 
charge of too free use of spirituous liquors, the distinction of a 
moderate use being admitted ; in consequence he removed first to 
Raft Marsh congregation, and from thence to Bethel. About the 
year 1802 he was deprived by Presbytery of his authority to 
preach, and was excommunicated. He continued, however, to 
preach and baptize whenever opportunity occurred; and furthej^ 
rendered himself obnoxious to the Presbytery of Orange, and the 
Synod of tlie Carolinas, by opposing the great revival of 1802. 
Seizing upon the irregularities that ac^mpanied that extensive . 
work, he denounced the whole as a delusion, and charged his 
former brethren with fanaticism, aad unkind and unrighteous disci- 
pline. By his talents and address he obtained many adherents, 
and greatly resisted the spread of religion, as taught by zealous 
ministers of the day. A notice of this man appears in the extracts 
from the records of the Synod of North Carohna for the year 1810. 
His latter days were unhappy, and in 1832 he died unreconciled 
to the Presbytery. Little is known of his religious exercises in 
his last days. * 

His wife was of the Hamilton family, so famous in Scotland and 

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Ireland. After the difficulties with her husband commenced, she 
was urged to return to Scotland, but refused. She survived her 
husband some years ; her last days were cheered by the ^Eunily 
with wh(xn she resided, by the name of McGlaughlin, whose par- 
tiality for the name and race of the Hamiltons was expressed in 
unremitting attentions to her in her infirmities. 

Early in the year 1798, the Rev. Robert Tate, a licentiate of 
Orange Presbytery, reared in the Hawfields, about two miles east 
of the place of worship, visited New Hanover and Duplin, and 
became a resident minister. He was ordained in 1799. His 
preaching-places have been mostly in New Hanoyer. His first 
conftnunion was on Rockfish, near where the church now stands. 
Four persons united with him and his wife, viz. : Timothy Blood- 
worth and his wife, and Timothy Wilson and his wife. Mr. Blood- 
worth was much in public life, — collector of the port of Wilming- 
ton, and member of Congress from that district. In his old age, 
he prepared for the ministry, but some pecuniary misfortunes pre- 
vented his entrance upon the duties of the office. 

Under Mr. Tate, Rockfish, Keith, and Hopewell sprang up 
and opened the doors of the sanctuary to a large region of coun- 
try. The scene of McAden's labors had become a desolation ; 
but the church still hves in New Hanover, and has hope of con- 
tinuance. Black River congregation was for a long time a sharer 
of Mr. Tate's ministerial labors. Besides the refireshing influence 
enjoyed in common with his brethren, in 1802, and for some suc- 
ceeding years, and various more limited manifestations of divine 
presence, the congregations generally in New Hanover, were vi- 
sited, in 1632, with a refreshing influence, which added many to 
the visible ehurch of Christ, and promoted piety and the life of 

The laborers in that part of the Lord's vineyard embraced by 
New Hanover, and Diqplin, and Sampson, have great reason to 
be encouraged, while they labor in the field trod by the first Pres- 
byterian missionaries to Caroliha, and hallowed by the sepulchres 
of the ancient dead. When another century shall have passed, 
may there be found worthy successors in the ministry, and flour- 
ishing churches in the vast Turp^atine Region; and may the 
blessings of grace be as ceaseless to the inhabitants as the flow 
of their annual temporal wealth. 

m'aDBN'^ places of preaching while RESIDINO in CASWELL 


Colonel James Smith, of Tennessee, an emigrant from North 

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HUGH m'aDEN. 181 

Carolina, and son of Colonel Samuel Smith, one of the fomiders 
of Grassy Creek church, in Granville coimty, in a letter to Dr. 
Alexander Wilson, of Caldwell Institute, says, *^ some time be- 
tween 1755 and 1760, Samuel Bell, with his brothers and son-in- 
law, Donnell, removed from Pennsylvania, and settled in the forks 
of Hico. They were strict Presbyterians, and were soon sup- 
plied with preaching by a Mr. Black, afterwards by Mr. McAden, 
from the lower part of the State." It appears that this gentleman 
was not aware that McAden had previously visited Hico, and 
found a few families of Prei^byterians already there, and that Mr. 
Pattillo had been invited there in 1758. The emigrants he men- 
tions formed the congregation of Upper Hico (now Greers) ; from 
other families Mr. McAden organized Middle Hico (Red House) ; 
and from the emigration of the Bamet family and their friend^i he 
gathered Bamef s, or Lower Hico. 

Mr. Smith states that about the time the Bells settled in the 
forks, Hugh Bamet, his brother, and their friends, seated them- 
selves some fifteen or twenty miles southeast of that settlement, 
and planted a church, which was frequently called Barnet's, 
sometimes Crisweirs, from their first minister, James Criswell, 
who was Ucensed by Hanover Presbytery. This church was 
sometimes also called Lower Hico, and though it has ceased to 
have a place in the records of the church, it at one time contained 
more members than any of the sister chur(^s in the State. 

There was another church in Caswell of long standing, called 
Bethany, or Rattlesnake, situated on the road from Milton to 
Yanceyville, near the residence of Mr. George Williamson. It 
was never under the care of Mr. McAden. For a long time it 
was a flourishing church, and for a series of yeais enjoyed the 
labors of Rev. Ebenezer B. Currie, now (1846) the oldest mi- 
nister in Orange Presbytery. This church has been divided, and 
the old place of preaching abandoned ; one part of the church 
and congregation worshipping in Yanceyville, and the other form- 
ing the church of Gilead, some five miles southwest of Milton. 

Mr. McAden had another place of preaching, and a church or- 
ganized near Pittsylvania court-house, in Virginia, on which he 
regularly attended during his life. May the church now rising in 
Pittsylvania come up Uke a phoenix from the ashes of the more 
ancient and almost forgotten, though once flourishing, congrega- 

The Bell family, says Mr. Smith, early removed from this to 
Guilford, carrying their attachment to religion and to Presby- 

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terianism aloog wkfa them, and their descendants are to be found 
there to this day. Two of the schis of Samuel Bell, and the 
daughter, DonneU, removed to the west, still carrying their at^ 
tachment to religion and Presbyterianism along with them. The 
two sons lived to an advanced age. One of them, while on his 
knees at family prayer, feJtered in his voice, and said, *^ What 
is this T — and ceased to breathe. But of this £unily, says Mr. 
Smith (many years since), sprung four preachers of strong com- 
mon sense, fiill of zeal, and eminent for piety. By this &mily 
much has been done for propagating the gospel in Tennessee, 
Kentucky, Alabama, Mississippi, and the Cherokee nation. 

The Covenant of God stands sure. " I will be a God to thee 
and thy children after thee.*^ 

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The first Presbyterian minister that took his residence in Western 
Carolina, and die third in the State, was Alexander Craighead. In 
what part of Ireland he was born, or in what year he emigrated to 
America, is not a matter of record. The name of Craighead is of 
frequent occurrence in the history of the Church of Scotland and 
of Ireland, tad holds an honorable place among the ministry. 
The tradition m the family of Mr. Craighead, as related by Mr. 
Caruthers, was, that his father and grandfather, and perhaps his an- 
cestors further back, were ministers of the gospel, strongly attached 
to the church, and reputed as truly pious. 'A Mr. Thomas Craig- 
head was among the first ministers of Donegal Presbytery, — a 
native of Scotland, ordained in Ireland, — emigrating to New Eng- 
land, and there remaining from 1715 to 1721, — uniting with the 
Presbytery of New Castle in 1724, — ^he finished his course in 1738. 

The first notice we have of Mr. Alexander Craighead, as member 
of the Synod of Philadelphia, appears in the record of the Synod 
for the year 1736, September 16th : " the Presbytery of Donegal 
report that Mr. Alexander Craighead was last winter ordained to 
the work of the ministry, and at that time did adopt the Westmin- 
ster Confession of Faitii, &c. ; and also, both he and Mr. John 
Paul, lately from Ireland, having now heard the several resolutions 
and acts of the Synod in relation to the adopting said Confession, 
&C., did before the Synod declare their agreement thereunto." In 
this minute, reference is made to the proceedings of the Synod the 
previous year respecting the employing of ministers fi-om abroad, 
requiring of them an express acknowledgment of the Westminster 
Confession of Faith and Catechisms, before the Presbytery, as con- 
dition of admission. 

Being an exceedingly zealous man, of an ardent temperament, 
devoted to the work of the ministry, he was noted for preaching 
sermons peculiarly calculated to awaken careless sinners* Anxious 
for the salvation of men, and dreading the awful consequences of 
that stupidity on the subject of religion, so apparenk around him, 
he favored those measures for bringing men to Christ which were 

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not SO accefflaMc to his brethren in the Presbytery. He was ac- 
cused of irregularities before his Presbytery in 1740. No immoral- 
ities were alleged against him, or false doctrines charged on him ; 
the complaint was against various proceedings of his thought to be 
irregular. This was about the time of the great revival of religion, 
which in the course of a few years was felt all over the Protestant 
world, began to be ^en in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, and 
the neighboring counties — an account of which from the pen of 
Samuel Blair is read with unabating interest ; and the commence- 
ment of those discussions which led to the dismemberment of the 
Synod of Philadelphia in 1745. 

The Presbjrtery were unable to make any conclusion of the mat- 
ter ; for while the majority were against him, his vehonent appeals 
to the public turned the sympathies of the community in his favor. 
The charge of irregularity he rebutted by the recriminating charge 
of Pharisaism, coldness and formality ; and in the ardor of his 
defence he was not very measured in his epithets and comparisons. 

In the year 1741 the' case was carried up to the Synod, and was 
debated with much earnestness. The great revival in Mr. Blair's 
congregation in Fagg's Manor had spread to many of the congre- 
gations that had previously been unmoved, and the whole commu- 
nity, bioth religious and irreligious, were agitated, not so much on the 
subject of doctrines, as of measures, not of orthodoxy in the creed, 
but of prudence and propriety in the conduct of diurch matters 
generally, and the peculiar manner of administering the Word of 
Ood, from which error in belief and practice might arise. The 
case of Mr. Craighead was lost sight of by the action consequent 
upon the protest brought in by Rev. Robert Cross, signed by him- 
self and eleven ministers and eight elders. The members of New 
Brunswick Presbytery withdrew, and Mr. Craighead withifrew with 
them. His name does not appear on the list of either Synod of 
New York or Philadelphia until the year 1763, when he appears upon 
the roll of the Synod of New York as an absentee. From the records 
for 1755, he appeal^ as member of New Castle Presbytery. During 
the interval from 1745 to 1753, he was for a time an associate with 
the Cameronians. He was a great admirer of Whitefield's spirit 
and action ; and like the first minister among the Presbyterians in 
the lower part of the State, James Campbell, drank deeply of the 
same fountain of truth and love. Like the man they admired, both 
these ministers possessed the power of moving men ; and both left 
an impress upon the community in which they lived in Carolina, 
and stamped an image on the churches they gathered, which are 

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visible to tbis day. To all human appearance there has been a 
great amount of fervent piety among the churches gathered and 
watered by these men, which has been bequeathed to their descend- 
ants from generation to generation, as a precious inheritance of the 
covenant of faitL 

Previous to the time that Mr. Craighead's name appears upon the 
roll of the Synod of New York, 1753, he removed to Virginia, pro- 
bably about the year 1749, and took his residence in the county of 
Augusta, on the Cow Pasture river, in the bounds of the present 
"Windy Cove congregation. There is upon the minutes of the Phi- 
ladelphia Synod, in the year 1752, a mention of a Mr. Craighead, 
the Christian name not given, and the Presbytery vnth which he 
held his connection not mentioned. 

Mr. Alexander Craighead's name was enrolled among the mem- 
bers set off for the formation of the Presbytery of Hanover, as ap- 
pears from the following extract from minutes of the Synod of 
New York for 1755 : " A petition was brought into the Synod set- 
ting forth the necessity of erecting a new Presbytery in Virginia, 
the Synod therefore appoint the Rev. Samuel Davies, John Todd, 
Alex^der Craighead, Robert Henry, John Wright, and John 
Brown, to be a Presbytery under the name of the Presbytery of 
Hanover, and that their first meeting shall be in Hanover, on the 
first Wednesday of December next, and that Mr. Davies open said 
meeting by a sermon ; and that any of their members settling to 
the southward and westward of Mr. Hogge's congregation, shall 
have liberty to join said Presbytery of Hanover." 

Owing probably to the troubles in the country, Mr. Craighead 
did not meet with the Presbytery for some two years after its form- 

The defeat of Braddock on the 9th of July, 1755, had thrown 
the frontiers of Virginia at the mercy of the Indians. The inroads 
of the savages were frequent and murderous. Terror reigned 
throughout the valley. Mr. Craighead occupying a most exposed 
situation, his preaching-place being a short distance from the 
present Windy Cove church, and his dwelling on the farm now 
occupied by Mr. Andrew Settlington — in a settlement on the Vir- 
ginia frontier, and open to the incursions of the savages, fled with 
those of his people who were disposed and able to fly, and sought 
safety in less exposed situations, after having lived in Virginia 
about six years. Crossing the Blue Ridge, he passed on to the more 
quiet regions in Carolina, and found a location among the settle- 
ments along the Catawba and its smaller tributaries, in the bounds 

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of what is now Mecklenburg county. Mr. Craighead first met 
with Hanover Presbytery at Cub Creek, Sept. 2d, 1767. At a 
meeting of the Presbytery in Cumberland, at Capt Anderson's, Jan- 
uary, 1758, Mr. Craighead was directed to preach at Rocky River, 
on the second Sabbath of February, and visit the other vacancies 
till the spring meeting. At the meeting of the Presbytery in 
April, a call from Rocky River was presented for the services of 
Mr. Craighead. He accepted the call, and requested installation. 
*^ Presbytery hereby consent that Mr. Craighead should accept the 
call of the people on Rocky River, in North Carolina, and settle 
with them as their minister, and they appoint Mr. Martin to preside 
at his installation at such time as best suits them both." This ap- 
pointinent Mr. Martin failed to fulfil, and in September, Mr. William 
Richardson, on his way to the Cherokees, was appointed to per- 
form the duty. This appointment was fulfilled, though the day of 
the services is not given. From this record it appears that the 
name of the oldest church in the upper country was Rocky River ; 
and it included Sugar Creek in its bounds. In 1765 the bounds of 
all the congregations were adjusted by order of the Synod. 

In this beautiful, fertile and peaceful country, Mr. Craighead 
passed the remainder of his days, in the active duties of a fi*ontier 
minister of the gospel, and ended his successful labors in bis Mas- 
ter's vineyard in the month of March, 1766 ; the solitary minister 
between the Yadkin and Catawba. 

In this retired country, too, he found full and undisturbed exer- 
cise for that ardent love of personal liberty and freedom of opinion 
which had rendered him obnoxious in Pennsylvania, and was in 
some measure restrained in Virginia. He was ahead of his minis- 
terial brethren in Pennsylvania in his views of civil governmait 
and religious liberty, and became particularly offensive to the (jo- 
vernor for a pamphlet of a political nature, the authorship of which 
was attributed to him. This pamphlet attracted so much attention, 
that in 1743 Thomas Cookson, one of his Majestjr's justices, for the 
county of Lancaster, in the name of the Governor, laid it before the 
Synod of Philadelphia. The Synod disavowed both the pamphlet 
and Mr. Craighead ; and agreed with the Justice that it was calcu- 
lated to foment disloyal and rebellious practices, and disseminate 
principles of disaffection. 

In the State of Virginia to which he removed, the disabilities 

upon those who dissented from the established government, were 

. ill-suited to the spirit of such a man as Mr. Craighead. To fight 

r with savages, to defend the firontiers, and shield ttie plantations of 

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Eastern Virginia ; for men that codd not yield to his congregation 
the privilege of being married according to the ceremonies of the 
church to which they belonged, and who required of them to sup- 
port a ministry on whose ordinances, public and private, they would 
not attend, could not be agreeable to a spirit that longed for all the 
freedom that belongs to man, and in hta aspirations for what he had 
not seen, and scarcely knew how to comprehend, indulged in lati- 
tude of thought and expression alarming even to emigrants from 
Ireland, whose minds had not been restrained in their speculations 
about religious and civil liberty. 

In Carolina, he found a people remote from the seat of authority, 
among whom the intolerant laws were a dead letter, so far divided 
from other congregations, even of his own faith, that there could be 
no coUbion with him, on account of faith or practice ; so united in 
their general principles of religion and church government, that he 
was the teacher of the whole population, and here his spirit rested. 
Here he passed his days; here he poured forth his principles of 
religious and civil government, undisturbed by the jealousy of the 
government, too distant to be aware of his doings, or too careless to 
be interested in the poor and distant emigrants on the Catawba. 

Mr. Craighead had the privilege of forming the principles, both 
civil and religious, in no measured degree, of a race of men that 
feared God, and feared not labor and hardship, or the face of man ; 
a race that sought for freedom and property in the wilderness, 
and having found them, rejoiced, — a race capable of great excel- 
lence, mental and physical, whose minds could conceive the glorious 
idea of Independence, and whose convention announced it to the 
world, in May, 1775, and whose hands sustained it in the trying 
scenes of the Revolution. 

About the time the emigration from Ireland, through Pennsylva- 
nia, began to occupy the beautiful valley of Virginia, and the 
waters of the Roanoke, some scattered families were found follow- 
ing the Indian traders' path to the wide prairies on the east of the 
Catawba, and west of the Yadkin. From the similarity of names, 
in the absence of other proof, it is very probable that these settle- 
ments, in the beautiful Mesopotamia of Carolina, were formed from 
emigrants from the same parts of Ireland that nurtured the youth of 
the ancestors of the congregation on Opecquon, in Frederick 
county, in Virginia, and the congregation of the Tripleforks of 
Shenandoah, in Augusta. These in Virginia were commenced about 
the year 1737 ; those in Carolina must have been soon after. By 
means of the memoranda preserved by the Claik family, that have 

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lived more than a century along the Cape Fear river, it is ascer* 
tained that a family, if not a company, of emigrants went to the 
west of Yadkin, as all the upper country was then called, as early 
as the year 1746, to join some families that were living sequestered 
in that fertile region. This, the oldest positive date that is now 
known, indicates a previous settlement, the time of whose arrival 
cannot be found out, as the records of courts are all silent, and the 
offices of ike foreign landowners were not then opened for the sale 
of these remote fields and forests. 

The emigrants from Ireland, holding the Protestant faith, the first 
to leave the place of their birth, for the enjoyment of fireedom, in 
companies sufficient to form settlements, sought the wilds of Ame- 
rica by two avenues, the one, by the Delaware River, whose chief 
port was Philadelphia, and the other, by a more southern landing, 
the port of Charleston, South Carolina. Those landing at the 
southern port, immediately sought the fertile forests of the upper 
country, approaching North Carolina on one side, and Georgia on 
the other ; and not being very particular about boundaries, extended 
southward at pleasure, while, on the north, they were checked by a 
counter tide of emigration. Those who landed on the Delaware, 
after the desirable lands east of the Alleghanies, in Pennsylvania, 
were occupied, turned their course southward, and were speedily on 
the Catawba : passing on, they met the southern tide, and the 
stream turned westward, to the wilderness long known as ^ Beyond 
the Mountaifis /' now, as Tennessee. These two streams, fr(»n the 
same original fountain, Ireland, meeting and intermingling in this 
new soil, preserve the characteristic difference, the one, possessing 
some of the air and manner of Pennsylvania, and the other, of 
Charleston. These are the Puritans, the Roundheads of the South, 
the Blue-stockings of all countries ; men that settled the wilderness 
on principle, and for principle's sake ; that built churches from prin- 
ciple, and fought for liberty of person and conscience as their 
acquisition, and the birthright of their children. 

Passing along the upper stage route firom South Carolina, through 
the " Old North State,"" to the ** 0« Dominion;' the traveller is 
conducted through the pleasant villages of Charlotte, Concord, 
Salisbury, Lexington, Greensborough, and then either through 
Hillsborough to the capital of North Carolina, Raleigh, or through 
Danville or Milton, on to the River of Powhatan. This is the line of 
settlements of the emigrants from Ireland, as they sought a residence 
in this beautiful upper country. After passing Qiarlotte, the first ob- 
ject of importance that meets the eye of one searching for localities, 
is the plain brick meeting-house, of the Sugar Creek congregation. 

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about ibree miles north of the village. This is the present place 
of worship of part of the oldest Presbyterian congregation in the 
upper country, in some measure the Parent of the Seven 
C(»(GREOATiONS that formed the Convention in Gkarlotte, in 1775. 
The Indian name of the creek, which gave name to the congrega- 
tion, was pronounced Sugaw or Soogawy and in the early records 
of the Church, was written Sugaw ; but for many years it has been 
written according to the common pronunciation, ending the word 
with the letter r, instead of ti7. This brick church is the third 
hoffaee of worship used by the congregation ; the first stood about half 
a mile west jGrom this, and the second, aibw steps south, the pulpit 
being over the place now occupied by the pastor's grave. 

Previous to the year 1750, the emigration to this beautiful but 
distant frontier was slow, and the solitary cabins were found upon 
the borders of pndries, and in the vicinity of canebrakes, the 
immense ranges abounding with wild game, and affording suste- 
nance the whole year, for herds of tame cattle. Extensive tracts 
of country between the Yadkin and the Catawba, now waving with 
thrifty forests, then were covered with tall grass, with scarce a 
bush or shrub, looking at first view as if immense grazing farms 
had been at once abandoned, the houses disappearing, and the 
abundant grass luxuriating in its native wildness and beauty, the 
wild herds wandering at pleasure, and nature rqoicing in undis- 
turbed quietness. 

From about the year 1760, family after family, group after group, 
succeeded in rapid progression, led on by reports sent back by the 
adventurous pioneers of the fertility and beauty of those solitudes, 
where conscience was free, and labor all voluntary. By the time 
that Mr. McAden visited the settlements in 1755 and 1756, they 
were in sufficient numba^ to form a congregation in the centre 
spot Many of the early settlers were truly pious, many others had 
been accustomed to attend upon and support the ordinances of God's 
house. Intermingled were some that delighted, in these solitudes, to 
throw off all restraint, and live in open disregard of the ordinances 
of God, and as far as was safe, in defiance of the laws of man. 
The pious and the moral united in the worship of Grod, and formed 
the congregation of Sugaw Creek, which knew no other bounds than 
the distance men and women could walk or ride to church, which 
was often as much as fifteen miles, as a regular thing, and twenty 
for an occasional meeting. 

At the time of the settlement of Mr. Craighead, the county of 
Anson extended from Bladen indefinitely west, having been set off 

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in 1749, as a separate county. In the year 1762, the county of 
Mecklenburg was set off from Anson, and took its name in honor 
of the reigning house of Hanover ; and the county seat, in the 
bounds of Sugaw Creek congregation, and about three miles from 
the church, was called Charlotte, in honor of the Princess Charlotte 
of Mecklenburg. 

About the year 1765, by order of the Synod of New York and 
Philadelphia, the congregations that surround Sugar Creek were 
organized by the Rev. Messrs. Spencer and M'Whorter, as appears 
from the Records of Synod as follows : — ^viz., Elizabethtown, Mspf 
23d, 1764, — ^^ Synod more particularly considering the state of 
many congregations to the southward, and particularly North Caro- 
lina, and the great importance of having those congregations pro- 
perly organized, appoint the Rev. Messrs. Elihu Spencer and 
Alexander M'Whorter, to go as our missionaries for that purpose ; 
that they form societies, help them in adjusting their bounds, to 
ordain elders, administer sealing ordinances, instruct the people in 
discipline, and finally direct them in their after conduct," &c. On 
the 16th of May, 1765, this committee reported to the Synod that 
they had performed their mission; this report, however, has not 
been preserved. But we are not left at a loss for the names of part 
of the congregations whose bounds they adjusted, as, in that and the 
succeeding year, calls were sent in for pastors from Steel Creek, 
Providence, Hopewell, Centre, Rocky River, and Poplar Tent, which 
entirely surrounded Sugar Creek, besides those in Rowan and Ire- 

These seven congregations were in Mecklenburg, except a part 
of Centre which lay in Rowan (now Iredell), — and in their exten- 
sive bounds comprehended almost the entire county. From these 
came the delegates that formed the celebrated convention in Char- 

A visit to the localities of this congregation will reward the tra- 

Turning westward from this brick church, about half a mile 
through the woods, you find on a gentle ascent, the first burying 
ground of this congregation, and probably the oldest in Mecklen- 
burg county. A few rods to the east of the stone waif that surrounds 
it, stood a log church where Craighead preached, and where were 
congregated from Sabbath to Sabbath many choice spirits, that 
having worshipped the God of their fatherSi in this wilderness, far 
from their native land, now sleep in this yard. The house, to its 
very foundation, has passed away, and with it the generation that 

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gathered in it, upon the first settlement of the land Their deeds 
remain. The children of that race are passing away too ; scarce a 
man or woman lingers in the flesh ; and with them is passing, fast 
passing to oblivion, the knowledge of things, and men, and deeds, 
which posterity will fain dig from the rubbish of antiquity, and 
shall dig for in vain. The generation has passed, without a history, 
and almost without an epitaph. 

These little breaches you see in the time defyisig wall, feared by 
the emigrants around the burial place of their dead, were made by 
gold diggers, when the excitement first spread over the land upon 
the discovery, that these adventurous people had lived, and died, 
and were buried here, ignorant that there was, or could be, in their 
place of worship and sepulture, any deposit more dear to posterity 
than the ashes of their ancestors. Entering by the gateway at the 
north-western comer through which the emigrants carried their 
dead, a multitude of graves closely congregated, with a few scattered 
monuments, meet the eye. You cannot avoid the impression, as you 
move on, that you are walking upon the ashes of the dead ; and as 
you read some of the scanty memorials, reared by affection to mark 
the burial-places of firiends, that you are among the tombs of the 
first settlers who lie in crowds beneath your feet, without a stone to 
tell whose body is resting there in expectation of the resurrection. 

The first head-stone, a little distance from the gate, on the right, 
is inscribed, — ^^ Mrs. Jeboma Alexander Sharpe ; bom Jan, 9thy 
1727; died Sept. Ist^ 1797 ; a widdow 38 years.'^ An elder sister 
of the secretary of the convention, one of the earliest emigrants to 
this country, she used to say, that in the early days of her residence 
here, her nearest neighbor northward was eight miles, and south- 
ward and eastward, fifteen ; that the awming of a neighbor was a 
matter of rejoicing ; and that her heart was sustained in her solitude 
by the Doctrines of the Grospel and the Creed of her Church. 

In the southwest corner is an inscription to — Jane Wallis, who 
died July 31st, 1792, in the eightifeth year of her age, — the honored 
mother of the Rev. Mr. Wallis, minister of Providence, some fifteen 
miles south of this place, — ^the able defender of Christianity against 
infidelity spreading over the country at the close of the Revolution, 
like a flood. His grave is with his people. 

Near the middle of the yard is the stone inscribed to the memory 
of David Robinson, who died October 12th, 1808, aged eighty-two, 
— an emigrant, and the ftt&er of the late Dr. Robinson, who served 
the congregation of Poplar Tent about f(wty years, and ended his 
course in December, 1843. It was at a spring on this man's land, 

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and near his house, Aat the congregation of Sugar 'Credc and 
Hopewell used to meet and spend days of fasting and prayor to- 
gether, during the troublesome times of the early stages of the 
French Revolution. From- the peculiar formation of the ravine 
around the spring, the pious people were willing to believe that it 
was a place designed of God for his people to meet and sedc hi^ 

The oldest monument, but not the monument of the oldest grave, 
is a small stone thus inscribed. 

Here Lys the 

Body of Robert 

McKsc, who deceased 

October the 19th, 1775, 

Aged 73 years. 

Around lie many that were distinguished in the Revolution, without 
a stone to their graves, and not one with an epits^h that should 
tell the fact of ti^at honorable distinction. Perhaps the omission 
may haye arisen from the circumstance honorable to the country, 
that, with few exceptions, the whole neighborhood were noted for 
privations and suffering, and brave exploits in i cause sacred in 
their eyes. 

The most interesting grave is at the southeast comer, without 
an inscription or even a stone or mound to signify that the bones 
of any mortal are there. It is the grave of the Reverend Alex- 
jlSuer Craighead, the first minister of the congregation, and of the 
six succeeding ones whose members composed the entire conven- 
tion in Charlotte, in May, 1775. Tradition says that these two 
sassafras trees, standing, the one at the head, and the other at the 
foot of the grave, sprung from the two sticks on which, as a bier, 
the coffin of this memorable man was borne to the grave in March, 
1766. Being thrust into the ground to mark the spot temporarily, 
the green sticks, fresh from the mother stock, took root and grew. 
Was it an emblem 1 Were we as superstitious as the people of 
Europe a hundred years ago, we might read in this and the sur- 
rounding congregations, the fulfilment of this mute prophecy. 
The aspirations for liberty, which were too warm for the province 
of Pennsylvania or even Virginia, were congenial to the spirits 
here. When the hearts around him beat with his, Craighead 
ceased to be ^* tinged with an uncharitable and party spirit'' charged 
on him in Pennsylvania ; and the community which assumed its 
ibrm under his guiding hand, had the image of democratic republi- 
can liberty iiore fair than any sister settlement in all the south, 

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perhaps in all the United States. And hh religious creed as to 
doctrines, and also as to experience, has been the oreed of the 
Presbyterians of Meddenburg. Soundness of doctrine, according to 
Ae Confession of Faith, has been maintauied by his congregation at 
all hazards — and a standard of warm-hearted piety and ardent de- 
votion has been handed down as a legacy from their fathesl to suc- 
ceeding generations to which the churdi has always looked with 
kindling desire. Mr. Caruthers tells us, Mr. Omghead was sub- 
ject, in the latter part of his life, to dejection of i^its. This of 
course lessened his capability to labor ; and may account for the 
application from Rocky River for supplies in 1761, as he was the 
only minister in the country. 

Besides this double influence of the man, living and speaking 
after him, much of his spirit has been inherited by his descendants, 
and with it the affections of the people. He left two sons, and 
several daughters. One son, Thomas, licensed in 1778, supplied 
the congregation of his father for some time ; but declining a set- 
tlement in North Carolina, he ultimately r^noved to Tennessee ; — 
an eloquent preacher and warm-hearted man. He died a few 
years since near Kashville ; the latter part of his life rendered less 
us^iil by his difference with his brethren on the subject of the 
agency of the Word in the conversion of men. His thiid daughter, 
SLachel, was married to the Reverend David Caldwell of Guilford, 
whose life has been given lo the public by his successor, the Reve- 
rend Eli W. Caruthers, and became the mother of Samuel C. Cald- 
well, whose whole ministerial life, with small exception, was devot- 
ed to this, his grandfather's charge. His memorial, testifying to 
his service for thirty-five years, is near the new brick meeting-house. 

After the removal of Dr. Morrison to Davidson College, a great 
grandson of Craighead succeeded to his pulpit, John Madison Mc- 
Knitt Caldwell, the son of S. C. Caldwell, and served them till the 
year 1845. 

^' Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like 
his. Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord, from henceforth, 
yea, saith the spirit, that they may rest from their labors, and thdr 
works do follow them." 

The immediate successor of Mr. Craighead was Joseph Alexai^- 
der, a connexion of the McKnitt branch qf Alexander^ a man of 
education and talents, of small stature, and exceedingly animated in 
his pulpit exercises. Licensed by New Castle Presbytery in 1767, 
in October of that year he presented his credentials to Handvet 
Presbyt^ at the Bird church, in Gh>ochland, and accepteci a call from 


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Sugar Creek. His ordination took place with that of Mr. David 
Caldwell on March 4th, 1768, at Buffalo. He read his lecture on 
John, 3d Chapter, 3d to 5th verse, on the third of March, and also 
his trial sermon on the word»*— *^ There is one mediator between Gh)d 
and man, the man Christ Jesus." Mr. Pattello presided at the in- 
stallation. On 'the third Friday in May, Mr. Caldwell performed 
the services of his installation as pastor of Sugar Creek. 

A fine scholar, he, in connection with Mr. Benedict, taught a clas- 
sical school of high excellence and usefulness. From Sugar Creek 
he removed to Bullock's Creek, South Carolina, and was long 
known in the church as a minister and teacher of youth for profes- 
sional life. A volume of his sermons was given to the public after 
his death. 

While the Presbyterians were laboring in vain to get a charter 
for a college, in Qiarlotte, confirmed by the king, the notorious 
Fanning offered to get a university of which he himself should be 
chancellor, and Mr. Joseph Alexander, who was noted as a teacher, 
should be first professor. But much as the people' desired a col- 
lege -and loved Alexander, they could not take one with sudi a 

Resuming to the Brick church, we enter the grave-yard by the 
roadside on the south. The first white stone that meets the eye, 
marks the grave of S. C. Caldwell, directly beneath the communion 
table of the log church he long occupied as minister, the spot where 
he stood when he took his ordination vows, and where he chose to 
be buried when he should have finished his course. Around the 
preacher sleeps the congregation who worshipped in the house 
that stood here during the Revolution. The pastor and people and 
building are passed away. The children that assembled here, in 
Revolutionary times, have grown old, and scarcely here and there 
one remains to tell the history of the exploits and sufferings of the 
war, and the traditions of the settlement The man that sleeps in 
that grave led the flock of his grandfather through the troublesome 
times that succeeded the Revolution, when the infidelity of France 
rolled its burning waves with fury across the whole continent 

Samuel C. Caldwell, the son of David Caldwell of Guilford, and 
grandson of Alexander Craighead, was licensed to preach the gos- 
pel, when but nineteen years of age, by the -Presbytery of Orange. 
Dr. Hall, of Iredell, used his influence, and none knew how to exer- 
cise it better with young men, in persuading him to accept the call 
made by his grandfather's congregation ; and preached Uie ordina- 
tion sermon on February 21st, 1792, at which time Mr. Caldwell 

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became Pastor of Sugar Creek and Hopewell churches. The five 
years that elapsect between his licensure and ordination had much 
of it been spent in these congregations ; and the success attending 
his ministry led the people earnestly to desire his settlement Dr. 
Hall, in a note to the sermon delivered on the occasion of his ordi* 
nation, says, — ^* Under Mr. Caldwell's first ministration? in those 
congregations, it pleased Grod to send a reviving time, in conse- 
quence of which, there were upwards of seventy young communi- 
cants admitted to the Lord's table in one day." 

He resided fcr a time with David Robinson by the famous Spring ; 
and John Robinson, the son, afterwards pastor of Poplar Tent, pur- 
sued his studies for the ministry in the same room with him. 

Being united in marriage with Abigail Bane, the daughter of 
John M'Knitt Alexander, he took his residence in Hopewell. After 
her death, which occurred in 1802, leaving him with two motherless 
children, circumstances occurred which led to his giving up the 
chaise of Hopewell in 1805, and he removed to Sugar Creek, giving 
three^fourths of his time to Sugar Creek ; the other fourth of his 
labors he expended at Charlottetown for a time ; then at Paw Creek 
till a church was organized, which he relinquished to Mr. William- 
son ; and then at Mallard Creek till a church was organized there. 
In 1805 he opened a classical school, which he carried on for years 
with the approbation of Presbytery, as expressed on their minutes. 

His second wife was a daughter of Robert Lindsay, of Guilford, 
who bore him nine children. 

Of great self-command, clear in his conception of truth, and plain 
in his enunciation both in style and manner, amiable in his dispo- 
sition and manners, kind from his natural feelings, and firom the 
benevolence of the gospel he loved and preached, a lover of the 
truth, he passed his whole ministerial life, after his ordination, in 
connection with the prominent congregation that had called him to 
be pastor. His modesty and mildness might have led an inexperi- 
enced or hasty enemy to suppose that he might be easily turned 
from his purpose, or driven to silence by vehement, clamorous oppo- 
nents. But the manner in which he met opposition, so kind and 
yet so entirely unflinching, so willing to do justice to his opponents, 
and so devoted to the cause of truth and righteousness, made all 
friends feel that any cause was safe in his handsj and his 
enemies, that it was easier to attack him than to drive him from his 
position, or come off honorably from the contest. 

In the infidel controversy which came upon him soon after his 
settlement, men learned to love him, even if unconvinced by his ar- 

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gmnenfti. And idien he was hanUychaiged, because he would not 
yield his own pulpit and his l<nig accostomed hov of preaching to 
his people, for the purpose of pennitting efforts to be made to diyide 
his congregation, the perfect coolness and unwavering resdntion 
with which he met the assault, tempered the stonn to a hannksB 
breeze. He had enough of the cool and calm resolution of his 
fiither, David Caldwell, of Guilford, the sixth miiMster in Carolina, 
to make him immoveable, when he felt ocmvinced ; and enough of 
the warm heart and ardent piety of hi3 mother, the danghtor of 
Craighead, to make him both lovely and beloved « 

Hall of IredeU came down like a torrent, a storm, a tempest; 
his friend Wilson, of Rocky River, poured out his common sense 
viewsof gospel truth like a steady day's rain; his neighbor and inti- 
mate Robinson, of Poplar Tent, was like a summer day with a stonn 
of lightning and thunder rending the oaks; Wallis, of Proyidence, 
like a hot sun that melted by its direct rays ; ^^diile Caldwell, of 
Sugar Creek, was like the sunshine and showers of ApriL His 
people loved him; and felt they could do nothing dse. The 
memory of the righteous is blessed. 

His epitaph was drawn up by his friend Wilson, of Rocky River. 


to the memory of the late 

RxT. Samuel C. Caldwell, 

who deputed this life 

Oct 3d, 1826. 

in the 59th year of his age, 

and the 35th of his pastoral 

office of Sugar Creek Congregation. 

His long and harmonious continuance 

in that relation 

is his beet Eulogium. 

The Rev. Hall Morris(m, his successor, became the pastor of flie 
church in 1827, and continued for ten years, preaching a fourth part 
of his time in Cbarlotte-town. In 1837, he was removed to &e 
Presidential chair of Davidson College. 

His successor was John M. M. Caldwell, the son of S. C. CaldweU 
and Abigail Bane Alexander, who resigned his office in 1845, and 
removed to Georgia. A younger son is a minister of the gospel in 
South Carolina. Who dball say that ihe covenant of God is not vi- 
sited from the fathers to ihe children, in &e infinite mercy of God ? 

Step a little further into the middle of the yard, under the shade 
of these old oaks, and you may read on an humble stone, the name 
of one that will never be forgotten in Carolina, the Chairman of 

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the Conyention of 1776, and of the Committee of Public Safety 
that succeeded, and an elder of the church. 

Abraham Ax*cxAin>E&» 

died April 23d, 1786, 

Aged 68 yetra. 

''Let me die the death of the 

Righteoof , and let my Itit 

end be like hif .** 

That he was a leading magistrate of the county, will be seen, by 
inspecting the records of the court of Mecklenburg, now in the 
clerk's office in Charlotte, &e county seat. 

As you look round upon &e numerous headstones, you perceive 
Hat the Alexander family must have been very numerous in the 
time of the Revolution, and ^ce, in Mecklenburg. Of the same 
ooginal stock, they were of different degrees of consanguinity. 
The tradition of their emigration from Ireland to America is sin- 
gular. Among &e emigrations fit)m Scotland to Ireland, and from 
Ireland to Scotland, during &e period intervening 1610 and 1688, 
to whidi the Presbyterians were driven as the means of escape 
from persecution for conscience sake, there was one to Ireland, in 
which seven brothers of the name of Alexander formed part Un- 
aUe to endure the harassing interference which became more and 
more grievous the few years preceding^ the Revolution in 1688, 
many of the ministers being put in prison for holding a fast, and 
the private members of the church differing oppressions equaUy 
intolerable, they turned their eyes to America. A plan was 
formed for their transportation to the New World. On the eve 
of their departure, they sent to Scotland for their old preacher, to 
baptize their children, and administer the consolations of the gospeL 
The minister, a faithM and fearless man, came ; the families and 
their effects were embarked, the ordinances of the gospel were ad- 
ministered in quietness, on board the vessel, and with a solemnity 
becoming the occasion. An armed company, that had been prowling 
about, came on board, broke up the company, and lodged the minis- 
ter in gaol. Towards night, the old matron, who had been piously 
covenanting for her grand-children, addressed the alarmed com- 
pany, ^' Moi, gang ye awa', tak our minister out o' the jail, and 
tak him, good soule, with us to Ameriky." Her voice had never 
been disobeyed. Before morning, the minister was on board, and 
the vessel out of the harbor. Having no family, the minister 
cheerfully proceeded on the voyage, and with many prayers and 

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thanksgivings, they were landed on the island of Manhattan, '^^lere 
the city of New York now stands. Part of the company remained 
on Manhattan, and one of their descendants, William Alexand^, 
was known in the war of the Revolution, a Major-General in Ae 
American service, and commonly called Lord Sterling, having suc- 
ceeded to an estate and the title. The others took up their abode 
for a time in Jersey, and then removed to Pennsylvania. There they 
intermarried, and mingled with their countrymen, and their de- 
scendants, in great numbers, emigrated to the Catawba. 

Families by the name of Alexander were the most numerous in 
Mecklenbvrg at the time of the Revolution ; next to them was the 
Harris connexion ; these two, with their kindred, embraced at that 
time about one-third of the county. 

The log meeting-house that stood here, whose foundations you 
may in part see, the second occupied by the congregation that now 
worship in that brick house, was the place of worship while lite. 
Jackson, and her son, Andrew, made Sugar Creek their refuge. 
The widow, an emigrant from Ireland, had buried her husband on 
the Waxhaw, then claimed by North Carolina, but now within the 
settled bounds of South Carolina, and, compelled by the sufierings of 
war, had fled for refuge to Mecklenburg. 

After Ae fall of Charleston, the British army spread out over 
the country. Col. Buford, from Bedford, Virginia, moving along 
the Waxhaw, as he suppoied, out of danger, was suddenly set upon 
by Tarleton, who had been upon his trail. The soldiers were pre- 
paring their breakfast, and as the British came in sight, there was 
much discussion whether they should fight a superior force, or 
abandon the field to the enemy. It was finally resolved to fight it 
out to the last, by the determined course of Capt Wallace, from 
Rockbridge, Virginia. Twleton, in his account of Ae battle, says, 
that he sent a flag, and proposed a surrender ; that, finally, the ne- 
gotiation was broken ofi* by the two following communications : 

1st From Tarleton to Buford. May 29th, 1780. 

{After making preparations for Buford^s surrmder in five 
articles^ whichy he said, could not be repeated.) " If you are rash 
^ough to reject them, the blood be upon your head.'* 

2d. The laconic reply of Buford. Waxhaw, May 29th, 1780. 

" Sir, — ^I reject your proposals, and shall dciend myself to the 
last extremity. 

" I have the honor to be, 

" Alex. Buford, Col." 

The event of the battle is well known. Before night, the Wax- 
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haw meeting-house was a hospital, and Buford's regiment killed, 
wounded, or dispersed. The females and children fled to escape 
the ravaging track of the relentless enemy. Mrs. Jackson took up 
her abode with her two chiMren, in Sugar Credc congregation, 
with widow Wilson, and remained a part of the summer. 

This brave woman, and two of her sons, perished in the war, and 
left her youngest son a solitary member of the family. Her death 
was occasioned by a fever, brought on by a visit to Charleston, to 
carry necessaries to some friends and relations on board the prison- 
E^p, i^ose deplorable sufferings, she, with four or five other ladies, 
was permitted to reUeve. On her way home, she was seized with 
the prison fever, and soon ended her days. Somewhere between 
what was then called " Quarter-house" and Ae city of Charleston 
is her unknown grave. 

Men have often wondered how her son Andrew, in his most 
Jkpughtless days, always treated a faithful minister of the gospel so 
respectfully ; and why, after encouraging his wife in a religious life, 
he himself should, in his age, become a member of the Presbyterian 
church. The cause is found laid deep in his childhood. His mother 
was a member of the Waxhaw congregation, and he had seen and 
felt the influence of faithful ministers when a child. 

Turning towards the middle of the yard, you may read the simple 
memorial of Mrs. Flinn, the widowed mother of the Rev. Andrew 
Flinn, D.D., who held an eminent place among the clergy of North 
and South Carolina, whose childhood wad passed in^ugar Creek. 

Along this great road that passes this yard and house, the British 
forces pursued the armed band that had been collected for the tem- 
porary defence of Charlotte ; and a little beyond that hill, fell 
Major Locke, and a little further on, Graham was wounded. Near 
by, lives Aunt Susy, who, with her mother, watched and trembled 
over him the night he lay exhausted afler that sad day's encounter, 
when, as the British historian says, ^^ that company of horsemen be- 
hind the Court-house, kept in check the whole British army." 

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Ten miles west from Davidson College, and two east from the 
Catawba BJMrer, in Mecklenburg county, stands Hopewell church. 
Entering near the northwest comer, on the north side of the bury- 
ing ground which Ues a little south of the church, and going 
diagonally to the middle of the yard, you will find a low grave- 
stone, on the top of which are sculptured two dravni swords, and 
beneath them the motto, Arma LibertcUis. The inscription is — 





A frieDd of h» country, 

and privately slain 

by the enemies of his 

country, Nov. 14th, 

1780, aged 37 years^ 

Tradition says* that this man was the largest and stoutest man in 
the country — Abated by the few tones — and much desired as a 
prisoner by the British officers, for the activity and energy with 
which he harassed their scouts and foraging parties, and the fatal 
aim of hii gun in taking off their sentries, particularly while the 
army lay at Charlotte. 

On the day of his death, seeing four tories lurking near his 
house, he took his gun and went to capture them, or drive them 
from his neighborhood. A scuffle ensued, in which one of the 
tories succeeded in vnresting his gun from his hand* and with it 
gave him a fatal wound. ^ 

Near by this stqpe yoo may observe a brick wall about six feet 
long, and two feet high, without any inscription : that is upon the 
grave of General Davidson, who fell by the rifle-shot of a tory, 
af Cowan's Forry, a few miles distant firom this place, as he was 
resisting the crossing of ifae British army, in 1781, when Morgan 
ludd Ccredn were conveying the prisoners, taken at the Cowpens, 
to Virginia, fS^ saft keeping. After the arm^of Ae enemy had 

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passed on, his firiend Captain Wilson, whose grave is near by, 
found him plundered and stripped of every garment ; laying him 
across his horse, ha brought him hastily by night to this place of 

Congress voted a monument to this man — ^most beloved in his 
county — a sacrifice to the public welfare. But the resolution has 
slept on the records of the Congress, — and the grave of the 
general is without an inscription. 

The college, patronized by his children and friends, bears his 
name, and is rising in usefulness and reputation. 

By the east wall is a row of marble slabs, all bearing the name 
of AJexander. On one is this short inscription :— 

John McKnitt Alexander, 

who departed this life July 10th, 1817. 

Aged 84. 

This is upon the grave of the Secretary of the Convention in 
Charlotte, in 1T75. By his side rests hit wife, Jaj^b Bane. 

At a little distance southwardly is the grave of the late pastor 
of this congregation, John Williamson. 

Ephraim Brevard, the penman of the Declaration, and Hezekiah 
Alexander, the dbarest-headed magistrate of the county, sleep in 
this yard in unknown graves. 

Hopewell and Sugar Creek are cotemporaries in point of settle- 
ment, though, in church organization. Sugar Creek has the pre- 
eminence. The families were from the same original stock in 
the North of Ireland ; some were bom in Pennsylvania, and some 
only sojourned there for a time ; they were connected by affinity 
and consanguinity ; and more closely united by mutual exposures 
' in the wilderness, and the ordinances of the gospel, which were 
highly prized. 

Scattered settlements were made along the Catawba, frogi 
Beattie's to Mason's Ford, some time before the country became 
the object of emigration to any considerable extent, probably about 
the year 1740. As the extent and fertility of the beautiful pi^iries 
became known, the Scotch-Irish, seeking for settlements, b^an 
to follow the traders' path, and join'th& adventurers in this soutW 
em and westem frontier. By 1745, the settlements, in wiuht is 
now Mecklenburg and Cabarrus countiea, were numerous ; and 
about 1750, and onward for a |bw years, the settlea^ents grew- 
dense for a firoptier^i and were unitiig then^elnres irto.congrega- 

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tions, for the purpose of enjoying the ministrations of the gospel 
in the Presbyterial form. The foundations for Sugar Creek, 
Hopewell, Steel Creek, New Providence, P<^lar Tent, Rocky- 
River Centre, and Thyatira, were ■ laid almost simultaneously : 
Rocky River was most successful in obtaining a settled pastor. 
The others received the church organization and bounds during 
the visit of Rev. Messrs. McWhorter and Spencer, sent by the 
S3aiod of Philadelphia for that purpose, in the year 1764. Mis- 
sionaries began to traverse the country very early, sent out by 
the Synod of Philadelphia, and the different Presbyteries of New- 
Brunswick, New CasUe, and Donegal. 

The enterprising settlers, inureif to toil, were hardy and long 
lived. The constitutions that grew up in Irelard and Pennsylva- 
nia seemed to gather strength and suppleness from the warm cli- 
mate and fertile soil of their new abodes. Most of the settlers 
lived long enough to witness the dawning of that prosperity that 
awaited their children. They sought the union of Uberty, and 
property, and religious privilege for their posterity. Year after 
year were " supplications " sent to Pennsylvania and Jersey for 
ministers, or missionaries, and effort after effort was made to re- 
tain these visitors as settled pastors^ but all in vain, previously to 
1756 ; when the troubles from the Indian war, called Braddock's 
war, united with the wishes of the people, and three Presbyterian 
ministers were settled in Carolina in that year, or preparations 
were made for their settlement — Craighead, and M'Aden, and 
Campbell. Those were days of log cabins and plain fare, when 
carriages were unknown, and the sight of wheels was an era in the 
settlements. " That man was the first that crossed the Yadkin 
with wheels," designated the man in whose house the first court in 
Mecklenburg was held. 

"Times are greatly altered," said old Mr. Alexander some 
thirty years ago, on a summer evening, to the Rev. Alexander 
Flinn, D.D., of Charleston, South Carolina, who came to visit his 
venerated benefactor, in his carriage, with his wife and servants, 
" times are greatly altered, Andy, since you went to college in 
your tow doth pwitaloons," said the old man, with a welcome of 
gladness mingled with fear, lest the simplicity of his youth had 
been perverted in that flourishing city. 

And times were greatly altered with both, since their youth, 
when the one came to Mecklenburg just " out of his time," and 
the crther left his widowed mother imder the patronage of his 
friend, to enter upon a college life. Both commenced life in hon 

I b 

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orable poverty, — ^both were enterprising in a young country, — and 
both were eminently successful in that course of hfe in which 
choice, and providential circumstances, had led them to put forth 
their strength. 

John McEnitt Alexander, descended firom Scotch-Irish ances- 
tors, was bom in Pennsylvania, near the Maryland line, in 1733. 
Having served his apprenticeship to the tailor's trade, he followed 
the tide of his kinsmen and countrymen, who were then seeking 
an abode beyond the Yadkin, in the pastures of the deer and buf- 
falo. The emigrants, a church-going and church-loving people 
in the " green isle," carried to their new home all the habits and 
manners of their mother, the %ild and strange residence in Caro- 
lina permitted. A church-going people are a dress-loving people. 
The sanctity and decorum of the house of God are inseparably 
associated with a decent exterior ; and the spiritual, heavenly ex- 
ercises of the inner man are incompatible with a defiled and tat- 
tered, or slovenly mein. All regular Christian assemblies culti- 
vate a taste for dress, and none more so than the hardy pioneer 
settlers of Upper Carolina, and the vallefy and mountains of Vir- 
ginia. In their approach to the King of Kings, in company with 
their neighbors, the men, resting from their labors, washed their 
hands and shaved their faces, and put on their best and carefully 
preserved dress. Their wives and daughters, attired in their best, 
as they assembled at the place of worship, were the more lovely 
in the sight of their friends. The privations of the new settle- 
ment were for a time forgotten ; and the greetings at the place of 
assemblage, from Sabbath to Sabbath, or whenever they could 
assemble to hear the gospel, spoke the commingled feelings of 
friendship and religion. 

The young tailor knew the spirit of his countrymen, and came 
to seek his fortune with the poor, but spirited and enterprising peo- 
ple. Few of them had much money, and many of them had none. 
In paying for their lands, the skins, of the deer and buffalo that 
had fed them, were taken on pack-horses to Charleston and Phila- 
delphia, as the most ready means of obtaining the necessary funds. 
Years necessarily passed before the cattle and horses they took 
with them to the wild pastures were multiplied sufficiency for 
home consumption or for traffic ; about the time of the Revolution- 
ary war, they constituted the available means, the wealth of the 
country, as cotton has been in years past. 

The young man brought his ready made clothes, and cloths to 
be made to order, and trafficked wilb his countrymen, iransporting 

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his peltry on horseback to the city, and returning with a fresh sup- 
ply of goods, till the droves of cattle and horses taken to the mar- 
kets, supplied the inhabitants with silver and gold for their neces- 
sary uses. In about five years, in the year 1759, he married Janb 
Bane, from Pennsylvania, of the same race with himself, and 
settled in Hopewell congregation. His permanent abode has been 
known by the name of Alexandriana. Prospered in his business, 
he soon became wealthy, and an extensive landholder, and rising 
in the estimation of his fellow citizens, v^ras promoted to the ma- 
gistracy, and the eldership of the Presbyterian church, the only 
church between the two rivers. Shrewd, enterprising, and suc- 
cessfril, a man of principle and inspiring respect, — ^in less than 
twenty years from his first crossing the Yadkin, he was agitating 
with his fellow citizens of Mecklenburg, the rights of persons, of 
property, and conscience, — and resisting the encroachments of the 
king, through his unprincipled and tyrannical officers, that oppress- 
ed, without fear and without restraint, the inhabitants of Upper 
North Carolina. 

In less than one quarter of a century after the first permanent 
settlement was formed in Mecklenburg, men talked of defending 
their rights, not against the Indians, but the officers of the crovni ; 
and took those measures that eventuated in the Convention of 
May 20th, 1775, to deUberate on the crisis of their a£fairs. Of the 
persons chosen to meet in that assembly, one was a Presbyterian 
minister, Hezekiah James Balch, of Poplar Tent; seven were 
known to be Elders of the Church — Abraham Alexander, of Su- 
gar Creek, John McKnitt Alexander and Hezekiah Alexander, of 
Hopewell, David Reese, of Poplar Tent, Adam Alexander and 
Robert Queary, of Rocky River (now in the bounds of Philadel- 
phia), and Robert Irwin, of Steel Creek ; two others were elders, 
but in the deficiency of church records, their names not knovm 
with certainty, but the report of tradition is, without variation, 
that nine of die members were elders, and the other two are sup- 
posed to have been Ephraim Brevard and John Pfifer. T}ius ten 
out of the twenty-seven were office-bearers in the church ; and 
all were connected vrith the congregations of the Presbyteries in 

The Declaration issued by this Convention is the admiration of 
the present generation, and will be of generations to the end of 
time, — THE FIRST Declaration of Independence in North 
America. At a hasty view, this declaration made by a colony on 
the western frontier of an American province, may seem rash and 

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unreasonable ; but when the race and the creed of the people, and 
their habits, are taken into consideration, we wonder at their for- 
bearance ; this classic declaration expressed a deep settled pur- 
pose, which the ravages of the British army, in succeeding years, 
could not shake. 

Neither the Congress of the United Provinces, then in session, 
nor the Congress of the Province of North Carolina, which assem- 
bled in August of the same year, were prepared to second the de- 
claration of Mecklenburg ; though the latter appointed committees 
of safety in all the counties, similar to the committee in Mecklen- 
burg. The papers of the Convention were preserved by the 
secretary, John McKnitt Alexander, till the year 1800, when they 
were destroyed, with his dwelUng, by fire. But the Rev. Hum- 
phrey Himter and General Graham, who both had heard the Decla- 
ration read on the 20th of May, 1775, had obtained copies, which 
have been preserved, and Mr. -Mexander gave one himself to Ge- 
neral Davie some time previously to the fire. 

Judge Cameron, of Raleigh, President of the State Bank, who 
was for many years a practising lawyer in the Salisbury District, 
and afterwards a judge, says that he was well acquainted with 
Mr. Alexander, who was frequently brought to court as a witness 
in land cases, having been for many years a crown surveyor in 
Mecklenburg. There was little regularity in taking up lands ; and 
claims were found to clash, and frequent lawsuits were the conse- 
quence, and Mr. Alexander was appealed to for bounds and lines. 
Being a sensible and social, dignified man, an acquaintance com- 
menced which was ended only by the death of Mr. Alexander. 
The Judge says that the matters of a revolutionary nature were 
firequently the subject of conversation ; and among others, the cir- 
cumstances of the Declaration. Some time after the fire that con- 
sumed Mr. Alexander's dwelling and many of his valuable papers, 
he met tlie old man in Sahsbury. Referring to the fire, Mr. Alex- 
ander lamented the loss of the original copy of that document, but 
consoled himself by saying, that he had himself given a copy to 
General Davie some time before, which he knew to be correct ; 
so, says he, " the document is safe.^^ That copy is in the hands of 
the present governor of North Carolina ; and is in part the author- 
ity for the copy given in the first chapter of this work. The 
copies of Hunter and Graham rest upon the honor of those two 
unimpeachable men. Happily, they entirely agree with the copy 
given to General Davie, as far as that has been preserved. 

The last interview the Judge had with Mr. Alexander was in 

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Salisbury. Nearly blind with age and infirm, he was brought down 
to the court as an evidence in a land case. The venerable old 
man sat in the bar-room, listening to the voices of the company^ 
as they came in. " Is that you, Cameron V^ said he, as the sound 
of his voice fell upon his ear, " I know that voice, though I cannot 
well see the man." Infirm, he was dignified : with white hair 
and almost sightless eyes, his mental powers remained. The 
past and the future were to him more than the present; in the one 
he had acted his part well, in the other he had hope ; but the pre- 
sent had lost its beauty. He recounted, in the course of the inter- 
views he had with the Judge, during the intervals of court, the 
events of the Revolution, particularly those in which Mecklenburg 
took the lead, and referred to the copy of the Declaration he had 
given to Davie as being certainly correct. 

Mr. Alexander, as an elder in the Presbyterian church, was 
firequently appointed by the Synod of the Carolinas, during the 
twenty-four years the two States were associated ecclesiastically, 
on important business for the Synod, and for a number of years 
was its treasurer. Of imdoubted honesty, and unquestioned reli- 
gion, he finished his earthly existence at the advanced age of four- 
score and one years. 

The reason for the obscurity in which the proceedmgs of the 
Convention in Charlotte were for a time buried may be found in 
the facts, — ^first, the county in which they took place was far 
removed firom any large seaport, or trading city ; was a fi-ontier, 
rich in soil, and prpductions, and men, but poor in money, — ^with 
no person that had attracted public notice, like the Lees and Henry, 
of Virginia, for eloquence, — or like Ashe, of their owa distant sea- 
board, for bravery, — or like Hancock, of Massachusetts, for dignity 
in a public assembly, — or Jefierson, for pohtical acumen : and, 
second, the National Declaration in 1T76, with the war that 
followed, so completely absorbed the minds of the whole nation, 
that efibrts of the few, however patriotic, were cast into the shade. 
In the joy of National Independence, the particular part any man, 
or body of men, may have acted, was overlooked ; and in the 
bright scenes spread out before a young Republic, the Colonial 
politics shared the fate of the soldiers and officere that bore the 
fatigues and endured the miseries of the seven years' war. Men 
were too eager to enjoy Liberty, and push their speculations to 
become rich, to estimate the worth of those patriots, whose history 
will be better knovm by the next generation, and whose honors 
will be duly appreciated. 

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Some publications were made on this subject in the Raleigh 
Register in 1819, and for a time public attention was drawn to the 
subject in diflerent parts of the country. About the year 1830, 
some publications were made, calling in question the authenticity 
of the document, as being neither a true paper, nor a paper of a true 
convention. Dr. Joseph McKnitt Alexander, inheriting the resi- 
dence, and much of the spirit of his father, the secretary, felt 
himself moved to defend the honor of his parent, and the noble 
men that were associated in the coimty of Mecklenburg. Letters 
were addressed to diflferent individuals who either had taken a part 
in the spirited transactions of 1775, or had been spectators of those 
scenes that far outstripped in patriotic daring the State at large, 
or even the Congress assembled in Philadelphia. The attention 
of all the survivors of Revolutionary times was awaked ; their 
/eelings were aroused ; and they came on all sides to the rescue 
of those men who had pledged " their lives, their fortunes, and 
their most sacred honor" 

The Rev. Humphrey Hunter, who had preached in Steel Creek 
many years, within a few miles of Charlotte, and for a number of 
years in Unity and Goshen, in Lincoln, a short distance from the 
residence of Mr. Alexander, sent to the son a copy of the Decla- 
ration, together with a history of the Convention, of which he was 
an eye-witness. General Graham, who had grown up near 
Charlotte, had been high-sheriflf of the county, and was an actor in 
the Revolution, and an eye-witness of the Convention, did the 
same. From their accounts, the historical relation in the first 
chapter of this volume was taken. Captain Jack, who carried the 
declaration to Philadelphia, gave his solemn asservation of the 
facts, as an eye-witness of the Convention, and as its messenger to 
Congress. John Davidson, a member of the Convention, gave his 
solemn testimony, vinriting from memory, and not presenting any , 
copy of the doings, but asserting the facts and general principles 
of the Convention. The Rev. Dr. Cummins, who had been 
educated at Queen's Museum, in Charlotte, and was a student at 
the time of the Convention, affirmed, that repeated meetings were 
held in the hall of Queen's Museum, by the leading men in Meck- 
lenburg, discussing the business to be brought before the conven- 
tion when assembled. Colonel Polk, of Raleigh, who was a 
youth at the time, and who repeatedly read over the paper to 
different circles on that interesting occasion, affirmed and defended 
the doings of his father, at whose call, by unanimous consent, the 
delegates assembled. Many, less known to the public, sent their 

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recollections of the events of 19th and 20th of May. A file of 
New York papers, published during the Revolution, gives the 
declaration and doings of May 30th, in virhich independence is 
asserted in language as strtmg as in the paper of the 20th, and the 
civil government of Mecklenburg was arraigned, a government 
that was paramount till after the meeting of the first North Caro- 
lina Provincial Congress. A file of Massachusetts papers, printed 
at the same time, gives the same documents. Relying on these 
affirmations and documents, the son rested securely for his father's 
honor, and the honest fame of his compeers. By the order of the 
legislature of North Carolina, these facts and assertions were made 
a public document, ^ere remains not a man at this day, who 
Aw the assembly of delegates in Mecklenburg. Happily, the 
son collected the evidences of his father's political honor, before 
the viritnesses had all passed to the land where the truth needs no^ 
such evidence, and had joined the band of inunortal patriots. 

The names of the persons composing the convention, as given 
in the State documents collected by Dr. J. McKnitt Alexander, 
are as follows : 

Abraham Alexander — Chairman, 
John McICnitt Alexander — Secretary. 
Ephraim Brevard — Secretary. 
Rev. Hezekiah J. Balch, Charles Alexander, 

John Pfifer, Zaccheus Wilson, jim., 

James Harris, Waightstill Avery, 

William Kemion, Benjamin Patton, 

John Ford, Matthew McClure, 

Richard Barry, Neill Morrison, 

Henry Downe, Robert Irwin, 

Ezra Alexander, John Flenniken, 

William Graham, David Reese, 

John Queary, John Davidson, 

Hezekiah Alexander, ' Richard Harris, jun., 

Adam Alexander, Thomas Polk. 

In searching his father's papers that escaped the fire, he came 
across another document of exceeding value, in the handwriting 
of Ephraim Brevard, the draughtsman of the Declaration, giving, 
under the name of Instructions to the Members of the Provincial 
Congress in 1T75, the ideas of oivil and religious liberty heU by 
these patriotic men. This paper is given in full in the third chap- 
ter, and gives an opportunity of judging whether the views of 

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liberty held by these have or have not had the sanction of the 
people of the United States. 

A friend that knew the son, gives the foUov^ring obituary notice : 
" Died, on the 17th ultimo (Nov., 1841X at Alexandria, the time- 
honored seat of his ancestors, in Mecklenburg county, N. C, Dr. 
J. McKnitt Alexander, in the 67th year of his age. 

" Dr. Alexander was an alumnus of Princeton College in its 
palmiest days. He had early developed indications of not only 
genius and talents, but the highest attributes of intellect, sound 
judgment and profound thinking. One of the usages of the enlight- 
ened, estimable, and Christian community in which he was reared, 
was, that each family should educate one wm and devote him to 
the service of the Church. In accordance with this excellent 
usage, it was determined by his parents that the natural endow- 
ments of Joseph should receive the culture and finish of a thorough 
collegiate education, and the school at Princeton was selected for 
the purpose. Here erudition and science matured the germ» of 
usefulness and distinction,which had in his boyhood given such high 
promise of a fruitful harvest. He graduated with 6clat, and re- 
turned to his native home — ^not, as had been fondly hoped by his pious 
parents, to engage in the study of divinity, and to consecrate him- 
self to the holy ministry. This, their cherished expectation, to 
' their bitter disappointment, was never realized. He studied 
medicine under a distinguished preceptor, and after becoming 
thoroughly indoctrinated in the ^^jEsculapian mysteries,^^ engaged 
in the practice of physic, from which he acquired not only profes- 
sional reputation but WGgJth and even affluence. The pure duties 
of humanity imposed upon him by his profession, were ever per- 
formed with punctuality and cheerfulness, and throughout his long 
life, no citizen had a more enviable character for integrity, public 
spirit, and private virtue. He was distinguiaked for his practical 
judgment and plain conunon sense— ^ trait the more remarkable as 
it was accompanied in him with the scintillations of genius and the 
sprightliness of a vigorous imagination. He thought quick,^ yet 
deep and accurately. What others found by pains-taking, search 
and tedious investigation, he obtained intuitively. To look at a 
subject at all, was to penetrate it with an eagle's glance, to touch 
was to dissect, to handle was to unravel. He wrote well, yet 
his productions possessed few of the embellishments of art and 
none of the ornaments of style, though always enlivened and bril- 
liant from the flashes of a true and innate eloquence." 

"Doctor Alexander, though a child of the church, and tlie son of 


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the most exemplary and pious parents, had passed the meridian 
of life before he became a professor of religion. Doe« the pride 
of intellect or the glitter of human leming lead" U9 to doubt the 
truth of divine revelation ! The avalanche of infidelity, put in 
motion about the period of the Doctor*! Maturity by Montesquieu, 
Voltaire, Diderot, D'Alembert, Buffon, and Rousseau, threatened to 
extinguish the best hopes of man, and deluge our sin ruined 
world with a cold and cheerless scepticism. The infection of 
this poison may have temporarily obliterated the lessons of his 
youth, or weakened their influence upon his principles ; it was 
never able, however, to seduce him from the paths of virtue. His 
purity, his probity, his honor remained unscathed by the lightning 
of the French philosophy. It may for a time have diverted his 
attention from spiritual things, but when ambition became chas- 
tened by age, in the maturity of his intellect, and at a period of 
life most favorable for a calm and deliberate examination of the 
gre^t truths of the Christian's Bible, and the Christian's faith, 
and the Christian's hope, he believed that Bible, he exercised that 
faith, he was animated by that hope. He became a worshipper 
of the God of his fathers, connected himself with the Presbyterian 
church, and continued through life, until the infirmities of old age 
prevented, to be active in the promotion of its interests, in alle- 
viating and ameliorating the condition of men." 

'* Beyond the fligfit «f time. 
Beyond the vale of death, 
There surely is some blessed clime 
Where life is not a breath." 

Aftar its organization, in 1765, Hopewell was for a time asso- 
<ciated with Centre in maintaining the ordinances of the gospel. 
But at the time that Rev. S. C. Caldwell wtis called to the church 
and obngregation of Sugar Creek, this church united in the call, 
and aftempwds engaged the pastoral services of that fitithful man, 
tin 1805, wjbeafae removed from tb^ir boun4s, and gave up the 
care of the church. 

During the time of Mr. Caldwell's ministry, the two sessions 
of the churches under his care, feeling the pressure that was 
upon them, formed a union for mutual help. The ibUowing pa- 
per reveals the spirit. 

" May 15th, 1793. The Sessions of Sugar Creek and Hope* 
well had a full meeting on the ogntral ground, id Mr. Mons. Aob- 
moi/fe^ and entered into a number of resolutions, as laws for the 
government of both churches." 

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" North Carolina, Mecklbnburo-Cotjntx, \ 
May 5th, 1793. f 

** We, Ihe Sessions of &agar Creek and Hopewell congrega- 
tioQSy having two separate and distinct churches, sessions and 
other officers for the peace, conrenience, and well»<»dering of 
each society, and aB happily united under their present pastor, 
Samuel C. Caldwell, yet need much mutual help from each 
other in regard of our own weakness and mutual dependence, and 
also in regard to our enemies fix>m without. Therefore, in order 
to make our union the more permanent, and to strengthen each 
other's hands in the bonds of unity and Christian friendship, have, 
this 15th day of May, 1793, met in a social manner, at the house 
of Mons. Robinson, Present, Robert Robinson, Sen., He^eteah 
Alexander, Wm, Alexander, James Robinson, Isaac Alexander, 
Thomas Alexander, and Elijah Alexander, elders in Sugar Creek. 
John M'Knitt Alexander, Robert Crocket, James Meek, James 
Henry, Wm. Henderson, and Ezekiel Alexander, elders in 
Hopewell^ who, after discussing generally several topics, proceeded 
to choose Hezekiah Alexander chairman, and J.' M'Knitt Alexan- 
der, clerk, and do agree to the following resolves and rules, which 
we, each for himself, promise tO' observe." (Then fcllow five 
resolutions respecting the management of the congregations, as it 
regards .the support of their ministers, inculcating punctuality and 
precision; and also respecting a division of the Presbytery of 
Ortnge into two Presbyteries.) 

Then follow eight perifianent laws and general rules for each 
Session. The 1st concerns the manner of bringing ^laiges 
against a member of the church, that it ** shall be written and 
signed by die complainant," and that previous to trial, all mild 
means shall be used to settle the matter. 

'' 2d. As a church judicature we will not intermeddLi with what 
belongs to the civil magistrate, either as an officer o£ State, or a 
minister of justice among the oitizens. The Um between the 
church and state being so fine, we know not how to draw it, there- 
fore we leave it to Christian prudence and longer experience to de- 

The othlr resolutions are all found in the Confession of Faith, 
in thear spirit, in the rules given for the management of a single 
session, with this exception, that it was determined that in X\m 
joinl session, '' A ^piorum to da business shall not be less than 
a Moderator and three Elders ;" and that in matters of diMq)line 
there shall bf ** no non liquet votes permitted." 

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This unioA of the tsssions was productiTe of most happy con- 
sequences to the two congregations, particularly during the strug- 
gle with French infidelity, and had the effect to preserve the spirit 
of Presbyterianism, and of sound principles, and free religion. 

The elders were jealous of any intermingling of Church and 
State, eyen in Uie inroceedings of sessions, and endeaTored to keep 
both civil and religious freedom, entirely separating political and 
ecclesiastical proceedings as completely as possible. All the dif- 
ficulty probably arose from the fact that some of the elders were 
magistrates, and they feared lest, in the public estimation, or their 
own actions, the two ofiices might be blended in their exercise. 

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bf the year 1751, the Rev. Samuel Davies, then residing in Hano- 
▼er, Virgmia, made an excursion for preaching, to the Roanoke. 
In the course of his joumeyings, he became acquainted with Henry 
Pattillo, then a young man desirous of commencing his studies in 
preparation for the gospel ministry, and invited him to come and 
commence his course with him in Hanover. This invitation Mr. 
Pattillo at first declined, as he had engaged to go to Pennsylvania 
with another young man, and commence his studies under ttie care 
and tuition of the Rev. Mr. John Thomson, who was at this time 
in Carolina on a mission to the new settlements. 

In the year 1744, in compliance with a " representation from 
many people in North Carolina — showing their desolate condition, 
and requesting the Synod to take their condition into consideration, 
and petitioning that we would appoint one of our number to corres- 
pond with them, — Mr. Thomson, of Donegal Presbytery, was ap- 
pointed by the Synod to correspond with them. He was at this 
time on a visit to these petitioners, and others in Carolina. Mr. 
Pfittillo had once set out for Pennsylvania in the year 1750, but was 
seized by a pleurisy before he had. proceeded half a day^s journey, 
under the influence of which he labored the greater part of the 
winter following. Of course his journey to Pennsylvania was 
given up. While waiting in the summer of 1751 for Mr. Thom- 
son's return from Carolina, the young man who had engaged to go 
on with him to Pennsylvania, abandoned the design of preparing 
for the ministry. Mr. Pattillo then determined to accept the invita- 
tion of Mr. Davies, and on the first of August, 1751, arrived at his 
house in Hanover, and " had a kind welcome." 

On the IQtb of August, 1754, while residing with Mr. Davies, he 
commenced a journal, a part of which remains, the last date being 
June 13th, 1757. He gives the following reasons for commencing 
the journal : 1st {the beginning of the sentence is wanting) — ** My 
growth or decay in the divine life, and thus the blessing of God be 
actuated accordingly. 2dly, I shall thereby more accurately observe 

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the workings of my own heart, and t^e methods the Lord may take 
for my reclamation in my str^yings from him. 3dly, This may, 
through the divine blessing, have a tendency to promote my watch- 
fuhiess and diligence, seeing I shall have a daily sentence against 
myself constantly before me, tehich I hope may tend to pronoote 
my humiliation. 4thly, By observing the dealings of God with my- 
self, I may be the better enabled to deal with others, especially if 
the Lord shall carry me through learning, and call me to the work 
of the ministry. 5thly, To mention no more, it may be of service 
to me in giving an account of my state godward, if ever I should 
come on trial for the ministry.'^ He then proceeds to give some 
account of himself from his birth up to that time. From the frag- 
ments which remain, the following facts are gathered. 

Bom in Scotland, of pious parents, who were well situated in 
point of religious privileges, he was early placed with a merchant 
to learn the duties of the coxmting-house. Providentially removed 
from the situation in which he was placed, he was induced to seek 
for better things in the Province of Virginia, a region to which 
many young Scotchmen turned their eyes with empty pockets, and 
hearts full of hope. Here he engaged with a merchant for a time, 
and felt in his absence from religious instructions and restraints the 
overcoming power of temptation, which for a time prevailed over 
his early instructions and pious resolutions. Leaving the counting- 
house, he commenced the employment of a teacher of children ; 
and while thus engaged his own reflections led him to painful and 
alarming convictions of sin. He describes his state of mind thus : 
" On the conmiission of sin, after I conceived the Almighty had 
partly forgot it, or his anger son\ewhat abated,! would go and con- 
fess it with many tears, and thu^ got ease — encompassing myself 
with sparks of my own kindling. But I was taught by a book I got 
about this time, that I must go farther yet, and enter into special 
covenant w ith God. Well, after this I felt pretty secure, till, by the 
kind providence of God, I was brought to a congregation of Pres- 
byterians, where I had good books and preaching pretty fre- 
quently.'^ The effect of preaching, however, was not to human 
appearance of much effect, except to make him see the inconsistency 
of his course. Ailer remaining a year in this congr^ation, he re- 
moved to another and opened his school. Of his exercises of mind 
and heart he thus writes : ^^ Here, by what means I cannot tellj it 
being so gradual, I got such astonishing views of the method of 
salvation, and of the glorious Mediator; such sweetness in the 
duties of religion ; such a love to the ways of God ; such an entire 

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resignation to and acquiesceaee in the divine will ; such a sincere 
desire to see men religious, and endeavor to make those so with 
T^hom I conversed, that after all my base ingratitude, dreadiiil back- 
slidings, broken vows, frequent commission of sin, loss of fervor, 
and frequently lifeless duties since that time, I must, to the eternal 
praise of boundless free grace, esteem it a work of the Holy Spirit, 
and the iSnger of God." 

Prayer became ^^ his very breath," and he engaged in it as oft^ 
as three or four times a day ; meditations on divine things filled his 
heart with joy. ** I used, when alone, to speak out in meditation, 
and do esteem it an excellent medium to fix the heart on the work." 
He goes on to say about the continuance of his exercises : ^^Thus I 
went on my way rejoicing and serving Qod for the space of a year 
and a half; I was generally full of warmth, nor could I take the 
Bible or any religious book into my hand but I would find some- 
thing suited to the present state of my soul, and in my prosperity I 
thought I should never be moved." 

He notices an error he fell into about this time,-— judging others' 
experience too much by its agreement or disagreement with his 
own — ^his intercourse with men led him to judge more favorably 
of his fellow professors, ^^ having learned not to make my own ex- 
perience a standard for others, nor confine the Almighty to one par- 
ticular way of bringing his children to himself." 

His desire to bring men to Christ led him to frequent efiforts in 
private to convince and persuade ; and from being thus engaged in 
private, he desired to be able to preach the everlasting gospel to all 
men. ^ I can boast of but little success in these endeavors, yet my 
feeble attempts produced in me an indesoribable desire of declaring 
the same to all mankind to whom I had access ; and as I could not 
do this in a private station, I was powerfully influenced to apply to 
learning in order to be qualified to do it publicly." 

In consequence of this desire he prepared to go to Pennsylvania 
to commence his studies, but was prevented by sickness; and, 
eventually, in the year 1751, went to reside with the Rev. Samuel 
Davies in Hanover. With that eminent man he pursued his studies 
till his voyage to England in the service of Princeton College ; and 
after his return, till the time of his licensure, which took place at 
Cub Creek, then in Lunenburg county, Sept. 29th, 1768. The cer- 
tificate signed by Samuel Davies, Moderator, and John Todd, Clerk, 
is preserved, though in a mutilated condition ; its wording is some- 
what different from the form now used, as for instance — ^^ he having 
declared his assent to, and approbation of, the Westminster Con- 

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fession of Faith and Directory, as tkiy have been adopted by the 
Synod «f New York, agreeably to the practice of the Church of 
Scotland/' &c. 

During his residence in HanoTer, he was sustained m part by tbe 
kindness of friends, and in part by spending some hours each day 
in teaching, till the time of his marriage to a Miss Anderson, whicli 
event took place in 1755. From that time till his course of studies 
was completed he was sustained by teaching children, and by the 
resources of his wife, living, as he says in the last entry in the jour- 
nal, June 13th, 1757, in a ^^ house 16 by 12 and an outside cbimney, 
wiUi an 8 feet shed— a little chimney to if On the day of this 
last date the chimney of the shed was shatt^ed by lightning, the 
rest of the house and the other chimney, which was much higher, 
together with the eleven persons in the house, himself, wife, and 
infant child, his wife's sister, six scholars and a negro boy, — all 
escaped unhurt 

In the absence of data from his own hand, the following extracts 
from the Records of Hanover Presbytery will afford information 
respecting this interesting man, — 

" Hanover, 28th April, 1757. The Presbjrtery appointed Mr. 
Pattillo as piece of trial, to be delivered next June, a sermon on 
Acts xvi., 43, first part — ^^ To him give all the prophets witness :'^ 
and an Exegesis — ^^ Num Poena Inferorum sit aetema." On the ap- 
pointed day these were considered and approved. 

Cub Creek, Sept 28th, 1757, Mr. Pattillo opened Presbytery 
with a Lecture on Daniel, 7th chapter, 19th to 27th verses : and a 
Sermon on the 27th verse of the same chapter. He was then ex- 
amined on Divinity, on his religious experience, " and on review 
of sundry trials he has passed through, they judge him qualified to 
preach the gospel ; and having declared his assent to, and appro- 
bation of, the Westminster Confession of Faith and Catechism, and 
Directory, as they have been adopted by the Synod of New York, 
the Presbytery doth authorize him to preach as a candidate for the 
Ministry of the Gospel, and recommend him to the acceptance of 
the Churches ; and they order Messrs. Davies and Todd to draw up 
a certificate according to the purport of this minute ; and i^point 
(Alexander Craighead) the Moderator to give him solemn instruc- 
tion and admonition with respect to the discharge of his office, 
which was done accordingly." 

Providence, 26th April, 1758. Petitions for supplies were con»- 
sidered. One from Hico — ^^ formerly under the care of the Hiila* 
delphia Synod — ^particularly for Mr. Pattillo." Calls came in for 

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him also from Albemarle, Orange and Cumberland. The Presbytery 
agreed to give him till the next meeting to consider them. «» 

Cumberland, 12th July, 1758. '' Rev. Henry Pattillo and Wm. 
Richardson have been set apart to the work of ^e holy ministry, by 
fiBfiting, prayer, and imposition of hands,'' — a certificate ordered. 
At the same meeting he was appointed Stated Clerk. 

Hanover, Sept 27th, 1768. Mr. Pattillo accepted a call from 
Willis, Bird and Buck Island. With these congregations he re* 
mained about four years. At a meeting of Presbytery, Providence, 
Oct. 7, 1762, he was dismissed from this charge, the people ** being 
unable to give him a sufficient support." In 1763, May 4th, at 
Tinkling Spring, he agreed to supply Cumberland, Harris Creek 
and Deep Creek. With these congregations he continued about 
two years. At a meeting of Presbytery, Hico, 2d October, 1765, 
a call for his services was presented from Hawfields, Eno and Little 
River. This call he accepted, and removed to the State of North 
Carolina, and there served the church about thirty-five years in 
Orange and Granville counties. 

At a meeting of Presbytery, Buffalo, Rowan county, N. C, 
March 8th, 1770, Messrs. David Caldwell, Hugh M'Aden, Joseph 
Alexander and Henry Pattillo, and Hezekiah Balch and James 
Criswell, united in a petition to Synod to be set off* as a Presbytery 
by the name of Orange, — ^^ where two of our ministers reside," is 
given as the reason for the name. This year the counties of Guil- 
ford, Wake, Chatham and Surrey, were set off* to counteract the in- 
fluence of the regulators. 

Mr. Pattillo continued with the congregation of Hawfields, Eno 
and Little River, till the year 1774, when he removed. 

In the year 1775 he was selected for one of the delegates for the 
county of Bute (now Warren and Franklin) 4o attend the first Pro- 
vincial Congress of North Carolina. Its sessions commenced August 
20th, in Hillsborough. There were two other ministers in the Con- 
gress, Green Hill, a Methodist, from Bute, and William Hill, the 
father of the present Secretary of State of North Carolina, a 
Baptist from Surrey. 

The last resolution on the first day was, " that the Rev. Henry 
Pattillo be requested to read prayers to the Congress every morning ; 
and the Rev. Charles Edward Taylor every evening during his' 

On the 29th of that month Rev. Mr. Boyd presented to the (km- 
gress 200 copies of the Pastoral lettor of the Synod of Philadelphia 
on the subject of the war. They were distributed among the mem^ 

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berS) and a sum of money appropritted to the use of Mr. Boyd, by 
an order on the treasurers, from the public fimds. Dr. Witherspoon 
of New Jersey was Chairman of the Conmiittee that prepared the 
letter, which was unexceptionable in its principles, except in one 
point, in which it is behind the movements in Mecklenburg, — it 
speaks of reconciliation with the mother country as possible, but as 
a consequent of a vehement struggle. It however exactly suited 
the prevailing feeling in the Provincial Congress of Carolina, the 
majority of whose members were not prepared to declare Independ- 
ence at that time, as appears from their proceedings on Monday, 
September 4th, on the subject of the Confederation of the United 

^^ The Congress, resolved into a committee of the whole, have ac- 
cordingly and Unanimously chosen the Rev. Mr. Pattillo, chairman; 
and after some time spent therein came a resolution thereon." 

^^ On motion, Mr. President resumed the chair, and Mr. Chairman 
reported as follows, to wit :" 

^^ That the Committee have taken into conaderation the plan of 
General Confederation between the United Colonies, and are of 
opinion that the same is not at presait eligible. And it is also the 
opinion of the Committee that die Delegates for this province ought 
to be instructed not to consent to any plan of Confederation which 
may be offered in an ensuing Congress, until the same shall be laid 
before, and approved by, the Provincial Congress. 

" That the present association ought to be further relied on for 
bringing about a reconciliation with the parent state, and a further 
confederacy ought only to be adopted in case of the last necessity. 

" Then on motion resolved, — ^The Congress do approve of the 
above resolutions." . 

At their meeting aext spiing in Halifax* 1776, the Congress took 
the ground of Independence some two months before the action of 
the Continental Congress, as related in the chapter on the Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

It will be borne in mind that Mr. Pattillo lived in the midst of the 
Regulators; that some of their largest assemblages were in the 
bounds of his lai^e field of labor. And while there was more igno- 
rance, than he wished to see, among his charge, could they be an 
ignorant uninformed people ? 

In the year 1780, Mr. Pattillo became the pastor of Nutbush and 
Grassy Creek, in Granville county, and gave to them hb last labors, 
ripened by age and experience. These two congregations were 
composed at first of emigrants firom Hanover, New Kent, and King 

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and Queen, in Virginia, converts under the preaching of Rev. 
Samuel Davies and his coadjutors. Howel Lewis, Daniel Grant, 
and Samuel Smith, were the leading persons in- Grassy Creek. Mr. 
Lindsey, Mr. Simms and Mrs. Gilliam, the leading ones in Nut- 

It is the tradition that the first sacramental occasion held by Pres- 
byterians in Granville was in 1763, by William Tennant, Jun. By 
CHrder of the Sjmod of New York and Philadelphia the Presbytery 
of New Brunswick ordained him for a southern mission in 1763^ 
His reasons for not going that year were sustained. He madd a 
visit the next year, 1763, in obedience to the direction of Synod — 
** to go and supply in the bounds, and under the direction of Hano- 
ver Presbytery six months at least." The place in which the ordi- 
nance was administered was an unoccupied house belonging to 
Howel Lewis, about one mile and a half from where Grassy Creek 
Church now stands. The congregations were, it is said, regularly 
organized by Mr. James Criswell, who was licensed by Hanover 
Presbytery in 1765, and supplied these congregations for some years. 
Mr. Pattillo was his successor. 

Mr. Tennant is represented as being of a cheerful disposition. 
Finding Mr. Lewis in a state of mental depression to which he was 
subject, and desponding on the subject of religion, he made no di- 
rect effort to dispel the gloom, but entered into cheerful conversa- 
tion on the subject of salvation. Hearing Mr. Lewis order the ser- 
vant to take Mr. Tennant's horse and give him some sorry fodder 
(that is com blades)—" you give my horse sorry fodder," exclaimed 
Mr. Tennant, as if he took the word sorry in its usual signification, 
" a pretty fellow indeed !" The suddenness of the retort changed 
the whole course of feeling in Mr. Lewis : he burst into a hearty 
laugh, and his depression was gone ; and in bis attendance on the 
ministrations of the gospel from Mr. Tennant, received great com- 
fort and advantage. 

Like Mr. Tennant, Mr. Pattillo was a cheerfid, man, but far re- 
moved from all levity. He says he had a touch of melancholy in 
his constitution. His circumstances were always narrow, and his 
generous feelings and numerous family prevented much increase of 
his worldly possessions. His numerous calls as a faithful and popu- 
lar preacher, added to his vocation as a classical teacher, hindered 
his pursuit of knowledge, of which he had an unquenchable thirst 
His health frequently became very delicate under his continued and 
exhausting services ; and in 1782 under the influence of ill health, 
he made a will which is yet preserved, from which we extract the 

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following : ** I adore the blessed Providence that more especially 
watched over me and wonderfully governed my steps ; that at the 
commencement of my manhood rescued me from the ways of sin 
and the paths of the destroyer ; that made it good for me to bear 
the yoke in my youth ; that after many discouraging disappoint- 
ments which I afterwards found were marciful interpositions of di- 
vine goodness, my way was opened to an education, and I was 
carried through it, though poverty and a melancholy constitution 
darkened my prospects, and threatened to stop me at every turn. 
The same divine goodness and free mercy that had thus far indulged 
my ardent wish and daily prayer, that I might be qualified both by 
lieaven's grace and human learning to preach the everlasting gos- 
pel, was graciously pleased to call me thereto, and set me apart by 
the laying on of the hands of the Presbytery. Having, therefore, 
obtained help of Grod, I continue to this day, having nothing to 
complain of my adorable Master, for goodness and mercy have 
followed me alL my life long ; but have to accuse myself that 
in ten thousand instances I have come short of the glory of Ood, 
and have been a very unprofitable servant, in not promoting to thct 
utmost my own salvation and that of others. And a great aggra- 
vation of this guilt is, that wherever I have preached the gospel 
Ood has honored me with such a share of popularity and the favor 
of mankind, as have opened a door for much more usefulness than 
I have had zeal and diligence to improve. Look, gracious God, on 
a creature all over guilt and imperfection, through the all-perfect 
righteousness, wondrous sufferings and glorious resurrection of my 
Lord Jeeus Christ, on whom I cast myself for time «nd eternity. 

^^ As to my mortal part, let it return, when He that built it pleaseth, 
to the dust from whence it was taken, and in the next burying-place 
to which I may die. t commit it to him who perfumed the grave 
for his people's calm repose; who acknowledges his relation to 
them even in the dust, and I am sure will new create it by his 
power divine." 

By a short will which he made Dec 19th, 1800, not long before 
his death, it appean that in 1784, the ^^ united Presbyterian con- 
gregations of Grassy Creek and Nutbush, by their ruling eldars, 
purchased of Mr. Thomas Williamson and others, a tract of three 
hundred acres of land, on Spicemarrow Creek, whereon I now live; 
said as the said elders commissioned and empowered the late Colo- 
nel Samuel Smith as their agent to make a deed in fee simple for 
the said land, to the said Henry Pattillo, which deed was proved and 
admitted to record by the court of Granville county, at their May 

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term, 1784, on the express condition of my continuing till death or 
disability, the minister of said congregation.'' This condition was 
fulfilled, and a small patrimony was thus secured to the family of a 
laborious and successful minister of the gospel, who had neither 
disposition nor opportunity to accumulate wealth. 

Mr. Pattillo pursued and finished bis classical and theological 
course with Mr. Davies in Hanover. Mr. Davies contemplated his 
spending some time in college. From the short journal of Mr. 
Pattillo, we learn the cause why he never followed out the design of 
his much loved instructor. At the time he drew up his short ac- 
count of his experience, August 10th, 1754, while Mr. Davies was 
absent on a voyage to England, he says — ^^ I have thus been sup* 
ported by the mere bounty of others, which, to the praise of God 
be it spoken, has always been sufficient, though on the receipt of one 
supply, my faith has been frequently baffled to see where the next 
should come from. My discouragements are chiefly these. The 
difficulties of learning ; the loss of at least one-third of my time, 
and Mr. Davies's voyage to Europe, which has left me without a 
teacher this year past ; together with the weakness of my faith in 
Grod's providence respecting my support.'^ Mr. John Blair was then 
on a visit to Mr. Davies's congregation, as a temporary supply in 
his absence. Of him Mr. Pattillo makes this short remark — *^ what 
a burning light he is !'' In the few leaves oS the journal left, which 
gives here and there a notice up to June 18th, 1767, which day 
the remarkable thunder shower took place, as mentioned above ; he 
dwells mostly on his own Christian experience. He makes no par- . 
ticular mention of Mr. Davies's presence, or family, or pr^ching ; 
mentions Mr. Todd's meeting, but says nothing of him — ^neither 
names the persons with whom he was pursuing his studies in com- 

Chi Monday, May 30th, 1755, he makes the following entry : 
^ Agreeable to a plan agreed on among us who are studying with 
a view to the nunistry, this day is set apart for fasting and prayer. 
Though my wants be so numerous that I could not name them in a 
whole day — the principal blessings I am this day in pursuit of are — 
1st, Quickening and vivacity in religion ; 2d, That I may pursue 
my studies assiduously, and that the great end of them may be 4ie 
glory of God, and the salvation of men ; 3d, That religion may 
revive where it is professed, and spread where not yet known." 

Some time in the summer of 1755, he entered the married state. 
He had written to Mr. Davies on the subject, and received an an- 
swer stating objections to the prudence of the step at that time* 

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The leae?©s of the journal cm which the date of these events, and 
the principal objections of Davies were recorded, are lost. The 
opinion of his instructor overcame him, and he determined to aban- 
don the project, till he came to consider the situation of the young 
lady he had addressed, and whose affection he had won ; upon re- 
flection he determined to proceed in the business, and consummate 
thq marriage ; believing it would not involve him in pecuniary dif- 
ficulty ; that it would not hinder his further study ; and lastly, 
" That Mr. Davies was so well known in the learned world that a 
person finished by his hand, would not come under contempt any 
more than many shining lights now in the Church, who were edu- 
^cated before the college was erected." 

That he pursued his studies with success after he. was ordained 
to the full work of the gospel ministry and li^d a high rank as a 
dasmcal teacher, is inferred from the fact that the college of Hamp- 
den Sydney, Prince Edward county, Virginia, in the year 1787, 
April jJ5th, while under the presidency of John B. Smitli, conferred 
upon him the Degree of Master of Arts. The parchment is ftiU 
preserved, and bears, in their own handwriting, the signatures of 
the President, — and John Nash, Arch'd McRoberts, James Allen, 
F. Watkins, Thomas Scott, Richard Foster, Richard Sankey, and 
Charles Alton, Curators. 

In the year 1787, Mr. Pattillo issued from the pr^s in Wilming- 
ton, a volume containing three sermons, viz., on Divisions among 
Christians, on the Necessity of Regeneration, and the Scripture 
Doctrine of Election. To these, were added an Address to the 
Deists, and an extract of a letter from Mr. Whitefield to Mr. 
Wesley. He appears to have been fond of the use of his pen, as 
fer as his few hours of leisure would permit. A few manuscripts 
remain : some Essays on Baptism ; on Universalism ; a Cate- 
chism of Doctrine for Youth ; and a Catechism or Compend in 
Question and Answer, 'for the us^ of Adultc He also prepared a 
Geography for Youth, by way of Question and Answer, which 
must have been superior to any printed voliune then in use. He 
also pubUshed a ftennon on the death of General Washington. 
Bw about twelve years he taught a classical school in Granville ; 
pat of the time on the place now occupied by M. J. Hunt, and 
palt of thft time at Williamsburgh. 

He continued to serve the congregation of Nutbush and Grassy 
Creek, till his death in 1801, having nearly completed his seventy- 
fifth year. He finished his course at a distance from home, in 
Dinvriddie county, Virginia, whither he had gone as a minister of 

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the gosgel. The Rev. Drury Lacy," in* the sermon he pitched on 
the occasion of his death, says — '* I was assured by the gentleman, 
at whose house he finished his course, that he exhibited the 
greatest example of resignation and tranquillity of mind Be had 
ever seen." 

The text chosen by Mr. Lacy was Romans xiv., 7 and 8 ; " For 
none of us liveth to himself , and no mtan dieth to himself. For 
whether we live, we live unto the Lord ; or whether we die, we 
die unto the Lord ; whether we live, therefore, or die, we are the 
Lord's J*^ In giving the character of Mr. Pattillo, he says — " Pos- 
sessed of an originality of genius, and endowed by natufi with 
powers of mind superior to tlie conmion lot of men, he cheerftjly-*' 
determined to consecrate them all to the service of the Saviour in 
the gospel ministry^ That the Scriptures were his delight, and 
that he meditated on them day and night, so as to become weU- 
versed in their doctrines and precepts, all who had the pleasure of 
his acquaintance, all who ever heard him preach, and all whff have 
read his printed works, cannot be ignorant. That he devoted his 
time and talents to the service of God, his works of faith and 
labors of love among you, and, as far as he had an opportunity, of 
travelling to preach, abundantly testify. His zeal was so ftur from 
being diminished by age, that it evidently appeared to increase ; as 
if the near prospect of obtaining the crown anlbnated him to greater 
exertions to be found worthy of it. My hearers ! can you have 
forgotten the ardor ajad pertinacity of his prayers, the weight of 
his arguments, the fervor of his exhortations, and the persuasive- 
ness of his counsels ? Did he not visit your bedside when you 
were sick, and there communicate heavenly instructions to revive 
your fainting spirits, and pour forth the fervent prayer to God that 
your affliction might be sanctified ? And in the social intercourse 
of friendship, you mual remember how readily he improved every 
occurrence to communicate useful and religious knowledge. 
That his life was a pattern of resignation and thankfulness, 
has been remarked even by tliose who had but a slight acquaint- 
ance with him. Always cheerful, he seemed' more disposed to 
bless the hand of providence for the favors he enjoyed, than to 
think hardly of any afflictive dispensation he suffered. When iww 
r the tenor of his soul so lost and discomposed as to unfil him for 
the discharge of the sacred duties of his office ?" 

The following extract from a letter respecting his last hours, 
shows the spirit of the man : — " He had lain for several hours 
with his eyes closed, speechless, and apparently insensible. One 

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of his friends requested to ask a question. Although it would 
have seemed hopeless to expect any remaining intelligence, be had 
a curiosity and desire to make A last effort to arouse him. Placiug 
his mftuth near his ear, he asked, in a loud tone of voice — ' Where 
is your hope none ?' The dying man opened his eyes, and raising 
both hands, extended his arms upwards, as if pointing toward that 
heaven which had been the object of hi« fervent piayer», and to 
wliich he had constantly looked forward as the place of his ever- 
lasting rest." In a short time he entered into that rest. 

Rev. John Matthews, a member of the Hawfields church, who, 
like Pattillo,commenced preparations for the ministry later in life 
than^ is usual, became iHtb Pastor of Nutbosh tad Graasy Creek, 
having received a call April, 1803. His preparatory studies ,had 
all been under the direction of Dr. Caldwell, of Guilford, and his 
license given him by the Presbyteiy of Oiuge, at Barbacue, in 
the month of March, 1801, in company with Duncan Brown, 
Hugh Shaw, Murdoch Murphy, Murdoch McMillan, Malcolm 
McNair, and E. B. Currie, all like himself pupils of Dr. Cald- 
well. The twe first are still Uving in Tennessee. 

Mr. Matthews left these congregations in 1806, and removed to 
Berkeley county, Virginia. From thence to Jeffeison county ; 
and is now Professor in the Theological Steminary at New Albany. 

Leonard Prather anppUed them for a short time : but was soon 
deposed for intemperance. 

His successor was the Rev. E. B. Currie, who left Bethesda 
and Greers in 1809. He v^ras also a pupil of Dr. Caldwell. He 
served them till about the year 1819, when he removed to Haw- 
fields, and served that congregation and Crossroads till about the 
year 1843, when hie infirmities induced him to give up his charge. 

In 1822, Rev. S. M. Graham entered upon the duties of pastor to 
these congregations, and served them a number of years ; he now 
holds the chair of a Professor in the Union Theological Seminary. 


Settlements of the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians began along fhe 
£no and the Haw rivers, about the time that the colonies settled 
in that part of Lunenburg county, Virginia, now called Charlotte, 
on Cub Creek and the adjacent streams, which was about the 
years 1738 and 1739. It is supposed that these settlements, and 
those in Duplin and New Hanover, were the places visited by 
Robinson, who is supposed to be the first Presbyterian missionary 

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seBt from Pennsylvania and New Jersey, that visited Iforth Caro- 
lina, No other notice remains of' his visit, but the fact that he 
did visit these ptots, and underwent great hardships, from virhich 
his constitution scarcely recovered. In all probability the ** mip- 
plications " for ministerial vifits that were laid before the Synod 
of Philadelphia, then the onljr Synod of Presbyterian clergy in 
the Unitid States, canK, in l»art, from the bounds of Orange 
eoonty. North Carolina. The troubles and distractions that 4it- 
tended the difisions of the "^Synod soon after, prevented, or in- 
ter>iq)ted for a time, missionary operations to any extent, and then 
increased their number and tlwSr energy. 

Mr. John Thomson, who was 'Appointed to correspond with the 
suppUoants, a member of Donegal Presbytery, visited them in 
person in 175U On his journey-;^ CaroUna, the arrangement 
"WdLS . made with Mr. PattiHo and dfnother young man, to return 
\with hiiXL to Pennsylvania, and conunence their studies in prepara- 
tion for the ministry. Mr. Thomson made a long stay, and in 
the meantime the young man relinquishing his design of study, 
and Mr Pavies giving Mr. Pattillo an invitation to his house, the 
design of going to PenEBBylvania was abandoned. There remain 
no memoranda either of the correspondence of Mr. Thomson with 
those desirovi of miniilerial labor^ or of his visit to them. 
Neither is there any document that may give any particular ac- 
count of the visits that were made by the various missionaries 
sent out by the two Synods of New York and Philadelphia, till 
the years 1755 and 1756, when Hugh M'Aden, a licentiate of 
New Brunswick Presbytery, made a tour of a year, a concise 
journal of whose joumeyings and preaching is still preserved, and 
Miakes part of^ another chapter. He visited the settlements on the 
Eno, and preached for them the second Sabbath of August, 1755, 
lodging at the house of Mr. John Anderson, whose grandchildren, 
som^ of them, still hve on the Eno. After a visit to Tar River, 
he returned to Mr. Anderson's, and on the fourth Sabbath of Au- 
gust preached at the Havdields. Of the Eno settlement he says, 
. they were " a set of pretty re|plar Presbyterians," who appeared 
at that time in a cold state of rehgious feeling. Of the Hawfields 
settlement, he says, '^ the congregation was <sluefly made up of 
Presbyterians, who seemed highly pleased, and very desirous t0 
hear the woid." The next year they appUed to Hanover Pres- 
kjrtery for supplies. 

These congregations on the Eno and the Haw appear to have 
been not altogether regular in their ecclesiastical matters, for, 


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according "to the st$MKent of on old elder of the Eno church, 
Mr. James Clark, who died a few years since, Mr. Spencer and 
McWharter, in their mission to Carolina to organize and regulate 
the congregations, attended to the organization of Eno. How- 
ever, this might refer only to their boundaries and separate action. 
The first elders were Thomas Clark, John Tinnier, and Cams 
Tinnier. The names of the first elders in Hawfields have not 
be§n preserved. Mr. Pattillo was the first settled minister of 
these two congregations, which have been the mothers of those 
mm surrounding them. Little River, New Hope, Fairfield, and 
Cross Roads. He came in 1765, and left them in 1T74. 

The second pastor, the Rev. John Debow, from the Presbytery 
of New Brunswick, began to preach in these two congregations, 
as a licentiate, about the year 1775, and was ordained about the 
year 1776. His remains were interred in the grave-yard that sur- 
rounds the Hawfields meeting-house. Under his ministry there 
was a revival of religion, and a goodly number were added to the 
churches. His death took place in the month of September, 

The next regular minister that remained with these congregations 
for a time, was Jacob Lake, the brother-in-law of Mr. Debow. 
During his ministry the congregation of Cross Roads was organ- 
ized, being made up of parts of Hawfields, Eno, and Stony 
Creek. He left the congregation about the year 1790. 

His successor was the Rev. William Hodges, wl^ is said to 
have been a native of Hawfields. Becoming hopefully rehgious 
under the ministry of Mr. Debow, he commenced preparations 
for the ministry. After the death of his spiritual father, he be- 
came discouraged, turned his attention to other things, and mai^ 
ried and settled in the congregation of Hawfields. During the 
excitement which prevailed under the preaching of James 
M'Gready, on Stony Creek, and along the Haw River, in 1789> 
1790, and 1791, Mr. Hodges felt his desire to preach the gospel 
revive and spring up with greater force than ever. Being licensed 
by the Presbytery of Orange, he went heart and hand with 
M'Gready in the work ; difiering, however, so much in his manner 
of preaching, that the people styled him the " Son of Consola- 
tion," and M'Gready, Boanerges. In 1792 he was ordained pastor 
of Hawfields and Cross Roads, by Orange Presbytery. During 
his ministry many were gathered to the church. About the year 
1800 he removed to Tennessee, and was there an active agent in 
the ** Great Revival " that spread over the South and West. 

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His successor was William Paisley, ^^Oeder whose ministry the 
great revival of 1802 commenced, at the Cross Roads, an account 
of which is given under the head of James M'Gready, and the 
Great Revival. The first camp-meeting in the South was held 
at Jfowfields, in October, 1802, and grew out of the necessity of 
the cas«w The community was greatly excited on the subject of 
religion, and multitudes, some from a great distance, assembled at 
Hawfields for the^all connnunion services. The neighborhood 
could not accommodate the numbers assembled, and theif anxiety 
to hear the gospel wa^too great ta permit them to return to *eir 
homes ; they therefore remained on the ground, camping with 
their wagons for three or four days, getting their necessary supplies 
as they could. So great was the interest excited, and so great the 
enjoyment, and the profit supposed to be derived from the meet- 
ing, that the example was followed extensively throughout the 
wtole upper country of North CaroUna. The custom of spending 
three or four days encamped at the place of worship, during com- 
munion occasions, extensively prevails to this day. Near most of 
the churches, that follow this habit, cabins are built for the ac- 
commodation of the worshippers, and for the season the whole 
neighborhood give themselves up to the exercises of the meeting. 
In Hawfields, the interest and attendance are yet unabated. 

After serving the congregations about twenty years, Mr. Paisley 
removed to Greensborough ; and is still able to preach occasion- 
ally, though, through infirmities of age, he has declined being pastor 
of a congregation. 

His successor, the Rev. Ezekiel B. Currie, passed his early 
life in several different congregations in Orange and Guilford 
counties, but chiefly on the Haw River. His father lived for a 
time in Alamance congregation, in Guilford ; from thence removed 
to Sandy River, in the upper part of Orange, near Randolphs 
During the war of the Revolution, on account of the hostility of 
the tories in that neighborhood, he was compelled to leave his 
home, and hide himself. Making a visit to his family he was dis- 
covered and seized by the tories, wounded, and left for dead, and 
his property carried away. The scars of these wounds, received 
ia this attack, he carried upon his head to his grave. After being 
broken up on Sandy River, he removed to Haw River congrega- 
tion, whose place of worship was about three miles north of Gum 
Grove, the old burying-ground being still visible. 

A remark made by an old gentleman who had sat silently by the 
fire-side, while young Currie and others were making merry one 

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eyening, was blest to awaken him to the danger he was in as a 
sinner. When the company were about to break up, the old gen- 
tleman turned to him and said — " Young man, when will you turn 
to serious things ?" This troubled his mind greatly. His con- 
version he attributes, under God, tp the ministry of Mr. M'Gready, 
for whom he entertained the highest regard through his whole life. 
His education he obtained from two sources, Dr. Caldwell of 
Guilford, and Mr. M'Gready. The latter taught school at his 
residence, between three and four miles below High Rock, about 
mid-way between his two places of preaching. Haw River and 
Stony Creek. The principal part of his instruction, however, 
was from Dr. Caldwell. 

In the month of March, 1801, at Barbacue church, Cumber- 
land coupty, Messrs. Ezekiel B. Currie, John Matthews, Duncan 
Brown, Murdock, McMillan, Malcolm McNair, Hugh Shaw, and 
Murdock Murphy, were licensed to preach the gospel by Orange 
Presbytery. These had all received their education principally 
under Dr. Caldwell, and were influenced more or less by 
M'Gready, to seek the ministry. All were actors in the great 
revival of 1802, and onwards. Four of them are still living ; two 
of whom are honored with the title of D.D., Brown and Matthews. 
Two of them were particularly useful in building up the churches 
that now constitute FayetteviUe Presbytery, McMillan and" 

Soon after his licensure, Mr. Currie went to Bethany church, in 
Caswell ; to which Greers was soon united. After spending about 
seven years in these congregations, he was removed to Nutbush 
and Grassy Creek, in Granville ; and from thence, in the year 
1819, to Hawfields and Cross Roads. About the year 1843 he 
withdrew from the pagtoial charge of these congregations, on ac- 
count of the infirmities of age, but still Uves to preach occasion- 
ally, and to witness the successful labors of his successor in these 
two congregations, constituting one of the largest and most inte- 
resting charges in North Carolina, which has been blessed with 
revivals from its origin. 

After Cross Roads was united with Hawfields in the service of 
a pastor, Eno, which had at first been its partner, was united with 
Little River, which became a distinct congregation about this time, 
under the charge of Rev. James H. Bowman, in the year 1794. 
In the great revival in 1802, and onwards, he gathered a goodly 
number into his two churches. His ministry closed in 1816. 

His successor was Samuel Paisley, half-brother of Wm. Pais- 

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ley, and son of an Indian captiye, who connnenced his labors here 
in 1816. In 1821 the congregations were blessed with a revival 
of religion that brought numbers into the church. After some 
years of service, Mr. Paisley left them, and is now ministering in 
Moore county, a member of Fayetteville Presbytery. 

The Rev. Messrs. Professor Philips, of the University, Elijah 
Graves, afterwards a missionary, Daniel G. Dock, Thomas Lynch, 
and finally, John Paisley, each served the congregation of £no for 
a short time. The last finished his earthly course in the congre- 
gation. Of him a member of the congregation thus writes : '^ His 
labors, no doubt, were blessed, during his short stay with us. The 
good seed he has sown seems to be springing up ; and even some 
sheaves ready to be gathered in ; for in a few days we expect a 
goodly number to come forward in that old church, and declare 
themselves to be on the Lord's side." After expressing a desire 
that his name may be remembered, he goes on to say, " he was 
not only a preacher in the pulpit, but his daily walk and private 
conversation savored of the spirit of his Master. His Bible classes 
were large, and his examinations extremely interesting. But O, 
sir, we can't tell why it was that he so soon finished his work. 
His Master called, and he, v^th his lamp trimmed and burning, was 
ready to go. His disease, perhaps a complicated one, baffled the 
skill of some three or four eminent physicians. The anxiety mftni- 
fested by his congregations, and all who knew him, was great in- 
deed. But it was the Lord's doing, and we must submissively 
say, * Even so, Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight.' " The 
aged minister goes down like a shock of com fully ripe ; the 
youthftil servant leaves us in amazement, and wonder, and tears. 

The Eno and Hawfields congregations, extending from Hillsbo- 
rough to the Haw River, were the scene of many of the doings of 
the Regulators. Not a few of the people were engaged in the 
proceedings of these slandered, yet brave men. Understanding 
their rights of person and property, they could not restrain their 
indignation imder the complicated and long-continued impositions 
of those who, acting imder the protection of the crown, exacted 
unheard of taxes from honest, unsuspecting men ; selling the same 
piece of land to difierent individuals, and receiving the pay firom all, 
without redress ; exacting pay over and over again from the same 
individuals for the same tract, under various pretexts ; and setting 
at defiance all law and order. If these people had not resisted, 
they would have been unworthy of their ancestors and the religion 
they professed. That* many base and unprincipled men took ad- 

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Tantage of the disturbance and distress, to conunit heinous offences 
against the peace of society, and in defiance of all law, is a thing 
to be lamented, but not to be charged too severely upon men who 
were willing to live peaceably, and would have been loyal had not 
" oppression driven them mad." 

Tryon's march the day before the Regulation battle, was through 
these congregations ; and the heavy oath of allegiance was exacted 
as the price of their property and hves, after the governor's victory. 
Upon the conscientious part of the community, that oath sat with a 
gaUing weight ; although many felt themselves relieved by the feet 
that the king could neither enforce his laws nor defend his subjects ; 
yet some suffered imder its influence during the whole war — not 
daring to take up arms for their country, and not disposed to enlist 
among her enemies. Such people often suffered the ill-deserved 
odium of being tones, and felt the ill-effects of a bad name. 
Few real tories were found in the Presbyterian population of 
Orange. The most vehement enemies that ComwaUis met, had 
been under the instruction of Presbyterian ministers. The first 
settled minister of Hawfields and Hico sat in the first Provincial 
Congress of Carolina, and on alarms, met with his people, to 
encourage them by precept and example, to defend their country 
and their religion. Comwallis found Hillsborough and its neigh- 
boAood little less inviting than Charlotte, which he named " the 
Hornets' Nest ;" and very few grown men firom Hillsborough to 
the 5Jaw, were unacquainted with service in the camp, and 
marches, and plunderings, while his lordship remained in Orange. 
And in the fiiture history of Carolina, the war of the Regulation 
will stand prominent as the struggle of liberty and justice against 
oppression, not less glorious than Lexington and Bunker Hill, for 
the principles displayed, though less honored for the immediate 

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The congregations of Buffalo and Alamance, the two eldest and 
largest of the Presbyterian denomination, and probably of anjr 
other, in the county of Guilford, have had the singular privilege of 
enjoying the regular ministrations of the gospel, with little inter- 
mission, for more than eighty years in conjunction with each 
other, dividing the Sabbaths — and from two men. The time of 
the ministerial relation of the Rev. Messrs. David Caldwell and 
Eli W. Caruthers with these congregations, extends from about 
the time of the organization of Alamance, in the year 1764, to the 
present day ; an incontestible evidence of their stability, and the 
irreproachable lives of their pastors. 

'* A Sketch of the Life and Character of the Rev. David Cald- 
well, D.D.," by Mr. Caruthers, his successor in the ministry, 
replete with various information, gives all of importance that can 
be collected, concerning the eariy life of that venerable man, who 
finished his course in the one hundredth year of his age, and the 
sixty-first of his ministry. 

David Caldwell, born March 22d, 1725, in Lancaster county, 
Pennsylvania, was the son of a respectable farmer, in good worldly 
circumstances, and of unblemished Christian character. After 
receiving the rudiments of an English education, he was bound 
apprentice to a house carpenter, and served till the legal period, 
the age of twenty*one. After working at his trade, as a journey- 
man, for about feur years, at the age of twenty-five he was 
admitted to the communion of the church, on a profession of his 
fiedth. As soon as the hope in Christ was formed in his heart, he 
began most earnestly to desire an education for the purpose of 
becoming a minister of the gospel. His thirst for information 
became a passion, and his desire to be useful in the ministiy 
increased to intense earnestness, and he resolved to sacrifice time, 
and labor, and his portion that might fall to him from his father's 
estate, to satisfy these strong desires of his heart. With unwea- 
ried perseverance, he pursued the object of his desire, and received 

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his degree of Bachelor of Arts, firom Princeton College, in the 
year 1761, the year that President Daries died. He was then 
thirty-six years of age. 

Some part of his preparatory course was under the tuition of 
Rev. Robert Smith, of Pequa, the father of John B. Smith, so fa- 
vorably known in Virginia as President of Hampden Sydney Col- 
lege, and of Samuel Stanhope Smith, known both at Hampden 
Sydney and Princeton. After receiving his degree he resorted to 
school-teaching, as he had often done before, and passed a year in 
that employ at Cape May. Returning to Princeton, he ¥ras en- 
gaged in the duties of a tutor in College, and in the study of theo- 
logy in preparation for licensure. He was taken ^der the care of 
New Brunswick Presbytery at its meeting in Princeton, Sept. 
28th, 1762, having given the brethren "good satisfaction as to his 
motives in wishing to enter the ministry." After repeated trial of 
his proficiency and aptness to teach, he was licensed by that Pres- 
b)rtery on the 8th of June, 1763. 

He left no account of his Christian experience, or of the trials 
and labors undergone in the course of study, preparatory to his 
entrance upon the work of the ministry. Some anecdotes which 
have been treasured up as having fallen from his lips, illustrate his 
spirit. In order to obtain some necessary funds, he sold his undi- 
vided patrimony to his brothers ; and in order to encourage them 
to make greater efforts to raise the money, and prevent aD objec- 
tion, he rated his share much below its real value. The agreement 
was verbal, but at the settlement of the estate he confirmed it in 
writing, making a journey firom Carolina expressly for that* pur- 
pose. While in college he pursued his studies in a manner that 
must have been ruinous to most men, often passing the night in 
the summer season, without either undressing or lying down, 
sleeping with his head upon his crossed arms, under Uie open win- 
dow ; an evidence of a strong constitution and untiring persever- 
ance, rather than of genius or prudence. 

After supplying various vacancies in the bounds of the Presby- 
tery, from the time of his licensure till the following summer, Mr. 
Caldwell visited North Carolina. The records of the Synod of 
New York and New Jersey have the following minute at their 
meeting in EUzabethtown, May 23d, 1764 : " Several supplica- 
tions firom North CaroUna were presented, earnestly praying for 
suppUes, which were read and urged with several verbal relations 
representing the stale of the country." After speakiiig of the aip- 
pointment of Mr. Charles Jef. SmiUi and Mr. Amos Thompson as 

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missionaries, the minute proceeds — " Mr. David Caldwell, a can- 
didate, of New Brunswick, is appointed to fD as soon as possible, 
but not to defer it longer than next fall, and supply under the 
direction of the Hanover Presbytery." This Presbytery at that 
time was the only one south of the Potomac in connection with 
the Synod, and its boundaries on the south were indefinite. 
There was an independent Presbytery in South Carolina. 

While Mr. Caldwell was in the course of his preparatory studies 
for college, a company of his friends emigrated to North Carolina, 
and took their residence on Buffalo Creek and Reedy Fork ; and 
before their departure from Pennsylvania, made overtures to him, 
that, upon his being licensed, he should visit them in their new 
abode for the purpose of becoming their preacher. In about a 
year after he commenced preaching, he was sent as a missionary 
by the Synod to the south, and passed through the congregations 
and settlements in the upper part of Carolina, and, among others, 
the settlements of his old friends. The emigration had been con- 
tinued, and many pious people having come to the wilderness, the 
congregation of Buffalo, whose place of worship is about three 
miles from Greensborough, had been organized according to the 
rules of the Church. Settlements had been formed on the Ala- 
mance, and in 1764, the year of his visit, the Rev. Henry Pattillo, 
who was afterwards the minister of Hawfields and Little River, 
organized a church called Alamance, whose preaching-place is 
about seven miles frooi Greensborough, and about the same dis- 
tance from Buffalo. 

These two congregations united in desiring Mr. Caldwell for 
their minister; though of different sentiments about the late 
divisions in the Presbyterian church, both were orthodox in their 
creed, and firmly attached to the Presbyterian forms ; but the 
Buffalo church was composed of members that were of the Old 
Sidcy as they were termed, and the Alamance of those who sided 
with New Light or New Side^ or as they sometimes distmguished 
themselves, /oZ/ou?ed Whitefield, This division into Old Side and 
New Side is by no means to be considered as similar to the divi- 
sions made some years since in the Presbyterian church under the 
names of Old and New School. The latter division was, in a 
great measure, brought about by different sentiments on iiqportant 
theological subjects ; the former principally by a difference about 
the nature of revivals and proper measures to be used, and also 
the propcff qualifications for the ministerial office. The full and 

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satisfactory history may be found in Hodge's Constitutional His- 
tory of the Presbyterian church. 

Mr. Caldwell^ appointment as a missionary was renewed next 
year by the Synod. Philadelphia, May 20th, 1765. " In conse- 
quence of sundry applications from North Carolina for suppUes, 
the Synod appoint Messrs. Nathan Kerr, George Duffield, William 
Ramsay, David Caldwell, James Latta, and Robert McMordie, to 
go there as soon as they can conveniently, and each of them to 
tarry half a year in those vacant congregations, as prudence may 
direct." The Presbytery of New Brunswick held a meeting in 
Philadelphia, and took the necessary steps preparatory to the or- 
dination of Mr. Caldwell ; and received a call from the churches 
of Buffalo and Alamance for his ministerial labors. July 5th, 1765, 
at Trenton, New Jersey, he was ordained to the full work of the 
gospel ministry, and dismissed to join the Presbytery of Hanover ; 
and as the congregations making the call were under the care of 
that Presbytery, he was directed to make known to it his deter- 
mination respecting the acceptance. He proceeded forthwith to 
Carolina, and entered upon his labors as minister of the two con- 
gregations ; was a corresponding member of Hanover Presbytery 
at its meeting at the Red House, Caswell county, June 4th, 1766. 
He neither joined the Presbytery at that time, nor accepted the call 
of the two churches ; and it was not till the 11th of October, 1767, 
he was received as a member, and not till the 3d of March, 1768, 
that the installation services were performed, in compliance with a 
request made the preceding fall. The Rev. Hugh McAden of the 
Red House, preached the installation service, and performed the 
services prescribed by the form of government. In the latter part 
of the year 1766 he was married to Rachel, the third daughter of 
Rev. Alexander Craighead, the minister at Sugar Creek, and became 
a housekeeper in that part of his congregation then within the 
bounds of Rowan county, previous to the formation of Guilford 
from Rowan and Orange, the place of his residence till his death, 
in 1824. 

As the congregations had promised him but two hundred dollars 
salary, he felt the necessity, from the first, of making provision for 
his family, and accordingly purchased a small farm, on which 
through hfe he depended in part for the comforts of his household. 
He commenced, too, at his house a classical school, which, with 
some few short interruptions, he continued till the infirmities of age 
disqualified him for the duties of teacher. This was the second 
classical school of permanence, and perhaps the first in usefrilness. 

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in the upper part of Carolina ; that in Sugar Creek being probably 
the first ; and that of Mr. Pattillo, in Granvifle, being the third. 
Delighting in the employment of teacher, having a peculiar tact 
for the management of boys, and being thorough in his course of 
instruction, his school flourished, and was the means, during the 
long period of its continuance, of bringing more men into the learn- 
ed professions than any other taught by a single individual or by a ' 
succession of teachers during the same period of time. Five of 
his scholars became Governors of States; a number were promoted 
to the bench, of whom were Murphy and McCoy ; a larger num- 
ber, supposed about fifty, became ministers of the gospel, of whom 
were Dr. McCorkle, of Thyatria, Dr. Matthews, of New Albany, 
Indiana, Dr. Brown, of Tennessee, and many others that were 
shining lights ; a large number were physicians and lav^ryers. Of 
those whose names have been mentioned as eminent, most, if not 
all, received their entire classical education from him, and the 
ministers of the gospel, in addition to that, their theological edu- 
cation ; so that, for a time, his school was academy, coHege, and 
theological seminary. The number of students attending was 
generally from fifty to sixty ; and, assembled from different parts 
of the State, put his powers of government to the test. These 
must have been extraordinary ; as it is not recollected by any of 
his family, or any of his pupils living, that any student was ever 
expelled, or sent away for improper conduct. His students loved, 
reverenced, and obeyed him. And such was the impression made 
upon the minds of those under his discipline, that an instance was 
known of a student, with whom the Dr. was compelled to be very 
severe, in after life riding more than two hundred miles, for the 
sole purpose of revisiting the scenes of his school days, and once 
more taking the Dr. by the hand. 

There were frequent times of revival in his school. An aged 
minister told Mr. Caruthers that himself and nine of his schoolmates 
became pious while under his tuition, and all entered the ministry. 
The influence of Mrs. Caldwell over the students was great, and 
all in favor of religion ; on that subject she was their confidant 
and lulviser. Intelligent, prudent, kind, and conciUating, she won 
their hearts and directed their judgments, and the current saying 
through the country was, " Dr. Caldwell makes the scholar^, and 
Mrs. Caldwell makes, the ministers." Multitudes will rise and 
call her blessed. The Rev. E. B. Currie, still living, speaks of 
her as a wonderful woman to counsel and encourage, having felt 
in his own case her extraordinary power, while a member of tho 

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school. A precious revival took place under the ministrations of 
Rev. James M'Gready, who visited thft tchool, and was the happy 
means of leading many to Christ. 

In addition to the numerous labors belonging to his multiplied 
callings, the condition of his people turned his attention to the 
practice of medicine. There being no physician in the neighbor- 
hood, or within many miles, the sick turned their attention to 
their minister, in the double capacity of physician for the soul and 
for the body. He procured some books and read carefully ; a 
physician by the name of Woodsides came and resided a year 
in his family, and practised in the congregations ; at his death Mr. 
Caldwell came in possession of his books ; Dr. Rush, who was 
a college mate, was his correspondent through life ; with these ad- 
vantages, his patience and perseverance triumphed, and in all the 
common diseases of the country he became celebrated, and also 
in some of much greater difficulty. He continued the practice of 
medicine till his fourth son was prepared to take his place ; and 
then, except in very special cases, he declined further service. 

The Rev. E. B. Currie, one of his pupils, says, " Dr. Caldwell's 
life was rather a life of labor than of study ; and when we con- 
sider that he had a large school, which he attended five days in 
the week ; two large congregations which he catechised at least 
twice in the year four communions, which always lasted four 
days each, besides his visiting the sick, frequently preaching in 
vacant congregations, etc., etc., we can see there was not much 
time left for study ; but he was a close student when opportunity 
offered." During the first sixteen or eighteen years of his minis- 
try he studied closely. Retiring to rest at ten, and rising at four, 
he redeemed time for regular and protracted study. His library 
being destroyed during the war, and his public duties increasing, 
as his strength decayed, he was of necessity, rather than inclina- 
tion, less studious in the latter part of his life. That he might 
preserve his health, he was strictly temperate in eating and drink- 
ing, and always kept some work of manual labor of importance 
ready, to exercise himself every day, when not called firom home. 

At a meeting of Hanover Presbytery, held at Buffalo meeting- 
house, March, 1T70, a petition was prepared for Synod, asking for a 
Presbytery for Carolina and the South. This petition was grant- 
ed in May, and the Rev. Messrs. Hugh McAden, Henry Pattillo, 
James Criswell, David Caldwell, Joseph Alexander, Hezekiah 
Balch, and Hezekiah James Balch, were constituted a Presbytery 
by the name of Orange, to meet at the Hawfields ; and the Rev. 

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Henry Pattillo, the pastor, to open the Presbjrtery with a sermon. 
This Presbytery has flourished greatly, its congregations are nu- 
merous, and at the present time there are three Presbyteries in the 
State of North Carolina, in the bounds occupied by this, besides 
those in South Carolina which, for a time, were reckoned as be- 
longing to its bounds. 

Dr. Caldwell and Mr. Pattillo were near neighbors for a few 
years. Whether Mr. Pattillo taught school during the five or six 
years he preached at the Hawfields, is not distinctly known ; 
that he did after his removal, and for a long time, is well known ; 
and, also, that his circumstances required him to have a greater 
income than his ssdary. The probability is that he pursued a 
course similar to that pursued by Dr. Caldwell. The famous 
Regulation battle, May 16th, 1T71, took place in the region lying 
between their respective fields of labor. Both congregations were 
deeply and generally involved in the troubles that brought the 
contest, and partook fully of the spirit that prompted the re- 
sistance, and were sharers in the battle. Of the part that Mr. 
Pattillo took we have no account left, either in manuscript or tra- 
dition ; but firom his after history, which is well known, we feel 
at no loss to conjecture. Dr. Caldwell sympathized with his 
congregations in their troubles, and in their resistance. That 
such men as Pattillo and Caldwell were the ministers of four large 
congregations, which embraced the space of country in which the 
principal localities of the Regulation difiSculties are found, entirely 
forbids the idea that the Regulators, as a body, were untaught and 
saviage, or unprincipled men. The congregations of these men 
read their Bibles, heard no indifferent preaching on the Sabbath, 
and had committed the admirable formulary — the Shorter Cate- 
chism of the Westminster Assembly, which they were taught to 
believe, and to reduce to practice ; and if they read few other 
books, and seldom saw a newspaper, it is evident they understood 
the laws of Nature and the laws of God, and were ready to 
defend the privileges and rights which the king's oflicers trampled 
on then, but all the world concedes now. 

When the governor was marching against the encampment or 
gathering of the Regulators, with the evident intention of giving 
them battle, the cool calculating mind of Caldwell clearly saw that 
the probability of success was entirely with the governor. With 
him were ofi&cers that had seen service, and some field ordnance^ 
and men that had been disciplined ; on the other side, the side of 
his friends, was courage, a sense ti oppression, confidence in the 

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right of their cause, and a belief that the governor would not 
attack them, and could not beat them if he did, — ^but no discipline, 
no field ordnance, no experienced military officer, not even a com- 
mander-in-chief, or a council of coDMnanders,— every man obeyed 
whOQ) he chose, and few chose to command. 

Dr. Caldwell visited both parties, for the purpose of proposing 
terms of accommodation, and was treated with respect by Tryon. 
On the morning of the battle he had an interview with both, still 
hoping to prevent the effusion of blood ; and warned by an old 
Scotchman, who understood the movements in the governor's line, 
he had left the ranks of the Regulators but a few moments before 
the firing began. There were many brave spirits from the con- 
gregations of Buffalo and Alamance, in that battle, whom no 
remonstrance could drive from the ranks and fortunes of their 
fellow Regulators. That the loss of that battle was not owing to 
want of courage, may be argued from the spirit displayed by the 
people of these congregations during the war which, in a few 
years, succeeded. 

The battle was lost to the Regulators, and in the murderous 
executions that followed, there was evidence that same, at least, 
of the Regulators, knew how to die like men and Christians. It 
is by no means improbable that the proportion of such in the 
camp, was equally as great as in the prison. That there were 
unprincipled men among the Regulators is well known, and was 
regretted then as much as criticised now ; but that the mass were 
men of principle and morals, true friends of their country, and 
lovers of liberty and law, there is less doubt now than there Was 
then. H living in log cabins, with none of the luxuries of life, 
makes men vulgar, and lawless, and ignorant, then these men 
were all their enemies charged upon them, and merited neither 
success nor sympathy. But if devotion to principles and country 
makes men patriots, then the graves of the Regulators are the 
bed of the " Sons of Liberty." 

The executions being finished, and the oath of allegiance be- 
ing administered, the governor left the country in triumph, trust- 
ing to the binding force of an oath to preserve the peace and quiet 
he vainly supposed were established in the State. His trust in 
the binding influence of the oath was not misplaced, for these 
men had knowledge, and they had a conscienee ; they dreaded 
the judgment of Him who has said that liars shall not have a 
portion in the heavenly inheritance. When the national Dedwa- 
tion of Independence was made, and the war of the Revolution 

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vras begun, then commenced, in the counties of Orange and Rowan, 
and those formed from them to break up the influence of 
the Regulators, the contest in many a brave man's mind between 
his love of liberty and his sense of obligation. By his oath he had 
saved his property, and perhaps his life ; by hfs condition his iieart 
was with his countrymen. Must he serve his king or join with his 
coimtrymen? Here the patriotism and cool calculation of Dr. 
Caldwell manifested itself. He argued with his people that alle- 
giance and protection were inseparable ; that as the king had not 
protected them from the rapacity which had driven them to rebel- 
lion on a former occasion, and was not able to assert his authority 
over the country now, their oath of allegiance, which had been 
exacted by force, was no longer binding. The independent State 
of North Carolina demanded their services, and the Congress of 
the Uni^d Colonies called for their aid ; to fight for the king would 
be to resist the established government. With some the argument 
was satisfactory ; they took up arms and served through the war ; 
others remained neutral ; and some few took arms for the king. 
The active tories were from another race of people in Orange. 
By the erection of the cou nty of Guilford, in 1770 , from the 

rmrnti^l^ ^f Or^ngft ^tiH l^nF^"| ^h^ rnn^Pgntinn nf Knffaln em- 
braced the centre, and had the county-seat within its bounds, a few 
miles from the residence of Dr. Caldwell. Guilford Court-house 
virill be known as long as the history of the American Revolution 
is read ; and the suflerings^and bravery of the four large congre- 
gations rf Eno, Hawfields, Buffalo, and Alamance, can never be 
unknovioi while constancy and bravery are admired. These con- 
gregations were the scene of the plunderings of the hungry, needy, 
irritated army of Comwallis, after he had butaed his baggage and 
lost the object 6niis~pursuit, and found himself far from his stores, 
and in an enemy's country. The detail of plundered houses, in- 
sulted women, and murdered men, is too sickening to be dwelt 
upon. The catalogue of suflierings would fill a volume. And of 
these Dr. Caldwell had his full share. Hie house was plundered, 
his library and valuable papers destroyed, his property stolen, and 
he himself, watched for as a felon, passed nights in the woods in a 
secret place. He heard the roar of the battle of Guilford Court- 
house, and lejoiced in the consequent retreat of CoiwaUis. But 
hm joy was mingled with sorrow, for the victory was purchased 
with the blood of some of his people. But with the retreat of 
CiM^iwallis, the savage warfare between whigs and tories raged 
more violently for a time, and then came to an end ; and the dis- 

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tressed congregation of Dr. CaldweR had a respite from the horrors 
of war. 

It is a fact worthy of observation, that the track of the armies 
through North Carolina, previous to thft battle of Guilford, em- 
braced the residence of the Scotch-Irish, and Scotch families, 
and put to the test the solemn asseveration in the two declarations 
that the cause of independence should be defended at the cost of 
^^ life, fortune, and most sacred honor P How far Dr. Caldwell 
was prepared to vindicate that pledge, can be seen in the extended 
account of his trials and sufferings, given by Mr. Caruthers. 
Slow to engage in warfare, timorous in provoking bloodshed, 
when the warfare and the battle came he stood his ground pre- 
pared to suffer, with his flock, the last extremity, and escaped 
captivity and death only by the special providence of God. Many 
and many a time did the British and tories lie in wait for him, 
and watch his house, and make sudden visits, and use false pre- 
tences to draw him from his hiding-place ; and once so well was 
the story feigned, that the prudence and foresight of his wife was 
ov6rreached, and the hiding-place discovered. But God pre- 
served him in all emergencies, that God in whom he put his 
trust, and when the enemy were rejoicing that now, at last, he 
was discovered, they found his rude shelter deserted. 

After the peace. Dr. Caldwell's labors as teacher and preacher 
returned upon him with increased weight. Though by his own 
vote in the convention of 1776, which formed the constitution of 
the State of North Carolina, and drew up the Bill of Rights, he 
could not be a member of the legislature without laying down his 
ministerial oflSce, his influence with political men was rather in- 
creased, and his unobtrusive opinions carried great weight with 
all that knew him. Pattillo was member of the first Provincial 
Congress, in 1775, and Caldwell of the State Convention, in 
1776. It is a matter of tradition that he drew up the 32d article : 
" That no person who shall deny the being of God, or the truth 
of the Protestant religion, or the divine authority either of the Old 
or New Testament, or who shall hold religious principles incom- 
patible with freedom and safety of the State, shall be capable of 
holding any office or place of trust or profit, in the civil depart- 
ment within the State." The preceding section disqualifies 
preachers of the gospel for the legislative functions, in virtue of 
their office. The convention of 1835, to amend the constitution, 
changed the word " Protestant " in the 32d section to " Ckru- 

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Dr. Caldwell harmonized With the paper drawn up by Dr. 
£phraim Brevard, in the fall of 1775, which probably he never 
saw ; both felt that anti-protestant belief in rehgion was anti-republi- 
can, and therefore not to fte encouraged ; both desired freedom of 
cmiscience for all Protestant denominations ; neither aske^ any 
reprisals on the denomination that had been the favorite of the 
crown, and the State religion of the colony ; neither desired any 
privileges for their own ; both desired that Jthe Protestant religion 
should be the religion of the State, and that all denominations 
should be equally free from all disabilities and all patronage, 
fiilly believing that religion would support itself. 

While Dr. Caldwell sought public favor neither for himself nor 
his family, public favor sought them. When the present system 
of district courts went into operation, there were many applica- 
tions to the judge, for the office of clerk of Guilford county. On the 
day of opening the court, public expectation was high, from the 
number of candidates, and the uncommitted silence of the judge. 
Calling to Lawyer Cameron, then at the bar, now Judge Cameron 
of Raleigh, he requested him to act as clerk that day, and also to see 
if Dr. Caldwell was on the ground. To both of these requests, 
Mr. Cameron assented ; and finding the old gentleman in the midst 
of a circle of his friends, he introduced him to the judge's room. 
After a kind salutation from his former pupil, the Dr. was surprised 
by the inquiry, " Have you a son qualified for the office of clerk of 
this county ?" After some reflection, he rephed that he thought 
not, as none of them had been educated in prospect of such em- 
ployment After some persuasion from the judge, he agreed " to 
•go home and look them over, and give him word the next day." 
As aot a word of this was pubhc, expectation was higher than ever, 
as the applicants saw Mr. Cameron act as clerk, and not a single 
intimation from the judge who should fill the office The next 
morning, the Dr. appeared at the judge's room, and entered with 
one of his sons ; saluting the judge, and turning to his son, " Here, 
judge, I have done the best I could." McCoy conferred on him 
the office ; and neither the judge nor the county have had cause 
to regret the appointment. 

During the last war, when a draught was caUed for from Guil- 
ford, and the attempt to meet the demand by volunteers was likely 
to fail from the great reluctance of the citizens to go to the sea- 
shore of a neighboring State, whose fame for healthiness ranked 
no higher than Norfolk did at the time. Dr. Caldwell, by request, 
addressed the people in the court-house. Through infirmity, he 


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was carried to the magistrate's bench ; and having preached firom 
the words, " He that hath no sword, let him sell bis garment and 
buy one ;" with all the infirmities of age upon him, he produced 
such a feeling among the young men, that the required list was 
inunodiately filled out. This was patriotic in him, who, knowing 
the horrible evils attending armies, was opposed to the war in the 
conmiencement ; but in its advancement, remembered that he was 
a citizen of the United States, and that he must stand or fall with 
his country. 

Dr. Caldwell knew what affliction was "from experience, for 
God saw it not best that his laborious servant should fulfil his 
ministry without sharp trials. And in choosing his afflictions, the 
Lord his Saviour proportioned their measure to his usefulness and 
influence, sending upon him as bitter a cup as could probably have 
come to him, without the ingredients of sinfulness or death. 
First, a daughter of superior endowments and liberal education, 
gave evidence that reason had lost its dominion ; and all the skill 
of his firiend^^^sB>could not bring it back to its throne. Then a 
son, and then another son, wks added to the list by a mysterious 
providence. The venerable parents bowed in submission ; and in 
meekness and parental fondness watched over these erratic, yet 
not harmful children. They never recovered the right use of 
their reason. The son that preached for a time at Rocky River, 
was splendid in his ruins. 

When the University of North Carolina went into operation, he 
declined being considered a candidate for the Presidency. As a 
mark of their respect for his character and usefulness, the trustees 
conferred upon him the degree of D.D., at an early stage of their 
proceedings, when a spirit, not the most firiendly to religion, was 
exercising a temporary influence in their councils. 

Dr. Caldwell continued his pastoral services till about the yair 
1820 ; often, from weariness, on his return home, requiring assist- 
ance to dismount, and being carried into his house. On the 25tlh of 
August, 1824, he literally fell asleep, to wake no more till the 
Resurrection, his earthly pilgrimage having continued a period 
lacking only about seven months of a hundred years. He went to 
his grave like a shock of com fully ripe. 

One of his sons was for many years pastor of Sugar Creek, the 
congregation of his grandfather Craighead; and one of his grand- 
sons for a term of years ministered to the same congregation. 
" The seed of the righteous is blessed." 

Mrs. CaTdwell survived her husband less than a yeaur ; and de- 

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paited in the exercise of a good hope, thiough grace, of everlasting 
life. Her refoains were laid beside those of Dr. Caldwell. A 
marble slab marks the place of sepulture of this venerable pair, 
near Buffalo church, the place in which they had so often wor- 
shipped God. 

There is an interesting tradition connected with the family of 
William Paisley, of Alamance, The well-attested facts and dates 
respecting Mrs. Paisley, mother of the Rev. Samuel Paisley, as 
received from the son, are — ^That she used to say that she had no 
recollection of ever seeing father, mother, brother, or sister ; that 
it was understood that the Indians killed her father, and that her 
mother died soon after him ; that Mr. Smith and Mr, Clack used 
to say, the Indians bad the child ; that she never spoke of her 
captivity ; that she was reared and educated by the Rev, James 
Davenport, of Pennington ; that she went to school to a Mr, Ches- 
nut, an Englishman, about twenty miles from Philadelphia; that 
William Paisley became acquainted with her there, and gaining 
iier affections, he took her to Philadelphia, where they werocanrried 
by Rev. William Tennant, in the year 1763, in her 20th year; Aat 
they went to Princeton, and Kved there till afterthe birthof their eldest 
son, and then removed to North Carolina. The tradition in Jersey 
ubout this lady is — ^That the Rev. James Davenport, whose wife's 
maiden name was Paine, was from New England, and settled first 
on Long Island, in New York, and from thence removed to Pen- 
nington, New Jersey, and was pastor of the chur<;h there for many 
years ; that he obtained the child from the Indians, gave it the 
name of Deliverance Paine, and reared it carefully as his own. 

Miss Sally Martin and Miss Phoebe Davis lived together a long 
tinm in Princeton, New Jersey, taught school, and had the first 
instruction of almost all the children of the place. Miss Davis is 
still living (1846). These ladies used to tell the children about 
little Dilly Paine, as is well recollected by some that went to school 
to them, and re-affirmed by Miss Davis^pon inquiry, in 1844 ; 
that the Indians brought her along and cld^pd her as theirs, and said 
she had no parents ; but would not tell where nor how they got her, 
nor give her up to the white people ; that getting out of provisions, 
and having nothing to buy with, and becoming wearied of carrying 
the child with them, they sold her to Mr, Davenport, for a loaf of 
bread and a bottle of rum. With him the little orphan grew up 
and lived till her removal to Carolina, 

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About twelve miles south of Charlotte, on one of the routes to 
Camden, you will find in a beautiAil oak grove, through which the 
great road passes, the place of assemblage for the worship of God, 
of the church and congregation of New Providence, or Providence, 
as it is now more commonly caUed. Here, as in revolutionary 
times, are gathered from Sabbath to Sabbath, the inhabitants of a 
large section of country, which was the scene of many thrilling in- 
cidents, when Lord Comwallis, with his royal army, tested the prin- 
ciples of the North Carolina Presbyterians. The name of the con- 
gregation was adopted from one in Pennsylvania, and as an acknow- 
ledgment of a kind providence in the circumstances of the settle- 
ment of the congregation, particularly in their being unmolested by 
the Indians. 

Owing to the distance of this country from a printing press, be- 
fore and for some time after the revolution, few books or pamphlets 
are to be found under the name of any of the Presbyterian minis- 
ters that labored so unremittingly among the churches of this inte- 
resting population. The law of custom had d^ided that the de- 
struction of manuscripts was a part of preparation for death, as 
solemn and indispensable as the making the last will and testament 
Very little of the records of the thoughts of these men have been 
preserved from this destruc^n. And the unfortunate burning of 
some houses, together with the carelessness of those who might 
have rescued some things from oblivion, leaves the present genera- 
tion in wondering ignprgiice of the trials, and energy, and princi- 
ples of those brave an(||^ttcellent men. 

The grave of but one mii)Aster is found in the b|irial-place at 
Providence. Step into the yard a few paces from the church, and 
among the chiselled names of Stitt, Potts, McKee, Rea, Patterson, 
McCullock, and M»tthews, the oldest of which b'^ars date of 1764, 
you will find the plam monument of Walli^, who served the con- 
gregation fi*om 1792 Jill 1819. His mother's monument you will 
find in the old grave-yard of Sugar Creek, in the comer opposite to 
Craighead's sassafiras trees. Of the previous ministers the accounts 

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are scanty, especially as the congregation was not so fortunate as 
some of its neighbors in retaining its ministers for a protracted 
period. Of Idr. Wallis, we shall say more in the close of this 

Settlements in the bounds of this congregation were made about 
the same time as those in Sugar Creek, and Steel Creek, and Rocky 
River, and by the same kind of emigrants. The first ministerial 
labors the settlement enjoyed, beside what they could receive from 
Mr. Craighead, were from the Rev. William Richardson, who was 
licensed by Hanover Presbytery, at a meeting at Capt Anderson's, 
in Cumberland, Virginia, Jan. 25th 1768. On the 18th of July 
following, at the first meeting of the Presbytery after the union of 
the Synods of New York and Philadelphia, held in Cumberland, 
Mr. Richardson and Mr. Pattillo were ordained. He was appointed 
to attend at Rocky River on the 27th of the September following, 
to perform the installation services for Mr. Craighead, being on 
his way to the Cherokees. How long he remained with the Chero- 
kees is not known. In 1761, he iU reported as having left Hanover 
Presbytery, and joined the Presbytery in South Carolina, not in con- 
nection with the Synod. In 1762, the Presbytery sustained his 
reasons for joining that Presbytery without dismission from his own, 
with which he was in regular connection. 

Mr. Richardson was the maternal uncle of the famous Wm. Rich- 
ardson Davie, so noted in the southern war, adopted him as his 
son, superintended his education, and made him heir of an estate, 
every shilling of which Davie expended in equipping the corps of 
which he was made Major in 1780. 

How long he preached in Providence is not known. His resi- 
dence was in South Carolina. 

The first elders in the church were Andrew Rea, Archibald 
Crocket, Joshua Ramsey, and Aaron Howie. For some time pre- 
vious to the organization of the church in 1765, there had been 
but one place acknowledged as the place of worship by the people 
of this congregation, and that is the grove where the meeting-house 
now stands, in the shade of whose trees the first public worship was 
celebrated until a house was built 

In 1766, there is a notice on the records of the Synod of " a call 
for settlement among them, from Steel Creekjoid New Providence." 
Aboirt this time t/tr. Robert HenTypvtCo gathered the church' tm 
Cub Creek, Virginia, resolved, after ministering to that charge for a 
number of years, to leave them ; and an engagement was made for 
his services in these two congregations. By the records of the 

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Hanover Presbytery, it appears he was dismissed from Cub Creek 
in 1766 ; and his death is reported to the Presbytery as having 
taken place May 8th, 1767. • 

The following articles of agreement between Providence and 
Clear Creek (now called Philadelphia) have been preserved by 
Wm. Queary. " Whereas, the representation of both congrega- 
tions doth unanimously agree among themselves, in the names of 
both the aforesaid congregations, to stand and abide by each other 
from time to time through all difficulties, in order to obtain tl^e 
labors of a gospel minister, that is to say, the one-half of lus 
labors to one congregation, and the other to the other. And for a 
true and sincere union for the truth of the aforesaid articles, the 
representation of both congregations hath hereunto subscribed their 
names, Jan. 27th, 1770. New Providence — ^John Ramsey, James 
linn, John Hagens, James Houston, Andrew Reah, James Drafien, I 

James Johnston, James Teate, Thomas Black, Robert Stewart: . 

Clear Creek — Adam Alexander, Matthew Stewart, John Queary, ' 

Michael Ligget, John Ford." j 

Two of the above names appear in the list of the Mecklenburg 
Declaration, viz: — Adam Alexander and John Queary, whid^ I 

shows that the men were public-spirited men, that formed this rep- | 

resentation. But we have no memoranda now to inform us of the | 

effects of this union upon the religious concerns of the congregation. 
Neither have we any detailed account of the ecclesiastical concerns 
of the congregation during the arduous struggle of the Revolution. 
It is known that Thomas Reese preached in Mecklenburg for some 
time when the other congregations were generally supplied with at 
least some part of the services of a minister ; and that from his pen 
emanated some of the effective papers that moved the inhabitants of 
Mecklenburg ; he is supposed to have given some part of his time 
to Providence. Mr* McRee came from Steel Creek to supply the 
pulpit, for some time, as he says he often rode from home to preach 
for them on the Sabbath. Mr. Archibald came over from Rocky 
River and I^oplar Tent, and supplied them for a season. The Rev. 
David Barr labored in the bounds for some time, but did not make 
it his permanent residence. 

The congregation lying on the route of the armies moving north 
or south, suffered its full share in the plunderings which, by the 
acMunt of the British historians, were severe, at the time Comwallis 
moved on to Charlotte. The night before he approached that village, , 

he encamped in Providence, on the ground occupied by Colonel 
Davie, with the few American forces that behaved so nobly when 



united to the few militia and volunteers that joined them in Char- 
lotte, ^' keeping in check the whole British army." The greatest 
trial in the war was upon those neighborhoods and sections of coun- 
try sul]3ected to the plunderings of the anny of the king. It was 
not a sudden and great danger, or even bloodshed, in a good cause, 
by assault or regular battle, in which the excitement of the occasion 
carries the spirit triumphant through. But an annoyance in the 
smaller matters of property, and the private concerns ; a taking 
away of the comfort of domestic life, a harassing of defenceless fe- 
males and helpless age and children ; and this continued from day 
to day, when all the enthusiasm of excitement had spent it^ force ; 
and principle itself could scarce sustain the accumulated weight of 
numberless petty privations and aggravations, crowned as they 
sometimes were with conflagration and butchery, that entailed exile 
or poverty. It is a matter of admiration that under the pressure of 
all these evils so few of the inhabitants in Mecklenburg ever thought 
of deserting the cause of liberty, or of ^^ taking protection," though 
many families saw their wealth swept with a merciless hand. And 
the few that yielded in the trial were subjects of commiseration 
rather than of severe censure and harsh denunciation^ 

James Wallis, who was the first minister that gave protracted 
service to Providence, spent his ministerial life in the congregation. 
He was bom in 1762, in Sugar Creek, son of Ezekiel Wallis. His 
early education was at Liberty Hall in Charlotte ; and his college 
course was completed at Winnsborough, South Carolina^ under Dr. 
Barr. He was ordained pastor in 1792, by the Presbytery of Or- 
ange, and never changed his congregation till death. 

Soon after entering upon his office in this congregation, com- 
menced a new and till then unknown conflict about the Bible. 
That the Presbyterian ministers south of Yadkin had been true pa- 
triots, no man in the country, or in the British army, pretended to 
deny. Their names were not unknown in the camp ; and the pul- 
pits of the seven churches poured forth the highest intellectual ef-^ 
forts in discussing the rights of man, and sustaining the sinking 
spirits of the distressed country, by the abounding consolations of 
the word of God. The minister and his congregation prayed, — the 
father in his family prayed, — the soldier in his tent, and in the 
woods, prayed, — and the oommander at the head of the forces often 
commenced the march with prayer. And it was no idle form of 
prayer, but a pouring out of the heart to God Almighty for his pro- 
tection in the struggle for liberty and truth. 

Dr. Robinson, of Poplar Tent, used to tell an anecdote of an old 

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gentleman, by the name of Alexander, in one of the neighbmng 
congregations, that did not think of neglecting his religious duties 
though called into camp as a soldier. Being sent out to intercept 
some tories, very early one morning, when his post was assigned 
him, with the general orders to wait their near approach and take 
sure aim, he took the opportunity for a few moments of devotion. 
Taking off his hat he knelt down in the attitude of a worshipper ; 
upon the near approach of the enemy he resumed his post and 
waited the signal. The unhappy tory that encountered the shot of 
his rifle fell dead. The whole party of tories were soon dkpersed 
or taken. As in the time of Cromwell the praying soldiers did not 
nm or play the coward. 

When the war was over, then came the other contest of fearful 
import, whose influence was felt everywhere, but nowhere in Caro- 
lina with more violence than in Mecklenburg county. The author- 
ity of the king had been discussed and set aside ; the battle between 
the crown and the people had been fought, and won by the people. 
Then came the discussion about the dominion of conscience — ^what 
should govern conscience, philosophy or the Bible 1 Should philo- 
sophy dictate to the Bible, or the Bible to all the world ? The 
authority of the Bible imderwent a sifting discussion, such as Caro- 
lina had never seen, and may never see again. From the nature of 
the case that discussion was vehement in Mecklenburg, and from 
accidental circumstances embittered in Providence. A debating 
society, — and debating societies for political purposes were conamon 
in those days, — was formed in the region of country embracing a 
part of Sugar Creek, and Steel Creek and Providence, and fumidied 
with a circulating library, replete with infidel philosophy and infi- 
del sentiments 'on religion and morality. Everything of a religious 
nature was called in question and discussed ; and the standard of 
opposition was raised with a boldness becoming a better cause. 
Caldwell of Sugar Creek, and Wallis of Providence, brothers in the 
ministry, and sons-in-law of John M'Knitt Alexander, were in the 
hottest of the battle, as infidelity is never so outrageous as when it 
takes its seat, or strives to take it, in a Christian conmiunity. 

With different natural temperament, they met the strife like 
courageous men: Caldwell, cool, clear and amiable, and loved 
where he could not convince; Wallis, clear, strong, ardent, and 
more dreaded though less loved ; both unfaltering, and unwearied 
and honored. Caldwell left politics to other hands, and preached 
the gospel ; Wallis proclaimed the great principles of democracy 
as part of his creed ; and unmrted, with them, the unlimited control 

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of the word of God in all matters pertaining to conscience, whether 
public or private. He prq)ared a pamphlet in which were con- 
densed the argmnents of Watson, Paley and Leslie, and circulated 
it anuMig his people and through the country. A pamphlet as well 
calculated to produce the effect designed — ^the exhibition of the evi- 
dences of revelation in contradiction to all infidel notions — ^has sel- 
dom been issued from the press. A reprint would be advantageous 
where discussion on the subject of revelation is called for. 

The debating society embraced wealth and talent, and for a time 
maintained the contest with spirit. Emigration to Tennessee, in 
which the library was carried across the mountains, and the great 
revival of 1802 broke it up. 

While this discussion was going on, and men were arguing for 
and against the Bible with excited and sometimes angry feelings, 
another cause of unhappiness arose. Mr. Wallis had occasion to 
be absent a few Sabbaths, and obtained the favor of Rev. Wm. C. 
Davis, to supply his pulpit one Sabbath. Mr. Davis, on the day 
of his supply, made use of the version of Psalms by Watts. As 
the congregation had never agreed to introduce this version, and as 
many families were opposed to their use in public worship, offence 
was taken ; and the blame was thrown on Mr. Wallis as having 
been privy to the matter. The discontented withdrew, and for a 
time worshipped in a building about three hundred yards from the 
old stand ; this, however, was soon abandoned, and the seceding 
families now worship at Sardis, about seven miles distant; th^ sub- 
ject of Psalmody being the principal matter of division. 

The great revival of 1802 and onward, a particular account of 
which is given in the chapter on James M'Gready and the great 
revival, had a happy infiuence on this congregation. A camp- 
meeting was held within their bounds, commencing Friday, March 
23d, 1802, at which it was supposed from five to six thousand per- 
sons were present To accommodate this great assemblage, after a 
sermon at the public stand in the centre, about 9 o'clock, worship 
was continued at five different places. For the first three days little 
impression was made, and the opinion that " all was the work of 
man, and the effects of the power of oratory,'' which had been circu- 
lated by those inclined to believe in the infidel notions, was gaining 
ground. But on Sabbath nij^t a great impression was visible, and 
before the close of the meeting a large number were hopefid con- 
verts ; and among these were some that had been prominent in 
their unbelief There are some living to this day who were con- 

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YMs at that meeting, whose lives have been those of consistent 

Mr. Wallis taught a classical school many years. The de^ con- 
viction, that purity of religion and morals could not loai; funrive 
the introduction of an ignorant ministry into the pulpit, \agtd on 
the ministers of the Presbyterian church to unremitting efforts to 
establish and keep alive high schools. In these efforts they re- 
ceived the aid of intelligent laymen, who were impelled by the full 
belief, that the welfare of the body politic is for ever indissolubly 
united with mental cultivation and the correct training of the moral 
principles. Long has the academy stood near Providence church, 
and there may it long stand. The church and the school-house 
were inseparable in the early Presbyterian settlements. Mr. Wal- 
lis taught school successfully, and his successors have kept the ^oors 
of the academy open for the youth of Mecklenburg ; and when the 
Wtors of the present generation have passed from the stage, their 
record will say of many of them, that their education was com- 
menced, and of others, that it was finished there. It does not appear 
that Mr. Wallis was driven to school-keeping by poverty of his 
means ; but from the necessity of the country at laige, and his 
congregation in particular. 

Mr. Wallis was for some time before his death a member of the 
board of trustees of the University. This shows the estimation in 
which he was held by his political firiends, when there were so many 
Presbyterian nunisters of eminence as teachers, firom whom to 

Mr. Wallis was of stature rather below the nuddling height, 
small in person, quick in his motions, and elastic in hb movements; 
excitable in his temper, warm in his attadunents, ardent in his de- 
livery of sermons, and not subject to fear. His congregation 
flourished under his ministry. He finished his course in the year 
1819, in the 57th year of his age, and the 27th of his ministry. 

In the year 1823, the Rev. Samuel Williamson was called and 
settled as pastor ; in this office he continued till his removal to the 
presidency of Davidson college in the year 1840. During his 
ministry, about the year 1831, those members of Providence living 
on the north side of McAlpin's^Creek, from four to ten miles from 
Providence church, with a few other families, were organized as a 
separate church and congregation by the name of Sharon, to which 
a part of the labors of the pastor, Mr. WiUiamson, was given. 

Providence abounds in localities of revolutionary interest A 
complete history of the southern war will bring to notice many 
places now fast passing even from traditionary remmbrance. 

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A BRIEF memoir of the several members of the Mecklenburg Con- 
vention virould present the interesting spectacle of noble spirits, 
capable of the highest efforts of patriotism, self-denial and manly 
daring, acting out in a secluded frontier and a narrow boundary all 
the imperishable principles on which our Republic is based. The 
great truths which their minds embraced and their hearts loved, 
wiM remain unchanged and unchangeable. They may be modified, 
but when they cease to be the principles of the American Republic, 
a new government will have arisen, a new battle will be fought hi 
the renovated plains of Asia or Africa, or Liberty must depart from 
the earth for ever. 

The distance from % flourishing printing-press — so great an evil 
during the Revolution — has been unfavorable to the notoriety of 
these retired but eminent men. Short memoirs, ftmeral orations, 
and collections of anecdotes, prepared by friends, which would 
have given all the desired information, were left to perish in manu- 
script, or die with those who had been witnesses, or live in the 
dim and twilight existence of tradition. All the promineiA actors 
in the events of May 20th and 30th, 1T75, have passed away ; 
very few of those who were witnesses, and in the early days of 
youth, are living at this distant period ; only here and there is one 
who can tell the deeds and recount the sufferings, and relate the 
anecdotes of the men of the Revolution. Brief notices will be 
given, interspersed in the body of the narratives and intermingled 
in the chapters, concerning these men whose memory must b^ dear 
to posterity. 

The man whose name stands at the head of this chapter, may be 
taken as an example of the enterprise, and labors, and sufferings of 
the young men of Carolina, who in defence of liberty spent their 
strength, gave their property, and shed their blood. There were 
multitudes whose names are worthy of a record, not so fortunate 
as this man, that found fa a son-in-law a recorder of his deeds and 
a memorialist of his life, who has faVored the public with a speci- 
men of Mecklenburg youth in the Revolution. 

As you go from Beattie's Fo^d towards Lincolnton, about eight 

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miles from the Catawba, and about ten from the village, you pass Ve- 
suvius Furnace, the product of the skill and enterprise of that 
citizen-soldier, and soldier-citizen, Joseph Graham. Here he lived 
some forty years of his life, advancing the internal improvements of 
his country with persevering invention ; planning, building and per- 
fecting his iron-works, increasing his own resources as he added to 
the conveniences of his neighborhood. Here he reared a family of 
children ; seven of whom survived him, though his life was pro- 
longed to seventy-seven years. Here, as a neighbor and head of 
a family, like Mr. Hunter, the minister of Unity and Goshen, on 
whose ministry he attended, Mr. Graham exercised that frank hos- 
pitality and cheerful intercourse, that precision in principle and 
decision in action characteristic of those soldiers and officers of the 
Revolution, who went into the camp patriots, and came out unpol- 
luted by its vicesj and unhardened by its sufferings and bloody 

Graham and Hunter were both spectators of the convention in 
Charlotte, — Hunter, six days past his twentieth birthday, — Gra- 
ham not yet sixteen. Both saw much service in the war that fol- 
lowed ; after the peace Hunter served his country as a faithful 
minister of the gospel, and Graham, as a high-minded, noble- 
spirited citizen, a sheriff, a military officer, a magistrate, and in the 
latter part of his life, an elder in the Presbyterian church. Both 
were of that race from the north of Ireland, familiarly called Scotch- 
Irish, whose emigrant families filled the country tracked by the 
bloodshed and ravages of the invading army under Comwallis ; 
and poured forth soldiers for the contest for freedom of opinion and 
personal liberty as brave as their descendants have been fortunate 
in winning the honors of their fellow citizens. Hunter was brought 
from Ireland when a boy ; Graham was bom in Pennsylvania ; 
both grew to years of manhood in Mec^enburg county. North 
Carolina ; both were deprived of their father in early Ufe, and both 
were trained by a widowed mother. What widows there were in 
Carolina! Widow Graham, Widow Himter, Widow Brevard, 
Widow Flinn, and Widow Sharpe. Joseph Graham was bom "in 
Pennsylvania, October 3d, 1759, and at about the age of seven 
years was settled in Carolina with his widowed mother, who 
brought her five children to the neighborhood of Charlotte. His 
coming to Mecklenburg was not far from the time of the birth of 
Andrew Jackson, since General and President of the United 
States, which took place March 15th, 1757, on the Waxhaw in 
South Carolina, about thirty miles from Charlotte. Jackson, like 

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Himter and Graham, was early bereaved of his father ; and to this 
was soon added the irreparable loss of his mother, who, emigrating 
from the north of Ireland, with the characteristic attachment to 
liberty, was made a sacrifice to the independence of the United 
States, dying a victim to the hardships of the war. 

Mr. Graham was accustomed to labor from his childhood. As 
his frame was inured to hardships, his mind was not left unculti- 
vated. He had for a time the benefit of the instruction given in 
the flourishing academy in Charlotte, afterwards known as Queen's 
Museum, and subsequently as Liberty Hall, the nursery of inde- 
pendent youth in noble sentiments. 

In the month of May, 1778, in his nineteenth year, we find him 
an officer in the company of Captain Gooden, of the 4th regiment 
of North Carolina regular troops, under the command of Colonel 
Archibald Lytle, marching to the rendezvous at Bladensburg, in 
Maryland. In Caswell county the regiment met the news of the 
battle of Monmouth, and the consequent retreat of the British 
forces to New York ; and proceeded no farther. Mr. Graham re- 
turned home on furlough, and spent the summer on his mother's 

In November, of the same year, he was in active service on the 
Savannah, under General Rutherford. In the spring following, 
we find him as quarter-master with the troops under the command 
of General Lincoln, in his campaign against General Prevost, and 
taking part in the hard-fought battle of the Stono, June 20th, 1779, 
which lasted an hour and a half. Many soldiers perished from 
the excessive heat of the day, among whom was the eldest brother 
of General Jackson. In the July following he was taken with a 
severe illness of two months, received his discharge near Dor- 
chester, and returned home. 

Having passed the winter with his mother, he was ploughing in 
her fields in May, 1780, when he received the news that Charles- 
ton had been surrendered to the British arms ; that Comwallis had 
moved rapidly on to Camden ; that Buford's Virginia regiment re- 
treating, and as was supposed out of reach of the enemy, was 
surprised by Tarleton on the Waxhaw, and miserably butchered, few 
escaping unwounded, and many cut down crying for quarter ; and 
that the British forces were within forty miles of Charlotte. The 
inhabitants of the Waxhaw fled for shelter from Lord Rawdon's 
oppression to Mecklenburg, Rowan, and Guilford, in North Caro- 
lina ; yoimg Jackson's mother residing for a time in the fcmily of 
the Wilsons. A regiment was raised ii Mecklenburg, which spent 

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the summer in assailing the troops, and opposing xh% motions of 
Rawdon ; of this regiment Graham was adjutant. 

On the 16th of August, 1780, Gates was defeated near Camden, 
and fled to Hillsborough. The whole country was in alarm ; dis- 
tressed, but not broken. The extreme of dangei overbalanced iiv 
the minds of some the love of liberty ; and some made submission 
to the kiAg's authority, while the otheri took up arms more vigor- 
ously than ever in the defence of all that m dear. Comwallis 
marched towards Charlotte, that ** hot-bed of rebellion,^ " tJiat hor- 
nets* nesty^ as his lordship afterwards named it, to take a position in 
the midst of the most disaflected region in the South. Graham was 
ordered by General Davidson to repair to Charlotte, take command 
of the forces assembled there, and j<>in Colonel William Richard- 
son Davie, who was severely annoying the advance of the British 

The night Comwallis took possession of Davie's encampment 
on the Waxhaw, Davie encamped at Providence, about twenty-five 
miles from his lordship, on his way to Charlotte. On the morning 
of the 25th of September the 6ritish army was on the advance 
towards the same place ; about midnight Davie entered the town. 
On the morning of the 26th the royal forces approached the place. 
Tarleton's dragoons rushed forward, «md were repulsed ; — again 
rushed forward, and were again repulsed. A regiment being or- 
dered to sustain the charge, they rushed on the third time, — and 
were the third time repulsed by the small force assembled in the 
tovni. A regiment of infantry deploying on their flanks, the forces 
under Davie and Graham retired along the Salisbury road, keep- 
ing up a well-directed fire from the court-house to the Gimi Tree. 

At the farm occupied by Mr. , just out of ^own, where they 

halted and checked the advance of the pursuing forces, Graham nar- 
rowly escaped a double danger from the balls of the enemy and 
the bursting of a gun in the hands of a soldier who stood near. 
The forces again formed on the hill near Sugar Creek meeting- 
house. The delay at this place, protracted by the zeal of Major 
White, rendered their further retreat dangerous, a body of dra- 
goons having gone round their right to intercept them at the Cross 
Roads, a little beyond. This movement of the enemy was dis- 
covered just in time for the greater part of the retreating forces to 
escape. After a hot pursuit, Colonel Looke, of Rowan, was over- 
taken and shot down on the margin of the pond near Alexander 
Kennedy's lane ; and Graham was overtaken in the skirt of the 
woods some distance to the right of the road, between Mr. Ken- 

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nedy's and J. A. Houston's, cut down, severely mangled, and left 
for dead. He had received nine wounds — six from sabre cuts, 
and three from bullets. His stock-buckle intercepted one of the 
cuts upon his neck, and bore marks of the severity of the blow 
aimed at his life. ^ Four deep sabre gashes scarred his head. 

After the enemy left him, he crawled with difficulty to some 
water near, and slaking his intolerable thirst, washed as well as he was 
able his numerous and painful wounds. For a time he despaired 
of life, and expected to die imnoticed in tliat secluded spot. To- 
wards night he was discovered by the neighbors, who were looking 
around the battle-field to find their wounded countrymen, and con- 
veyed to the house of a widow lady, the mother of Mrs. Susannah 
Alexander, now living. Here he was concealed in an upper 
room, or loft, and attended upon through the night by the 
widow and her daughter, who were expecting that he would die 
from the number and severity of his wounds. Once he fell asleep 
and breathed so quietly, and looked so pale, as they came to in- 
quire his wants, they thought he was dead. 

The next day, the 27th, the lady of one of the British officers, 
wth a small company of horsemen, visited the house, in search of 
fresh provisions. By some means she discovered there was a 
wounded man in the loft. On pressing the inquiry she found he 
was an officer, and his wounds severe ; and offered to send a sur- 
geon from the army to dress his wounds, as SQon as she should 
reach the camp at Charlotte. Alarmed at this discovery, Graham, 
summoning all his powers to the highest exertion, caused bimself 
to be put on horseback, tlie succeeding night, and was carried to 
his mother's, and from thence speedily to the hospital. Three 
balls were taken from his body. The severity of the wounds and 
the loss of blood confined for about two months this tctive 

After the rencontre on the hill, near Sugar Creek meolipg- 
house, and the. consequent pursuit, the American forces retreated 
without further opposition. There had been no hope of successfiil 
defence of the town, or effectual resistance of the advancing enemy. 
But from the time of Buford's Massacre, in May, — ^when the Pres- 
byterian church on the Waxhaw became a hospital, where yoimg 
Jackson first saw wounds and the carnage of war, — and more par- 
ticularly after the defeat rf Gates in August, the patriots were 
exasperated, driven to madness, by the cnWfkies of the tories and 
the marauding parties of the British army. Armed bands of the 
patriots, whigs, as they were called, were coilstantly hovering 

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round the enemy in their camp and on their march, intercepting 
their supplies, cutting off their foraging parties, and retaliating 
distress. These annoyances caused Comwallis and his officers to 
move cautiously, and keep their army in a compact body ; and the 
country not inunediately in their track was in a measure free from 
devastation, it being entirely unsafe for any small party to venture 
far from the main body. The report of a foraging party would 
spread with wonderful rapidity, and the irritated inhabitants collect 
and harass the plunderers back to the camp, or force them to take 
shelter under the cannon of his lordship. 

Having recovered from his wounds, Graham, at the request of 
Gen. Wm. L. Davidson, the conunander in chief of the miUtia of 
the western counties of Carolina, undertook, in December, 1780, 
to raise a body of men to be under his own command. In two 
weeks he embodied fifty-five mounted riflemen, armed and accoutred 
at their own expense ; some, beside their rifles, carrying swords, and 
some, pistols ; all prepared for hard service, and entering the field 
without a quarter-master, and in expectation of little pay for the three 
months of their engagement, which proved months of hard service. 

The celebrated victory of the Cowpens was gamed by Morgan, 
over Tarleton, on the 17th of January, 1781. To secure his six 
hundred prisoners, Morgan commenced his march towards Vir- 
ginia, through Lincoln county, aiming to cross the Catawba at 
Beattie's ford. Cornwallis and Greene commenced their march to 
the same ford, the royal army on the western side of the river, to 
intercept Morgan, and the American forces on the eastern side, to 
meet him at tlie ford and secure his prisoners. Then commenced 
the trial of generalship between the two commanders, to be deter- 
mined by force and skill, the reward of victory to be the prisoners 
of Morgan and the possession of the Southern States. Much, 
perhaps we might say everything, depended on the reaching the 
ford first. Each of the three parties had about the same distance 
to march. Morgan had the start, but was encumbered with the 
prisoners. The two rival Generals moved on with all possible 
celerity ; the royal army destroying their heavy baggage, by the 
example of their General ; the American forces having but little 
to carry or destroy. Greene left his army and rode across the 
country and had an interview with Morgan, who pressed on with 
wonderful spirit, ambitious to secure his prisoners, and reached the 
ford unmolested. On the morning after he crossed, Cornwallis 
appeared upon the Western bank, hot in the pursuit, and disap- 
pointed of his prey. 

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The river had risen the night after Morgan crossed, and was 
impassable. The two days thus gained saw Morgan far on his 
way to Virginia, and Greene moving slowly towards the Yadkin, 
between him and Comwallis. General Davidson, with the North 
Carolina militia, was left to delay the crossing of the enemy as 
long as possible. Captain Graham was posted with his rifle com- 
pany at Cowan's Ford, some distance below Beattie's, and at that 
ford, after many feints, his Lordship commenced his passage of the 
river. The riflemen kept up a constant and galling fire upon the 
advancing ranks, and many an officer and soldier were sent float- 
ing down the stream, victims of their deadly aim. General Da- 
vidson, hearing the firing, came down to the river bank, accom- 
panied by Col. Wm. Polk, and the Rev. Thomas H. McCaule, 
pastor of Centre congregation, in whose bounds this action took 
place, and while taking observations, received a fatal wound and 
fell dead fit)m his horse. The deadly shot was supposed to be 
ftrom the hand of a tory, the British soldiers using only muskets, 
and the wound of Davidson being made by a rifle ball. No one 
claimed the honor of piloting the enemy to the ford, or of aiming 
the fatal shot. Such a preeminence would have been fatal to the 
claimant in North Carolina for years. 

The North Carolina militia, under the command of General 
Pickens, hung upon the rear of the enemy, as Comwallis purfeued 
Greene across the State into Virginia, and continued to molest 
them in their encampment at Hillsborough. Capt. Graham, with 
his company and some troops from Rowan, surprised and cap- 
tured the guard at Hart's Mill, only a mile and a half from head- 
quarters, and then united with the forces of Col. Lee, of Virginia, 
and the next day assisted in the surprise of Col. Pyles, with his 
regiment of three hundred tories, advancing to join the army of 
his Lordship, and within two miles of the forces under Tarleton. 
Mistaking the American forces for Tarleton's troop, which was 
known to be near, the tories raised the shout of " God save the 
kingy*^ and never discovered their mistake till trampled down by 
the cavalry, sword in hand. The discomfiture was complete, and 
the forces under Lee escaped without loss, passing within a mile 
of Tarleton's corps. Lee used to speak of the surprise of these 
tories with great enthusiasm, and describe graphically their con- 
sternation upon discovering their mistake. He led his troops along 
the front of their Une, which were shouting him a welcome ; he 
traversed the whole front unsuspected, he and his men waving 

their swords. His conamand, " wheel into Une,** gave no alarm. 


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At the word " charge^'^ his company leaped their horses upon the 
ranks of the tones, and in a moment their swords were bathed in 
blood. It was the most complete surprise of the whole war. 

In the course of a short time after this, Captain Graham was in 
the engagement under Lee at Clapp's Mill, on the Alamance ; and 
in a few days after, at Whitsell's Mill, imder Colonel Washington. 
With these officers, Graham was employed in harassing all forag- 
ing parties, and beating up the quarters of the tories, till the 14th 
March, when the term of enlistment for which he had engaged his 
men expired. 

As was usual with the partizan corps, Graham's company 
insisted on returning home for refreshment after their term of en- 
listment was expired, the 14th of March, their resources being 
exhausted and their engagements having been fulfilled. By order 
of General Greene they were marched in a compact body till the 
Yadkin was crossed, and there disbanded. By this movement, 
Graham and his men were deprived of the honor of assisting in 
the important battle at Guilford Court-house, after having taken so 
active a part in the preparatory steps. The very next day after 
crossing the river, far in the rear, Comwallis having accepted the 
challenge of Greene, gave battle ; and in two days was on his way 
to Wilmington, flying from his defeated adversary. 

The western part of North Carolina had rest during the sununer 
of 1781. In the early part of September, General Rutherford was 
released from the captivity he had endured from the time of the 
defeat of Gates. Inunediately upon his release he took the ne- 
cessary steps to raise three companies of dragoons and two 
hundred mounted infantry ; of these, Robert Smith was appointed 
colonel, and Graham, who had been engaged in their organization, 
was appointed major. On their march to Wilmington, near the 
Raft Swamp, Graham, with ninety dragoons and forty infantry, dis- 
persed a large body of tories who had assembled at the conmiand 
of Comwallis ; and soon after, with one troop of dagoons and two 
of infantry, he surprised and defeated another near Wilmington. 
On the next day. Major Graham led, in person, the attack made 
on the British garrison, near the same place. The last engage- 
ment in which he participated during the war, resulted in die 
defeat of the celebrated Colonel Gagney, near Lake Waccamaw. 
After a long series of depredations, practised on the patriots with- 
out relenting, he was surprised and entirely defeated. In this 
engagement Major Graham commanded three companies, and 
acted a brave part in this last action in which he participated 

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during the Revolutionary war, which was speedily closed in the 
South, by the surrender of Comwallis, at Yorktown. 

After the close of the war he was elected tfae first sheriff of 
Mecklenburg county, and ^ve as great satisfaction to his fellow- 
citizens in civil, as he had done in military life. For many years 
he was a prominent member of the General Assembly of the State, 
from the same county. In the year 1787, he was married to the 
second daughter of Major John Davidson, one of the members of 
the Mecklenburg Convention, and by her became the father of 
twelve children, seven of whom survived him. Soon after his 
marriage he removed to Lincoln county, and, proceeded to erect 
the iron works which gave him employment and affluence, and 
were a source of convenience and wealth to his neighborhood and 
feUow-citizens of the county. 

In the year 1814, by the strong solicitations of the governor of 
the State, he accepted the commission of general of a force to be 
sent to the aid of the volunteers of Tennessee and Georgia, acting 
under Generals Jackson, Coffee and Carroll, in repeUing the mur- 
derous aggressions of the Creek Indians. His private affairs 
required his attention at home ; his public spirit prompted him ta 
inarch with a fine body of men to the seat of war. He arrived in 
time to assist in bringing it to a close, and received the submission 
of several hundred of the Indians, after the battle fought by 
General Jackson, at the Horse Shoe. After more than thirty 
years of imparalleled prosperity had crowned the labors of the . 
Revolution, and each had been prospered in their private concerns, 
and shared fiilly in the honors of their constituents, Graham and 
Jackson, whose boyhood and youth had been spent in the same 
troublous scenes, met to congratulate each other and their country- 
men, at the successful termination of a vexatious Indian war. 

F»r many years he was Major General of the fifth Division of 
North Carolina militia, and throughout his life manifested the 
same gcnerostty and bravery that enabled him during the Re- 
volutionary war to be the most successful man in Mecklenburg 
coimty, in raising a company or a legion. Those that served 
under him testified to his worth as a man, and as an ofiicer. 

As a magistrate and civil officer he was dignified, firm, a de- 
fender of the rights of his fellow-citizens, and a supporter of the 
laws. Freedom of person and property under the government 
of law, formed the basis of his political creed. What Judge 
Murphy says of Archibald Henderson, with the slight change of 
a few circumstances, may be said of Joseph Graham, in his pub- 

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lie course. Speaking of Henderson, the Judge says, — " No man 
better understood the theory of our government, no man more 
admired it, no man gave more practical proofs of his admiration. 
The sublime idea that he lived imder the government of laws was 
for ever uppermost in his mind, and seemed to give a coloring to 
all his actions. As he acknowledged no dominion but that of the 
laws, he bowed with reverence to their authority, and taught obe- 
dience no less by his example than his precept. In the county 
courts, when the justice of the peace administered the laws, he 
was no less respectful in his deportment than in the highest tri- 
bunal of the State. He considered obedience to the law to be 
the first duty of a citizen, and it seemed to be the great object of 
his professional hfe to inculcate a sense of duty, and give the 
administration of the laws an impressive character. He said the 
laws were made for the common people, and they should be in- 
terpreted and administered by rules which they understood, when- 
ever it was practicable. He said the rules of pedantry did not 
suit this country, nor this age, that common sense had acquired 
the dominion in poHtics and religion, and was gaining it in law." 
In these sentiments all sound repubHcans must unite, however 
they may diflFer on smaller matters. From the first, the inhabit- 
ants of Mecklenburg had declared that it was not against law, but 
against oppression, they raised their arms. The fourth resolution 
of this Convention says, " That as we now acknowledge the ex- 
istence and control of 410 law or legal officer, civil or military, 
within this county, we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of 
;life, all, each, and every of our former laws, wherein, never- 
theless, the crown of Great Britain never can be considered as 
.holding rights, privileges, immunities, or authority therein." 

His religious principles were those of his ancestors, and must 
tbe those of his descendants. Freedom of conscience in the ex- 
ercise of devotional feelings, in public and in private, was prized 
beyond all price. Freedom in rehgion was the great object for 
which his ancestors had contended in Ireland ; for it they had emi- 
grated to Carolina ; and for it, in conjunction with freedom of pro- 
perty and person, under the government of law, he had taken up 
arms and fought. For it he had shed his blood in youth, and for 
it, in his old age, he would have died. 

One who knew General Graham weU, from long acquaintance, 
says : " His intercourse with others was marked by great dignity 
of deportment, delicacy of feeling, cheerfulness of spirit, and 
equality of temper. Men of learning and high standing have often 

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expressed much gratification by his company, and surprise at 
the extent and accuracy of his knowledge. He was far, very far 
remoTed from all those feelings of selfishness, vanity, deception, 
or envy, which unfit men for the duties and joys of social life. 
His eye was always open to the virtues of his friends ; his heart 
was always ready to reciprocate their kindness, to sympathize 
with their sorrows, and overlook their infirmities. His hand, his 
time, his counsel and his influence, were all at the command of 
those who shared his confidence, and deserved his affection. 

" But there was another circle nearer to his heart, in which he 
was still better prepared to shine ; and in which true exceUency 
displayed, is a brighter and surer evidence of worth. Justice 
could not be done to his character without being knovni in the 
family circle. As a husband, a father, and a master, those alone 
who were the objects of his attachment, forbearance, and tender- 
ness, could duly-appreciate his conduct and demeanor. 

** He possessed a lofty and delicate sense of personal honor and 
virtuous feeling. His presence was always a rebuke to the arts 
and abominations of evil speaking, profanity, and defamation. If 
he could not speak well of his fellow-men, he was wise and firm 
enough to say nothing. He regarded the reputation of others as 
a sacred treasure, and would never stoop to meddle with the 
private history, or detract from the good name of those around him. 
He felt that the sources of his enjoyment, and the causes of his 
elevation, were not to be foimd in the calamities or vices of his 
fellow-men, and hence his lips were closed to the tales of slander, 
and his bosom a stranger to the viriles of calumny. 

" But General Graham did not believe, when he had served his 
country, his family, and his friends, that his work on earth was 
finished. With an imwavering conviction of the truth and import- 
ance of religion, he professed to serve God, and to seek for salva- 
tion by fjEuth in Christ. For a long period of time, he was a mem* 
ber of the Presbyterian church, under the ministry of Dr. Hunter ; 
and for ten or twelve years previous to his death, was a ruHng 
elder of Unity, under the pastoral care of Rev. Mr. Adams. He 
cherished the most profound respect for the ordinances and duties 
of Christianity, attended with deep interest and imiform pimctuali- 
ty upon the means of grace. He delighted much in reading the 
Word of God, and in hearkening to the instructions of the ministers 
of the gospel, for whom he always manifested the greatest regard. 
In selecting his Ubrary, he proved how high an estimate he placed 
upon Christian instruction, and in his most unreserved intercourse 

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with pious firiends, his deep and pervading concern for true and 
undefiled religion was apparent. No circumstance would deter 
him from manifesting the most decided contempt for the grovelling 
spirit of infidelity and irreligion." 

Accustomed in his youth to expose himself to instaol death in 
a good cause, and in his age, girding his loins and trimming his 
lamp according to the gospel, his final depahure by apoplexy 
coming suddenly, could be neither distressing nor alarming. He 
rode from Lincolnton, on the 10th of November, 1836, and on the 
12th, closed his eyes for ever. He was buried in a spot chosen by 
himself and Captain Alexander Brevard, as a place of sepulture for 
their families. Captain Brevard was brother of Dr. Ephraim 
Brevard, the draughtsman of the Declaration ; served as an officer in 
the Continental army ; was connected in marriage with the sister 
of Mrs. Graham, both ladies being daughters of Major John David- 
son ; was a firm firiend and neighbor of General Graham ; vnth 
him, served as elder of the Presbyterian church ; and with him, 
lies buried in the spot of their choice, a secluded place walled in 
with rock, on the Great Road from Beattie's Ford, by Brevard's 
Furnace, to Lincolnton. On the stone that marks Graham's grave, 
you may read, 

Sacred to the Memory or 

Major General Joseph Graham, 

who died, Nov. 12th, 1836, aged 77 years. 

" He was a brave, intelligent, and distinguished officer in the 
Revolutionary war^ and in various campaigns from May, 1778, to 
Nov., 1781, commanded in fifteen engagements, with signal 
courage, wisdom, and success. 

" On the 26th of Sept., 1780, after a gallant defence of the ground 
first consecrated by the Declaration of American Independence, he 
was wounded near to Charlotte. 

" In 1814, he commanded the troops of North Carolina, in their 
expedition against ^e Creek Indians. 

" His life was a bright and illustrious pattern of domestic, 
social, and public virtues. 

" Modest, amiable, upright, and pious, he lived a noble orna- 
ment to his country, a faithful friend to the church, and a rich 
blessing to his family ; and died with the hope of a glorious im- 

A good portrait of General Graham may be seen at Cottage 

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Home, the residence of the Rev. R, H. Morrison, D.D., in Unity 
congregation, Lincohi county. The picture represents a fine bold 
forehead, blue eye, thin lip, with the shoulders and chest of a 
robust man of middling stature. The features of the face indicate 
calmness, kindness, and decision. You would not expect the ori- 
ginal easily to be made angry, or alarmed, or driven from his pur- 
pose. And the unvarying testimony of all that knew him, is that 
his face was an index of his heart. 

The more the character and jrinciples of the men of the Revo- 
lution are known, the more profound the veneration for their me- 
mory. Their persons have passed away — scarce a vestige remains. 
May their principles flourish for ever ! 

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The following paper was drawn up by General Graham, who was 
familiar with the country around the Moimtain, knew some of 
the officers engaged in the battle, and previous to writing this de- 
scription visited the battle-ground with a son of one of the officers. 
From his knoT^ habits of observation and correctness, and his fa- 
miliarity with military detail, there is no doubt that this is the most 
graphic account that has ever been given of that celebrated and 
important action. He drew a beautiful plot of the battle-ground, 
and the position of the forces at different times during the day of 
the adion. 

" After the defeat of General Gates and the army under his com- 
mand, on the 16th day of August, 1780, and the defeat of General 
Sumpter, two days after, near Rocky Mount, by Colonel Tarleton, 
the South was almost entirely abandoned to the enemy. Most of 
the troops, both officers and men, who had escaped from Gates's 
defeat, passed through Charlotte, N. C, where most of the militia 
of Mecklenburg county were assembled in consequence of the 
alarm ; the regular troops chiefly passed on to Hillsborough, where 
General Gates finaUy established his head-quarters. 

** Wm. L. Davidson, who had served as lieutenant-colonel of the 
regulars in the Northern Army, was appointed brigadier-general of 
the militia in the Salisbury district, in the place of General Ruther- 
ford, who was taken prisoner at Gates's defeat. He formed a brigade, 
and encamped on McAlpin's.Creek, about eight miles below Char- 
lotte, and in the course of two or three weeks was reinforced by 
General Sunmer, a continental officer, but having no regulars to 
command, took command of the militia from the counties of Guil- 
ford, CasweU, Orange, and others. 

" After Gates's defeat, the attention of Lord Comwallis was 
chiefly occupied with burying the dead, taking care of the wounded, 
and forwarding, under a suitable guard, the great number of pri- 
soners he had taken, to the city of Charleston, and regulating the 
civil government he was establishing in South Carolina, and ex- 
amining the state of the posts occupied by his troops on the Con- 
garee, Ninety-Six, and Augusta. By the 1st of September he 

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had his arrangements made, and detached Colonel Ferguson over 
the Wateree, with only one hundred and ten regulars, under the 
command of Captain Dupeister, and about the same nimiber of 
tories ; but with an ample supply of arms and other military stores. 
His movements were at first rapid, endeavoring to intercept the re- 
treat of a party of Mountain-men, who were harassing the upper 
settlement of tories in South Carolina. Failing in this, he after- 
wards moved slowly, and frequently halted to collect all the tories 
he could persuade to join him. He passed Broad River, and be- 
fore the last of September encamped at a place called' Gilberts- 
town, within a short distance of where the thriving village of 
Rutherfordton now stands. His force had increased to upwards 
of 1,000 men. On his march to this place, he had furnished 
arms to such of his new recruits as were without tfiem. The 
greater part of them had rifles ; but to a part of them, he had them 
to fix a large knife they usually carried, made small enough at the 
butt end, for two inches or more of the handle, to slip iato the 
muzzle of the rifle, so that it might be occasionally used as a 

" Although Colonel Ferguson failed to overtake the detachment 
of Mountain-men alluded to, he took two of them prisoners, who 
had become separated from their commands. In a day or two he 
paroled them, and enjoined them to inform the officers on the west- 
em waters, that if they did not desist jpom their opposition to the 
British arms, and take protection under his standard, he would 
march his army over the mountains, hang their leaders, and lay 
waste the country with- fire and sword. 

" Colonel Charles McDowell, of Burke county, on the approach 
of Ferguson with so large a force, had gone over the mountains 
to obtain assistance, and was in consultation with Colonel John 
Sevier and Colonel Isaac Shelby what plan should be pursued, 
when the two paroled men spoken of arrived and delivered their 
message from Colonel Ferguson. It was decided that each of 
them should use his best efforts to raise all the men that could be 
enlisted, and that this force, when collected, should meet on the 
Wataga, on the 25th of September. It was also agreed that 
Colonel Shelby should give intelligence of their movements to 
Colonel WilUam Campbell, of the adjoining county of Washing- 
ton, in Virginia, with the hope that he would raise what force he 
could and co-operate with them. They met on the Wataga the 
day appointed, and passed the mountains on the 30th of Septem- 
ber, where they were joined by Colonel Benjamin Cleaveland, and 

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Major Joseph Winston, from Wilks and Surry counties, North 
CaroUna. On examining their force, it was found to number as 
follows, viz : 

" From Washington county, Virginia, under CoL Wm. 

Campbell' 400 

" From Sullivan county. North Carolina, under CoL Isaac 

Shelby 240 

" From Washington county, North Carolina, under^ol. John 

Sevier 240 

" From Burke and Rutherford counties. North Carolina, im- 

der Col. Charles McDowell 160 

" From Wilks and Surry counties, North Carolina, under 

Col. Cleaveland and Major James Winston . . 350 

Total 1390 

" Col. Ferguson having accurate intelUgence of the force col- 
lecting against him, early on the 4th of October, ordered his 
men to marchj and remained half an hour after they had started 
writing a despatch to Lord Cornwallis, no doubt informing him of 
his situation and soliciting aid. The letter was committed to the 
care of the noted Abraham Collins (him of counterfeit memo- 
ry) and another person by the name of Quinn, with injunctions to 
deliver it as soon as possible. They set out and attempted to pass 
the direct road to Charlotte, but having to pass through some 
whig settlements, they were surprised and pursued, and being 
compelled to secrete themselves by day and travel by night, they 
did not reach Charlotte until the morning of the 7th of October, 
the day of the battle. Colonel Ferguson encamped the first night 
at the noted place called the Cowpens, about twenty miles from 
Gilbertstovm. On the 5th of October he crossed the Broad 
River, at what is irow called Dear's Ferry, sixteen miles. On the 
6th, he marched up the Ridge Road, between the waters of King's 
and Bufialo creeks, until he came to the fork, turning to the right 
across King's Creek, and through a gap in the mountain towards 
Yorkville, about fourteen miles. There he encamped on the sum- 
mit of that part of the mountain to the right of the road, where 
he remained till he was attacked on the 7th. 

" When the troops from the different counties met at the head of 
the Catawba river, the commanding officers met, and finding that 
they were all of equal grade, and no general officer to command. 

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it was decided that Col. Charles McDowell should go to head- 
quarters, supposed to be between Charlotte and Salisbury, to ob- 
tain General Sumner or General Davidson to take the command. 
In the meantime, it was agreed that Col. William Campbell, who 
had the largest regiment, should take the conunand until the arri- 
val of a general officer, who was to act according to the advice 
of the colonels commanding, and that Major McDowell should 
take the command of the Burke and Rutherford regiment until 
the return of Col. McDowell. 

" Shortly after these measures were adopted, intelligence was 
received that Colonel Ferguson had left Gilbertstovm, and it was 
decided that they would march after him, by that place ; and on 
their way they received evidence that it was his design to evade an 
engagement with them. On the evening of the 6th of October, the 
colonels in council unanimously resolved, that they would select 
all the men and horses fit for service, and immediately pursue Fer- 
guson until they should overtake him, leaving such as were not 
able to go to come after them as fast as they could. The next 
morning the selection was made, and 910 men, including officers, 
were marched before, leaving the others to follow. They came to 
the Cov^ens, where Ferguson had camped on the night of the 
4th, and there met Colonel Williams, of South Carolina, with near 
400 men, and about 60 from Lincoln county, who had joined them 
on their march under Colonel Hambrite and Major Chronicle. 
After drawing rations of beef, the whole proceeded on a little 
before sunset, taking Ferguson's trail towards Dear's Ferry, on 
Broad River. Night coming on, and being very dark, their pilot 
got out of the right way, and for some time they were lost; but 
before daylight they reached near to the ferry, and by directions of 
the officers, the pilot led them to the Cherokee ford, about a mile 
and a half below, as it was not known but the enemy might be in 
possession of the eastern bank of the river. It was on the morning 
of the 7th, before sunrise, when they crossed the river, and marched 
about two miles to the place where Ferguson had encamped on 
the night of the 5th. There they halted a short time, and took 
such breakfast as their wallets and saddlebags would afford. The 
day was showery, and they were obliged to use their blankets and 
great coats to protect their arms from wet. They passed on a 
dozen of miles vrithout seeing any person ; although they met a 
lad in an old field, by the name of Fonderin, about twelve or four- 
teen years of age, who had a brother and other relations in 
Ferguson's camp, and who was directly from it, within less than 

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three miles. A halt was ordered, and the colonels met in consult- 
ation. Several persons knew the groimd well on which the enemy 
was encamped, agreeably to the information given by the boy, of 
their position. The plan of battle was inmiediately settled ; that 
the forces should be nearly equally divided, and one half would 
take to the right, cross over and occupy the southeast side of the 
mountain, and that the other should advance to the northwest side, 
and that each division should move forward imtil they formed a 
junction, when all should face to the front, and press upon the 
enemy up the sides of the moimtain. Orders were given to pre- 
pare for battle by laying aside every inciunbrance, examining into 
their arms, and guarding against alarms. The orders were 
speedily obeyed, and they moved forward over King's Creek and 
up a branch and ravine, and between two rocky knobs ; which 
when they had passed, the top of the mountain and the enemy's 
camp upon it were in full view, about one 'himdred poles in front." 
" The enemy's camp was to the right of the road, seventy or 
eighty poles in length, and on the sununit of the mountain, which 
at this place runs nearly northeast and southwest (the shadow of 
the timber at half past one P. M. ranges with it). The troops 
were led on in the following order : to the right, Major Winston, 
Colonel Sevier, Colonel Campbell, Colonel Shelby, and Major 
McDowell ; to the left, Colonel Hambrite, Colonel Cleaveland, 
and Colonel Williams, of South Carolina. Each division moved 
off" steadily to the place assigned them, in the order of battle. 
Some of the regiments suffered much imder the galling fire of 
the enemy, before they were in a position to engage in the action. 
Some complaints began to be uttered, that " it would never do to 
be shot down without returning the fire ;' Colonel Shelby repUed, 
^ press on to your places, and then your fire will not he lost^ 
The men, led by Shelby and M'Dowell, were soon closely en- 
gaged, and the contest from the first was very severe. Williams 
and Cleaveland were soon in their places, and with the utmost 
energy engaged the foe. Ferguson, finding that end of his line 
giving way, ordered forward his regulars and riflemen, with bayo- 
nets, and made a furious charge upon Shelby and M'Dowell, 
charging dovni the mountain some two himdred yards. A united 
and destructive fire soon compelled him to order his party back to 
the top of the mountain. To ward off the deadly attack from 
Colonel Williams, Ferguson again charged with fury down the 
mountain. When Shelby's men saw this, they raised the cry, 
* Come on, men, the enemy is retreating !' They rallied, and by 

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the time Ferguson returned from the charge agamst the South 
Carolinians, renewed their fire with great resolution. Ferguson 
again charged upon Shelby, but not so far as before ; Colonel 
Williams's men in turn called out, * the enemy is retreating, come 
on, men !' 

" At this stage of the action, Hambrite and Winston had met, 
and a brisk fire was poured upon Ferguson's men, all round the 
mountain. As he would advance towards Campbell, Sevier, 
Winston, and Hambrite, he was pursued by Shelby, M'Dowell, 
Williams, and Cleaveland. When he would turn his face against 
the latter, the former would press on in pursuit. Thus he strug- 
gled on, making charges and retreats, but his left was rapidly 
losing ground. His men were rapidly faUing before the skilful 
aim and unbending courage of the whigs. Even after being 
wounded, he fought on with courage. He made every eflFort that 
could be done by a brave and skilful officer, according to his 
position. At length he was shot dead, and his whole command 
driven up into a group of sixty yards in length, and not forty in 

" The British officer, Capt. Dupeister, who took the command, 
ordered a white flag to be raised in token of surrender, but the 
bearer was instantly shot down. He soon had another raised, and 
called out for quarter. Col. Shelby demanded, if they surrendered, 
why they did not throw down their arms. It was instantly done. 
But still the firing was cdhtinued, until Shelby and Sevier went 
iftside the lines and ordered the men to cease. Some who kept at 
it would call out, * Give them Buford's play,' alluding to Colonel 
Buford's defeat by Tarleton, where no quarter was given. A 
guard was placed over the prisoners, and all remained on the moim- 
tain during that night." 

" The party which led the left wing, under Colonel Hambrite, 
suffered very much, having to pass very difficult ground to reach 
their place of destination, and within eighty rods of the enemy's 
marksmen. Colonel Hambrite was wounded, and Major Chronicle 
was killed. Colonel Wilhams, of South Carolina, a brave and 
efficient offioer, was also killed. The loss of the whigs was not 
exactly ascertained, but beUeved to be about thirty killed and fifty 
wounded. The enemy had about one hundred and fifty killed, and 
all the rest taken prisoners." 

"On the morning of the 8th a court-martial was held, and 
several of the prisoners, who were found guilty of murder and 

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Other high crimes, were sentenced to be hanged. About twenty 
were executed." 

From this paper of Gen. Graham it appears that the first moving 
of the expedition was in North Carolina. Virginia came to her 
aid, and the gallant South Carolina took her share. The gallant 
Williams has no monument. The friends of Major Chronicle and 
a few others erected a monument where they were buried, near the 
battle-ground. On the east side is this inscription, viz. : 

Sacred to the memory of Major William CHRoiriCLK 

and Captain Mattocki, William Robb, and JoHir Botd : — 

who were kiUed at this place on the 7th of October, 1780, 

fighting in defence of America. 

On the west side — 

Col. Ferguson, an officer of 

his Britannic Majesty, was 

defeated and killed at this place, 

on the 7th of October, 1780. 

Colonel WiUiams was an elder in the Presbyterian church, much 
beloved as a man and an officer, ffis fellow-citizens preferred 
marching under him, when the time for marching came. The last 
meeting, it is said, with his friends, was at the church, in which he 
used to meet them in solenm worship, and at a communion season. 
Shelby became noted in Kentucky, was made Governor, and was, 
in the latter part of his hfe, religious, and an elder of the church. 
The McDowells held through life the highest stand with their fel- 
low^citizens. Winston, Hambrite, Sevier, and Cleaveland, were 
true patriots. Campbell was, after this, in the battle of Guilford, 
and afterwards the commander of the militia in the eastern section of 
Virginia ; and while engaged with his duties was seized with a 
fever, which proved mortal. He was buried at Rocky Mills, in 
Hanover county. A native of Augusta county, he removed early 
to Washington county, — ^a bold, active man, and extremely popular 
with the militia, as is seen in the fact that on a short notice he 
rallied 400 men of his county to march with him in this expedition, 
— ^an untiring enemy of the tories, who hated him as much as he 
loved his country. After an interval of forty years, his remains, 
in a surprising state of preservation, were removed to Washington 
county, to repose with his family. 

It is said that Colonel Ferguson, when he encamped on King's 
Mountain, after so many days of retreat before the gathering mih- 
tia, exclaimed to his men, "Here is a place God Almighty caimot 

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drive us from." He never left the mountain ; the next day he fell 
in battle. 

By courtesy, Colonel Campbell, as having the largest force, was 
considered the leading officer ; during the action he rode down two 
horses. Early in the action, his black, called Bald Face, proving 
unruly, he exchanged him for a horse belonging to a Mr. Camp- 
bell, of his corps. In the heat of the battle he was seen on foot 
at the head of his men, with his coat oflf, and his shirt-collar open. 
Some two hundred yards down the mountain was Bald Face, 
mounted by the Colonel's servant, a tall, well-proportioned mulatto, 
who said, ^' he had come up to see what his master and the rest 
were doing." 

Ex-Senator Preston, of South Carolina, a grandson of Colonel 
Campbell, in his youth, stopped at a tavern in South CaroUna, near 
the North Carolina line, and in sight of King's Mountain ; and 
while breakfast was preparing, observed that the landlady frequently 
turned to look at him. While eating, she asked him his name, and 
observed, by way of apology, that he was very like the man she 
most dreaded on earth. " And who is that ?" said Preston. 
" Colonel Campbell," said the woman, " that hung my husband 
at King's Mountain." 

Besides Shelby, who became religious before his death, and 
Williams, who was so much beloved as elder, it is the tradition 
that two of the other officers were elders in the Presbyterian 
church ; but which of them is not handed down distinctly. They 
were republicans on principle, and fought and bled for their prin- 
ciples. The whole military force that were engaged in this expe- 
dition were from Presbyterian settlements, and were in all proba- 
biUty all of them of Scotch and Scotch-Irish origin. 

Though the scene of this battle is in South Carolina, the chief 
honor belongs to North Carolina, shared most nobly with South 
Carolina and Virginia. The officers and men concerned in the 
planning and executing the enterprise were all of the same race, 
and were gathered from what now forms four States. " Mountain- 
men," and " beyond the mountains," mean Tennessee and Kentucky, 
then forming western coxmties of North Carolina and Virginia. 

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It is a remarkable circumstance that the battle of Gkiilford Court- 
house, March 15th, 1781, which drore the invading army of Com- 
wallis from Nocth Carolina, was fought within about a day's march 
of the scene of the first bloodshed for American Independence, made 
on the Alamance, some ten years before. May 1771, the one in the 
bounds of Buffalo congregation, and the other on the skirts of Ala- 
mance, the two congregations forming the pastoral charge of Dr. 
David Caldwell. 

The pursuit of Greene by Cornwallis across the State, from the 
time the Catawba was crossed in January, 1781, and Davidson 
slain, was as rapid as the well disciplined army of English, having 
destroyed their baggage, could make it, under tiie direction of brave 
and skilful officers, through a country for the most part hostile to 
his majesty's forces, with no magazines, or provisions collected for 
their supply, and the sources of refreshment along the track of pur- 
suit mostly consumed by the retreating American army. Perhaps 
in the whole course of tiie war, generalship and bravery, in pursuit 
and retreat, were never better exhibited, than in the efforts of his 
lordship to bring Grreene to battle before he could cross the Dan, 
and the success of Gre«ne to elude all his lordship's efforts. It is 
said that the advance guards of one and the rear guard of the 
other were often within musket-shot without discharging a gun. 
The great object, a general battle, could not be gained by the death 
or wounds of a few of Greene's rear, and the officers of Cornwallis 
refrained from firing on those whom they could not intercept 

At nine o'clock at night, on the 14th of February, the main 
army having crossed the day before, Lee's legion took the boats 
that had carried over the forces under Colonel Otho Williams, at 
Boyd's Ferry ; Lieutenant Colonel Carrington, the quartermaster 
general, entering the ladt boat. Had it been daylight, the British 
forces might have seen the departure, so close was the advance 
guard. Here the pursuit ended. 

Cornwallis chose Hillsborough for his head-quarters. While a 
detachment of his army lay at the Red House, they occupied the 
church of Hugh McAden, the first located missionary in North 

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Carolina, and rememberihg that those who sang ^^ David's Psahns 
in Metre,'' in South Carolina, were rebels against the king, and 
their ministers fomenters of rebellion, they complimented McAden, 
a short time in his grave, and his congregation also, by burning his 
library and papers. Fortunately his early journal escaped the 

His lordship tarried about ten days in Hillsborough. In that time 
Grreene, reinforced by militia and volunteers from Virginia, had re- 
crossed the Dan, and commenced that harassing warfare- that drew 
Comwallis from his headquarters, and brought on the decisive bat- 
tle. Between the 18th and J^ those marches and counter-marches 
took place by forces under conmiand of Greene's officers, that led to 
the destruction of the regiment of tories under Colonel Pyles, 
inarching to join the invaders, about midway between Hillsborough 
and Greensborough, and to the entanglement of Tarleton, from 
which he was rescued only by the watchfulness of his general, who 
sent three messengers in haste after him, in one night, to speed his 
return, and just saved him from the forces that were preparing to 
cut him off before daylight 

On the 26th of February Comwallis left Hillsborough, and mov- 
ing south encamped on the fertile Alamance, and moved on, quar- 
tering upon the ^^ rebels." On the 6th of March he made a move 
to entrap that remarkable officer. Colonel Jtho Williams of Mary- 
land ; and in the manoeuvres that followed, a circumstance occmred 
that gave a British officer great ^clat in the American camp. 
Above thirty rifle shots, deliberately aimed, were made by King's 
mountain riflemen, at Wetzell's Milk on Reedy Fork, upon a Bri- 
tish officer that was seen slowly approaching the bank of the stream, 
and carefully fording the current on a beautiful black horse, at the 
time apparently busied with the movements of a detachment of sol- 
diers, all within view, and in fair rifle shot To the amazement of 
all, without harm, or discovering the least sensation of alarm, he 
crossed the stream and disappeared. Upon inquiring of some pri- 
soners what officer in the manoeuvres and skirmishes rode a black 
horse, the name of the gallant, gentlemanly and skilful Colonel ' 
Webster was given in reply. 

Comwallis removed his army into the bounds of Buffalo congre- 
gation, and encamped on the plantation of William Rankin. Re- 
maining there till all the provisions on the plantation and in the 
neighborhood were consumed, and the plunder secured, the army 
was marched into the Alamance congregation, and encamped on the 
plantation of Ralph Gorrel, Esq., who, like Mr. Rankin, was a man of 


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influence and wealth, and a true whig. Turning the family out of 
doors, consuming, plundering, and destroying, with the thoughtless 
recklessness of inrading soldiers, leaving the neighborhood a scene 
of desolation, after an abode of two days, the army was marched on 
Sabbath, March 11th, to the premises of Dr. Caldwell. Mrs. Cald- 
well and the children retired to the smoke-house, and there passed 
a day without provision and without a bed. The officers that occu- 
pied the house insulted her distress with profane language and 
cruel treatment, until the principal physician, understanding her 
condition, interposed, and procured for her a bed and a few cooking 
utensils, and ^ some provisions. The head-quarters of his lordship 
was at Mr. McCuistin's on the great road from the court-house to 
Fayetteville ; but the army was encamped mainly on Dr. Cald- 
well'f plantation, the line extending entirely across it, and the 
wings occupying part of two of his neighbor's, one on each side ; 
" and the marls of it are still visible." Mr. Caruthers says — 
" every panel of ^ fence on the premises was burned ; every particle 
of provisions consumed or carried away ; every living thing was 
destroyed except one old goose ; and nearly every square rod of 
ground was penetrated with their iron ramrods, ip search of hidden 

Before leaving the place, the library and papers of Dr. Caldiyell 
were destroyed by fire. This was done by the command of the offi- 
cers. The large oven in the yard was used for the purpose. A fire 
being kindled, armful after armful of the books and papers was, 1^ 
the servants, committed to the flames, till the destruction was com- 
plete. The Dr. was at this time in the camp of Grreene, which, on 
Monday, the 12th, was about five miles from High Rock ; on Tues- 
day, eight miles farther, on Ready Fort, and on Wednesday at the 
Court House. A price had been set by his lordship on the Dr.'s 
head : J£200 to any one who should bring him in prisoner. As if 
to revenge his absence from home on his library and papers, the 
order was given for their destruction. Not even the family Bible 
was spared. The fatal Psalms in metre probably ensured its de- 
struction. The loss of the manuscripts was irreparable ; the library 
in the course of time was partially replaced. . 

After remaining two days, the army left the neighborhood a scene 
of desolation and distress, and removed to the Quaker settlement on 
Deep River. About this time occurred the massacre of the bugler 
of Lee's legion, while crying for quarter, but a little more atrocious 
than the slaughters and plunderings which were enacted throughout 
Dr Caldwell's congr^ations. 

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By Greene's near approach on Wednesday, the 14th of March, it 
was understood throughout the country, and in the British camp, 
that the American general, who had so long shunned an engage- 
ment, would no longer decline a battle. Lee's legion led on the 
attack. The king's forces approached the chosen battle-ground in 
beautiful military order and in high spirits. By the court-house 
lay Grreene with his regulars ; in front, to the south, were open fields 
of a rolling surface with some ravines, through which passed the 
great Salisbury road, on the right and left of which were woods ; 
about a rifle shot in front, beyond these fields, were woods of about 
the same depth ; in these, on the right and left of the road, were sta- 
tioned the Virginia volunteers and militia, some of them excellent 
marksmen with the rifle, in a hollow that ran nearly at right angles 
to the road, so low that the militia would be unseen by the enemy's 
line till within gun-shot ; in front of the woods on the south, behind 
a rail-fence enclosing extended open fields^ lay the North Carolina 
forces, militia and volunteers, some excellent riflemen. Across these 
open fields, the army of Cornwallis, in battle array, advanced on 
each side of the road in front of the Carolina forces concealed by 
the fence and flanked on their left by Campbell's riflemen and Lee's 
legion, and their right by Lynch's rifle corps and Washington's 

The orders to the first line were, to fire twice, from behind the 
fence, upon the enemy on their near approach, and then to retire ; 
to the second line, to give the advancing enemy such reception as 
circumstances required ; and in case of a retreat, all were to rally in 
the rear of the regulars. 

The British forces could be seen for a mile or more, as they defiled 
into the open fields. The fi^old-pieces of Greene stationed in the road 
under Captain Singleton, just in front of the front line, played upon 
the advancing enemy, and were briskly answered by that of the 
enemy under Lieut. McLeod. As the British forces advanced, Sin- 
gleton retreated according to orders to the court-house. The first 
fire, from the first line, behind the fence, was unexpected jmd very 
destructive. The following extract of a letter from Dugald Stewart, 
a captain in the army of Cornwallis, to his relative Donald Stewart 
of Guilford county. North Carolina, dated Ballachelish, Argyleshire, 
Scotland, Oct 25, 1825, is taken from Mr. Caruthers. 

" The regiment to which I belonged, the 71st or Frazier's High- 
landers, was drjiwn up on the left of the British line along with 
the 23d, or Welsh Fusileers, with some other regiments. In the 

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advance we received a very deadly fire from the Irish line of the 
American army, composed of their marksmen lying on the ground 
behind a rail-ience. One half of the Highlanders dropt on that 
spot There ought to be a pretty large tumulus where our m«i 
were buried.'* This " Irish line'* and these " marksmen" in the 
firont line were probably the company of volunteers under Captain 
John Forbes from the Alamance, made up of his firiends and neigh- 
bors, the Allisons, the Kerrs, the Wileys, the Paisleys and others, 
who had come to take part in the battle. Captain Forbes fired the 
first gun ; his men saw a British officer fall ; they gave their " deadly 
fire," and repeated it, and then retreated. Forbes in the retreat 
received a mortal wound. William Paisley, the father of the Rev. 
Samuel Paisley, was also wounded, but not mortally. Had the whole 
front line behaved as gallantly, the fortune of the day would have 
been still more disastrous to the invaders. But there were some 
who thought " discretion the better part of valor" — *^ that he that 
fights and runs away, may live to fight another day." The British 
line resumed its march, inclining to the left in front of the r^ulars 
under Greene, with whom the sharpest contest was anticipated. 
Encountering the second line of militia and volunteers, the exiemj 
met another unexpected reception from the Virginia marksmen. 
The right of that line under General Lawson wheeled round upon 
their left, and then retreated in confiision. Col. Webster, who led 
the British left, then advanced upon the regulars under Col. Gunby. 
The left of the second line of militia and volunteers was encountered 
by the British right under General Leslie, and maintained their 
ground, alternately advancing upon the enemy and then retreating 
to their original position, till the retreat of the regulars under Grreene. 
In a short diary kept by a Virginia rifleman who stood on the left 
of the second line, who said he discharged his rifle fourteen times 
that afternoon, Samuel Houston, afterwards so long the pastor of the 
Highbridge congregation, Rockbridge county, Virginia, — ^he says 
that, before the battle, he retired and committed himself to the mer- 
ciful providence of God ; and then, " standing in readiness, 

we heard the pickets fire. Shortly, the English fired a cannon, 
which was answered, and so on alternately till the small-armed 
troops came nigh, and then close firing began near the centre but 
rather towards the right, and soon spread along the line. Our 
Brigade-Major, Mr. Williams, fled. Presently came two men to us 
and informed us the British fled. Soon the enemy appeared to us. 
We fired on their flank, and shot down many of them. At which 
i;ime Captain Telford was killed. We pursued them about forty 

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poles, to the top of a hill, when they stood, and we retreated from 
them back to where we formed ;— then we repulsed them again ; 
and they a second time made us retreat back to our first ground, 
when we were deceived by a regiment of Hessians, whom we took 
for our own, and cried out to them to see if they were our friends, 
and shouted aloud Liberty, Liberty, and advanced up, till they let 
off some guns ; then we fired sharply on them and made them re- 
treat a little, but presently their light -horse came on us, and not 
being defended by our light-horse, nor reinforced, though firing 
bad long ceased in all other parts, we were obliged to run, and 
many were sore chased and some cut down. We lost our Major 
and Captain then. We all scattered ; and some of our party, and 
Campbell's, and Moffitt's, collected together, and with Campbell and 
Moffitt and Major Pooge, we marched to head-quarters." 

It is stated by Johnson, that General Stevens placed in the rear of 
the left of this second line some good marksmen, with orders to 
shoot down any of his men that deserted the ranks. It is also well 
known that this part of the line kept its position till Greene ordered 
a general retreat 

Let us go to the fiercest part of the battle. The court-house is 
gone ; the village is wasted to a house ; the actors in that eventful 
strife are all passed away ; — but the face of the country is un- 
changed ; the open fields and the woods retam the relative posi- 
tion of sixty years since. Taking your stand on this highest ground, 
where the court-house stood, you may look over the whole battle- 
field of th^ sharpest contest Directly in front, to the south, is the 
open rolling field across which the gallant Webster led his regi- 
ment, as boldly as if his life was charmed against powder and lead, 
on to attack the first Maryland regiment, renowned for their con- 
duct at the Cowpens. The gallant colonel's regiment recoiled at the 
first deadly fire, and gave way before the advance of the Maryland- 
ers. Grievously wounded, Webster rallied his men on the skirts of 
the wood in front of you, and in a little time was ready to re-enter 
the battle. From the Salisbury road, Leslie sends down two regi- 
ments to advance upon the second Maryland regiment, which be- 
haved in an unsoldierlike manner, and did nothing worthy of their 
name. O'Harra hastened on with two regiments to the flank of 
Howard regaining his line, and made an attack on the second Ma- 
ryland regiment, which gave way and fled. Just then, Colonel 
Washington rapidly passed by the head of Leslie's regiment, leaped 
a ravine with his corps unseen, and made a terrible onset upon the 
Queen's Guards, exulting in their victory over the second raiment 

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The carnage was dreadful. At this time it was, as lieiiteiiaiit 
Holcomb related to Dr. Jones of Nottaway, that the noted Francisco 
performed a deed of blood without a parallel. In that short ren- 
counter, he cut down eleven men with his brawny arm and terrible 
broadsword. One of the guards thrust his bayonet, and in spite of 
the parrying of Francisco's sword, pinned his leg to the horse. 
Francisco forbore to strike, but assisted him to extricate his bay- 
onet As the soldier turned and fled, he made a furious blow with 
his sword, and cleft the poor fellow's head down to his shoulders. 
The force of the blow, added to the soldier's speed, sent him on a 
number of steps, with his cleft head hanging upon each shoulder, 
before he fell. The astonished beholders shouted, " Did you ever 
see the like?" Howard, with the 1st, came rushing on them, 
and the contest was renewed in a most desperate manner about mid- 
way between the court-house and the woods in front This was 
the crisis of the battle. Comwallis came down from -his post, where 
the Salisbury road enters the wood, to the hollow, to see the con- 
dition of the battle, and under the cover of the smoke, rode up to 
that old oak just in the skirts of the fiery contest Washington, 
who had drawn off his troops, was hovering round to watch his op- 
portunity for another onset, and approached that same oak unper- 
ceived by his lordship ; stopping to beckon on his men to move 
and intercept the officer, then unknown to him, he happened to 
strike his unlaced helmet from his head. On recovering it, he per- 
ceived the white horse that carried the officer on the full gallop 
towards the artillery posted on the rising ground, where the road 
emerges from the woods. His lordship gave orders to Lieutenant 
McLeod to charge with grape-shot, and fire in upon the contending 
mass of men. O'Harra, who had been carried wounded to that po- 
sition, heard the fatal orders, and begged the commander to spare 
his fine troops. His lordship repeated the order sternly, and stood 
by the devouring cannon till the regiments who were yielding 
ground to the Maryland forces rallied, and bravely, or rather des- 
perately, renewed the contest This rally decided the fiate of the 
day. Greene drew off his forces. 

At the time Comwallis was in danger of being taken by Washing- 
ton, Greene, also, going down to survey the battle and learn the con- 
dition of his forces, under cover of the smoke, approached within a 
few steps of a large force of the enemy 5 discovering his perilous 
condition, he slowly retreated and escaped without observation. In 
a letter to his lady, the day after the battle, he says — ^^ I had not the 
honor of being woimded, but was very near being taken, having 

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rode in the heat of the action, fiill tilt, directly into the midst of the 
enemy ; but by Col. Harris calling to me and advertising me of my 
atuation I had just time to escape.'' 

The consequences of this battle are well known — ^the retreat of 
Comwallis, and the delivery of Carolina. 

During this eventful Thursday, all the active men in Dr. Caldwell's 
congregation were in some way engaged with the army ; and we 
are told by Mr. Caruthers that there were two collections of females, 
one in Buffalo, and the other in Alamance, engaged in most earnest 
prayer for their families and their country ; many others sought the 
divine aid in solitary places. One pious lady sent her son, often, 
during the afternoon, to the summit of a little hill near which she 
spent much time in prayer, to listen and bring her word which way 
the firing came, firom the southward or the northward. When he 
returned and said it was going northward — ^^ Then," exclaimed she, 
** all is lost, Greene is defeated." But all was not lost ; the God that 
hears prayer remembered his people. 

The invaders left the ground the next day, and all the country 
around were busy in burying the dead and carrying off their woun- 
ded, many of whom lay the cold wet night after the battle exposed 
upon the ground. Capt Forbis lay about thirty hours before he ' 
was discovered by his firiends. He was then found by an old lady, 
who was searching the woods for a relative He survived a short 
time after being carried to his house. He declared before his death, 
that on the day after the battle a tory of his acquaintance passed 
by him and recognized him, and instead of giving him a little 
water, for which he craved, to quench his raging thurst, kicked him 
and cursed him as a rebel. After the death of Forbis, that man was 
found suspended on a tree before his own door. 

The strength of the tories had been greatly increased by the 
presence of the British forces, and the policy of Comwallis. The 
feuds and bloodshed in the neighborhood were indescribable for their 
vexations, and often for their atrocities. For a short time after the 
battle these were more bitter. The entire departure of the invaders 
permitted the country to resume its quiet, and pursue their occupa- 
tions in comparative peaceftilness. 

The battle at the court-house aboimded ift acts of heroism and 
also of cowardice. In that contest, when the grape shot poured upon 
the contending forces, it is said some of the British officers fell as if 
dead, and were plundered, but after the battle were not reported 
either among the wounded or missing. 

The gallant Webster, that escaped so remarkably at Wetzell's 

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Mills, and rallied his broken forces so nobly and came back into 
the action, died of the wounds received in his charge upon the 
Maryland regiment He accx>mpanied the retreating army as far as 
Bladen county, and with the sympathy of his enemies, as well as the 
king's forces, was consigned to his grave, near Elizabeth, the county 
seat There was no fear his grave would be profaned When 
General Philips died at Petersbury, Virginia, some time after, his 
grave was secreted through fear of the irritated country, lest his 
cruelties should be visited on his ashes. 

The Virginia militia and volunteers, that maintained their ground 
so bravely and received so much applause for their soldierlike con- 
duct, were from Augusta and Rockbridge counties, and almost to a 
man the descendants of Scotch-Irish. Some of the congr^ation of. 
the noted Graham were there ; and a company fix>m the congrega- 
tion of the silver-tongued Waddel, the Blind Preacher of Mr. Wirt, 
heard a farewell address from him, while under arms ready to marcL 
Many that marched returned no more ; and others bore the marks 
of deep gashes from the light-horse broadswords the remainder 
of their days. The last of these men were lately carried to their 

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When it was finally determined, in May, 1788, by the Synod of 
New York and Philadelphia, to constitute -a General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church, in the United Slates of America, as a 
preliminary step some new S)mods were first set off, of which the 
Synod of the Carolinas was one ; by the following resolutions the 
way was open for its meeting : — " Resolved, that the Synod of 
the Carolinas meet on the first Wednesday of November next, at 
eleven o'clock, A.M., at Centre church, in Rowan county, and 
that Mr. Pattillo, or, in his absence, the senior minister present, 
open the Synod with a sermon, and preside till a moderator be 
chosen." The Presbyteries that, united, formed the Synod, were 
Orange, in North Carolina, South Carolina, in the State of the 
same name, and Abingdon, principally in Tennessee. 

The members of Orange Presbytery were Rev. Messrs. Henry 
Pattillo, David Caldwell, Samuel E. McCorkle, James Hall, Ro- 
bert Archibald, James McRee, Jacob Lake, Daniel Thatcher, 
David Barr, John Beck, in all ten. Those of South Carolina, 
James Edmonds, John Harris, Joseph Alexander, John Simpson, 
Thomas Reese, Thomas H. McCaule, James Templeton, Fran- 
cis Cummins, Robert Finley, Robert Hall, Robert Mecklin ; in 
all eleven. Of Abingdon Presbytery, Charles Cummins, Heze- 
kiah Balch, John Coasan, Samuel Houston, Samuel Carrick, 
James Balch, in all seven. Total in the Synod, twenty-eight. 

From the records of the twenty-five sessions which this Synod 
held, previously to its division in 1813, such extraets will be made 
as are of abiding interest, or necessary to give a succinct account 
of the doings of a pious and active body of men, whose names 
and doings should not be forgotten. In some cases' a brief state- 
ment will be made, embracing the spirit of the records for the 
sake of brevity ; in others the very words will be given, which 
will be indicated by the conunon quotation marks. The exact 
words will be given whenever they appear to be of importance. 

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" Centre Churchy State of North Carolinay >' 
November bthy 1788. J 

" The Synod of the Cftrolinas met according to the appointment 
of the late Synod of New York ard Philadelphia, convened in 
May, 1788. Members present were, of the Presbytery of Orange, 
the Rev. David Caldwell, Samuel E. McCorkle, James HaU, 
Robert Archibald, James McRee, and Jacob Lake, ministers ; 
with elders, Messrs. Wm. Anderson, McNeely, Harris, King, 
Robert Irwin, and John Dickey. 

" Of the Presb)rtery of South Carolina, the Rev. James Temple- 
ton, Francis Cunmiins, Robert Hall, ministers ; with elders, 
Messrs. Martin and Hamilton. 

" Of the Presbytery of Abingdon, the Rev. Samuel Houston. 
One new member, it appears, had been added to the Presbytery of 
^uth Carolina, John Newton, and one had died, Robert Mecklin. 
The Synod was opened by the Rev. David Caldwell being the 
senior member present, after which Synod was constituted with 
prayer. The Rev. David Caldwell was chosen moderator, and 
Rev. James McRee and Robert Hall clerks." 

The Committee of Overtures read the following : — " That the 
committee think it highly necessary that Synod should inquire 
respecting a certain report injurious to the credit of the late Sjmod 
of New York and Philadelphia, namely, that said Synod had cast 
off the larger catechism, and that witb difficulty the shorter was 
retained." The Synod, in consequence of examining into the 
above report, and having received what they considered as authentic 
testimony to the contrary, concluded the report to be totally false, 
" Resolved, that it be enjoined on the several members of Synod, 
to take an account, when it may appear that the above false and 
scandalous report is injurious to tlie credit of religion, and call 
those who propagated it before their respective jurisdiction, and if 
found guilty without being able to give their author, that they be 
treated according to the demerit of their crime. 

" Synod adjourned to meet at Poplar Tent, on the first Wednes- 
day in September next. Concluded with prayer." 

" Poplar Tenty State of North Carolina, > 
September 2d, 1789. J 
' The Synod met according to adjournment, and was opened by 

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the Rev. David Caldwell, with a sermon from Psalms ii., 6." Two 
members were reported as added to the Presbytery of South Caro- 
lina, Robert McCuUock and William C. Davis, and one dismiss- 
ed, Robert Finley. It appeared that the Presbjrtery of Orange 
had received the Rev. David Kerr, from the Presbytery of Tem- 
ple Patrick, in Ireland, as a member in good standing ; the Synod 
proceeded to consider his credentials and collateral testimony, ap- 
proved of the proceeding and invited him to a seat. 

The report about the larger catechism being cast off was further 
considered, and it appearing the Rev. Robert Finley, lately dis- 
missed from the Presbytery of South CaroUna, was implicJated in 
that report, Sjrnod ordered a letter to be written to him, and ano- 
ther to the Presb3rtery of which he is a member. 

" Overturesy — ^Whether persons who practise dancingy revel' 
lingy horse-racingy and card-playingy are to be admitted to sealing 
ordinances ? Synod, taking into consideration these and other 
things of a similar tendency. Resolved, that they are wrong ; and 
the practisers of them ought not to be admitted to seaUng ordi 
nances, until they be dealt with by their spiritual rulers in such 
manner as to them may appear most for the glory of God, their 
own good, and the good of the church." 

" Overturey — Are persons who habitually neglect to attend 
public worship, on fast or thanksgiving days, admissible to seal- 
ing ordinances ? Synod unanimously agree that such conduct is 
inconsistent with the Christian character ; a disrespect paid to the 
call of God in his providences, and the authority of the church ; 
offensive to the sober-minded, and in point of example injurious 
to others." 

The Synod then proceeded to order all its members to read the 
proceedings of Synod on the overtures in all their churches, and 
in the vacancies. 

On a reference from the Synod of South Carolina, after delibe- 
ration. Synod " Judged, that the marriage of John Latham, of 
"Waxhaw, with his deceased wife's sister's daughter, is criminal 
and highly offensive ; and that all such marriages are truly de- 
testable, and ought to be strenuously discotrtitenanced ; and that 
said Latham, in his present standing, is by no means admissible 
to the sealing ordinances of the church." This is referred to in 
the thirteenth session. 

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"session III. 

'' Bethany y Oct. 6 {Wednesday), 1790. 

'^ Synod met agreeably to adjournment, and was opened with a 
sermon preached by 4ie Rev. Henry Pattillo (the moderator being 
absent), from Acts xivi., 18." 

Mr. Pattillo was chosen moderator, Mr. John Springer was 
reported as having been added to the Presbytery of South Caro- 
lina, and Mr. Houston as having been dismissed from Abingdon. 
The Synod examined and approved the proceedings of Orange 
Presbytery, in receiving the Rev. Wm. Moore from the Presby- 
tery of Hanover. (The proceedings had been regular, but Synod 
took the oversight of receiving members from other bodies.) 

*• Overtured, That Dr. Doddridge's Rise and Progress of Reli- 
gion, and his ten sermons on Regeneration, be printed by con- 
tributions raised by the members of Synod. 

" Ordered, that the Rev. James M'Ree request the printers in 
Fayetteville to publish in their Gazette the terms on which they 
will print, bind, and letter the above books. 

" Ordered, that each Presbytery make provisions that they be 
represented in the General Assembly. 

" The Synod recommended that the last Wednesday in next 
month be observed as a day of public thanksgiving to God, as an 
acknowledgment of his goodness in the plentiful crops of the 
present year." 

session IV. 

Thyatira, Oct. bth {Wednesday), 1791. 

In the absence of the moderator, the Rev. Joseph Alexander 
opened the Synod, with a sermon from John ix., 35, and was 
chosen moderator. South Carolina Presbytery reported one ad- 
ded, James Stephenson. 

The Sjrnod took action on the subject of reprinting Doddridge's 
Rise and Progress, and his ten sermons on Regeneration, and 
appointed a member of each Presbytery to see to it that pro- 
posals were circulated to obtain subscriptions in all the congrega- 
tions ; and if the numbers, as returned from the Spring meetings 
of Presbyteries, amounted to fifteen hundred, the conmiittee of 
Synod was to forward a list to the printer, that the work be com- 

The elders and congregation at Stony Creek having sent up for 

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advice respecting the use of Dr. Watts's Hymns, in public wor- 
ship, it was resolved, " that the petitioners be referred to the 
General Assembly, as the Synod do not conceive that it lies with 
them to sanction any system of psahnody, other than such sys- 
tems as may be sanctioned by the General Assembly." 

The Committee of Overtures presented the following questions, 
** Are they who publicly profess a behef in the doctrine of the 
universal and actual salvation of the whole human race, or of 
the fallen angels, or both, through the mediation of Christ, to be 
admitted to the sealing ordinances of the gospel ? Wherefore, 
resolved, that although the Synod set themselves unanimously 
against the doctrine of universal salvation, as an article of be- 
lief, yet as the question involves some difficulty respecting ad- 
mission to sealing ordinances, the said question be sent up to the 
General Assembly for their decision. (See next session.) 

" The Committee of Overtures laid the following questions be- 
fore Synod for consideration : " Should church sessions require 
an assent to, and approbation of the Confession of Faith, and 
larger or shorter catechisms, previously to their admitting persons 
to sealing ordinances ?" On this subject, " Resolved, that the 
proceedings of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia 
General Assembly are sufficient to direct our members in that 

" Resolved, that the following ministers and elders be a Stand- 
ing Commission of Synod, and particularly to take up and issue 
the affair of Mr. Cossan, if not issued by the Presbytery of Ab- 
ingdon, viz : the Rev. Samuel E. M'Corkle, moderator, James 
Hall, James Templeton, James M'Ree, Robert Hall, Wm. C. 
Davies, and Charles Cummins ; with elders, John Dickey, John 
M'Knitt Alexander, Adam Beard, William Cathey, William An- 
derson, Joseph Feemster, and John Nelson. The moderator's 
council to consist of one minister, besides himself, and one elder. 
Two ministers besides the moderator, and as many of the above 
elders as may be present, to constitute a quorum." 

(From this time. Commission of Synod was a regular appoint- 
ment, with few intermissions. Much important business was 
done by them, and their decision was final.) 

" On motion, Resolved, that it be enjoined on the several Pres- 
byteries to take as effectual measures as possible for collecting 
materials for the history of the Presbyterian churches in America, 
and that returns of the said materials be made to the General 
Assembly as early as possible." 

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At this meeting the Synod took up the subject of domestic mis- 
sions, and resolved to send out four missionaries to act in the des- 
titute regions each side of the AUeghanies. The direction of 
missionaries to be in the commission of Synod during recess of 
Synod ; their support fixed at two hundred dollars annually. It 
was made the duty of the missionaries to ascertain who of the 
families they visited wished to receive the gospel frouLthe Presby- 
terians, and make report ; they were also to make collections 
where they preached. The persons appointed were James Tem- 
pleton and Robert Hall, of South Carolina Presbytery ; and Robert 
Archibald, with the Licentiate John Bowman, of the Presbytery 
of Orange. Each was to labor for six months. 

The Presbytery of Orange reported at this meeting, that seven 
of their ministers had stated charges ; three temporary charges ; 
and one no charge ; two probationers, who have calls under con- 
sideration ; three who have accepted calls ; and six who have not 
calls ; and five candidates ; thirteen vacancies able to support seven 
pastors ; and eighteen not able to support one. The Presbytery 
of South Carolina reported as follows : ten ministers vrith stated 
charges ; three vrithout any charge ; twb Ucentiates ; and nine 
candidates ; thirteen vacancies able to support nine pastors ; twen- 
ty-nine not able to support one. The names of pastors are not 
given annexed to their churches. 


" Bethesda, October 4th ( Wednesday), 1792. 

" Sjmod met pursuant to adjournment, and was opened with a 
sermon from Matt. xi. 6, preached by the Rev. Joseph Alexander, 
the Moderator." " The Rev. Samuel E. McCorkle, D.D., was 
chosen Moderator." The Presbytery of Orange reported three 
members added by ordination, William Hodges, James Wallis, and 
Samuel C. Caldwell ; the two last mentioned were invited to seats. 
The question sent up to the last Assembly was taken up, and the 
following minute made : — " This Synod at their last sessions hav- 
ing sent on a question to the General Assembly respecting the 
admission or non-admission of those who profess their belief in 
the doctrine of Universal Redemption, have it in their power to 
refer the pubUc in general, and the members of our church in par- 
ticular, to the decision of the General Assembly on that subject, 
which is as follows : — ^In General Assembly, May, 1792, a ques- 
tion from the Synod of the CaroUnas was introduced through the 

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Committee of Bills and Overtures, which was as follows : * Are 
those who publicly profess a belief in the doctrine of universal and 
actual salvation of the whole human race, or of the fallen angels, 
or both, through the mediation of Christ, to be admitted to the 
sealing ordinances of the gospel V The Assembly determined that 
such persons should not be admitted." 

It being ascertained that 800 subscribers could be obtained for 
Doddridge's Rise and Progress, &c., Dr. McCorkle and Rev. Jas* 
McRee were appointed agents to transact with the printer in behalf 
of Synod. (This scheme of benevolent improvement occupied 
the Synod for some years, as will be seen ; and finally failed, after 
a large amount of money had been expended.) 

By report made to Synod, it appears the commission of Synod 
had held two meetings to transact the missionary business which 
had been committed to them. The first, in October, 1791, at 
Thyatira' church, in which they drew up rules and instruc- 
tions for the missionaries, and gave commissions to Rev. James 
Templeton, and Robert Hall, to act for four months each in the 
lower parts of South Carolina and Georgia, before the middle of 
the succeeding April; and Rev. Robert Archibald for four 
months, and Mr. John Bowman, for three months, as above, in the 
lower parts of North Carolina. The only part of the very judi- 
cious rules and instructions they prepared for their missionaries, 
which requires attention, as difiering from those now given, is that 
contained in the third regulation : " You are not to tarry longer 
than three weeks at the same time, in the bounds of twenty miles, 
except peculiar circumstances may appear to make it necessary." 
The next meeting was at Steele Creek church, in April, 1792, to 
receive the reports of missionaries, and give commissions for the 
summer succeeding. 

They held a third meeting for judicial business at Salem 
church, on the Nolachuckee, in September, to attend to a case of 
discipline between the Presbjrtery of Abingdon and the Rev. Mr. 

The Synod approved of the doings of the commission after 
hearing their minutes read : — and Synod, on a review of the whole 
of the minutes of said commissioners, concurred in their approba- 
tion of all their proceedings since appointed to that ofiice. There 
is one act of the commissioners to be noticed ; it was determined 
by them, while at Salem, tiiat if either party felt aggrieved by 
this decision, they idiould have a re-hearing before Synod ; but no 
advantage was taken of it. 

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Orange Presbytery reported their admission of the Rev. Colin 
Lindsey, from Europe, as a member of their body ; of their pro- 
ceedings the Synod approved. 


''Sugaw Creek, Oct. 2d, 1793." 

The Synod met in regular sessions, and was opened with a ser- 
mon by the Rev. Dr. McCorkle, from 1st Cor. xii. 13. Rev. 
James Templelon was chosen moderator. Rev. Humphrey Hun- 
ter and Robert Cunningham were reported from Peerly, of South 
Carolina, as new members ; and Lewis Fuileteau Wilson, James 
M'Gready, Joseph Kilpatrick, Alexander Caldv^ell, and Angus 
McDiarmid (a licentiate from Europe, ordained by the Presbytery), 
were reported from the Presbytery of Orange ; and Samuel Doake, 
from Abingdon Presbytery. 

In consequence of an overture. Synod passed the following 
recommendations, viz. : " That members of the church transgress- 
ing the rules thereof, be called on as soon as convenient to account 
for their conduct, and not wait till they may ask the privileges of 
the church." Notice of this reconunendation was sent to all the 
absent members of Synod. 

The following letter was received from the Rev. Henry Pattillo, 

"to the moderator. 

" Granville, 3d September, 1793. 

" Rev. and dear Brother — ^From the pleasure you enjoy in at- 
tending church judications, you can conjecture my mortification in 
being denied them. But my advanced age, and the great distance 
reftise me the privilege. I bless the great Lord of tie harvest 
that he is sending so many quaUfied laborers to work for }iim. 
What a number of excellent youth did I see in Prince Edward at 
a Presbytery and Sacrament last spring ! of approved piety, warm 
zeal and indefatigable diligence, great popular talents, unstained 
reputation, and genteel behavior. There is scarcely a comer in 
"Rrginia whert their voice has not been heard with pleasure and 
profit by multitudes. Presbyterianism, if that is wortti regarding, 
was never half so extedsively known and sought after in that State 
as now. I hope these characteristics of persons and successes 
agree to those worthy youths wlie have been sent out by us south 
of the Virginia line. On both sides they are all young, thriving 

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American scions who flourish in their native soil ; we have never 
found the exotic plants of Europe's cold regions to thrive among 
us. Frazer and Patton were the blots of human nature; and 
others might be named, who have been, or are like to be, a grief 
to our hearts, rather than useful ministers of Jesus Christ, and a 
blessing to the churches. Their divinity, if they have one, is not 
Jesus Christ and the power of his grace in experimental reUgion, — 
their politics are monarchical, and suit not the liberal spirit of Ameri- 
can Republicans. They will neither pray, preach, nor live like 
pious youth bred among ourselves. I bear my testimony against 
the admission of such dry sticks among lively trees in our Ameri- 
can vineyard. And 1 assure myself, my worthy and beloved 
brethren will have nothing to do vrith such, but call on them to 
know Jesus Christ before they preach him. Their admission must 
be only a speedy prelude to their expulsion, while we hold the 
keys, and discipline is observed amongst us. The churches will 
be much better as vacancies than committed to stewards who 
would feed them with poison, or dry husks at best. If my rever- 
end brethren will admit this letter to record, it will speak for me 
when I am numbered with the dead. 

" I intended to send you the history of the Presbyterian church 
in these parts ; but must omit that for the present, and be ready 
by your spring meeting. Bear one word more on the great 
subject. As to Europe, though perhaps, a# Sallust says of 
ancient Rome, she may be too old and feeble to produce many 
great men, yet she knows how to hold them, if they make their 
appearance ; so let it never be said, that such as she rejects should 
be hcked up by America,in all the vigor of her youth in Church and 
State. One word more, — if there is such a scarcity of ministers, 
and there be so great a famine of the word of the Lord, we had 
infinitely better send forth pious laymen, who have trod the way,, 
and would endeavor to lead others into it, than men who have 
nothing to recommend them but a smattering of languages and 
sciences, while they are the enemies of the cross of Christ, and 
strangers to vital piety. My prayers, my wishes, and, if you will 
forgive the expression, my fatherly cares are anxioualy employed 
for you. May the pleasure of the Lord prosper in your hands. 
" Your own aflFectionate brother and obedient servant, 

" Henry Pattillo." 

Synod received information thai the edition i^ Doddridge's Rise 

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and Progress, &c., would be ready for delivery in tlie month of 

The commission of Synod reported repeated meetings, to com- 
mission the missionaries, mark out their routes, and to receire 
their reports. They reported, as haying been in their employ, the 
following ministers : — ^James Hall, Samuel C. Caldwell, in NorUi 
/Carolina ; John Bowman in North Carolina and Tennessee ; Ro- 
bert McCuUoch in South Carolina ; and Robert Cunningham in 
Georgia. These labored faithfully. On making their reports and 
exhibiting to the commission their receipts from contributions by 
the people to whom they had preached, they declined receiving 
from the Synod or the commission the small balance of their wages. 
The missionaries read their reports to Synod ; one of which is 
recorded : the other being lost before the records of Synod ^vere 
transcribed into the present folio volume for preservation. 


Steele Creek, Friday , October 3df 1794. 

Synod was opened, in the absence of the moderator, by Rev. 
Samuel C. Caldwell, with a sermon from Ezekiel xziii., 36 
and 37. 

The Rev. James Hall was chosen moderator. 

New members reported : From South Carolina Presbytery, — 
Moses Waddd, John Brown, William Williamson, and Robert 
Wilson: Abingdon Presbytery, — Robert Henderson and Gideon 

An inquiry took place in Synod respecting an absent member of 
the Presbytery of Orange, the Rev. Robert Archibald, who was 
•charged by common fame with preaching the doctrine of uniyersal 
restoration of mankind : and the Orange Presbytery having given 
to Synod a relation of their proceedings in regard to Mr. Archibald 
— " Synod advised that the members of Orange resolve themselves 
into a Presbyterial capacity and inunediately decide on the affairs 
of Mr. Archibald. Accordingly, the members of the Presbytery 
of Orange constituted and came to the follovnng decision 
— ^That the Rev. Robert Archibald be suspended, and he is 
hereby suspended from the exercise of his ministerial office, and 
from the communion of our church. And Sjmod ordered that 
each member of their respective Presbyteries publish in his own 
and in vacant congregations the decision of Orange Presbytery 
relative to Mr. Archibald, and warn them against the reception of 

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the above doctrine : and warn them also against countenancing or 
receiving Mr. Archibald as a minister of the gospel in his present 

The Synod received report firom South Carolina Presbytery, that 
proper steps had been taken to fully answer the requisition of Synod 
respecting the history of the churches. The members of Orange 
Presbytery were enjoined to send the proper materials for the 
history of their churches to Rev. Messrs. Dr. McCorkle and James 
Hall ; and the members of Abingdon, to Rev. Messrs. Hezekiah 
Balch and Robert Henderson, before the 1st of December ; that 
they might prepare a narrative for the inspection of their Presby- 
teries at the spring meeting ; and from thence to be sent on to the 
next sessions of the General Assembly. 

The commission of Synod reported their various meetings and 
appointments. The following missionaries read their reports of 
travel and labor to the Synod : — Rev, James Hall, a tour in the 
lower part of North Carolina ; Mr. John M. Wilson, to the lower 
part of North Carolina ; Mr. Robert Wilson, to the lower part of 
South Carolina ; Mr. Joha Robinson, to the lower part of South 
Carolina ; Mr. John Bowman,t o the lower part of North CaroUna ; 
and Mr. James H, Bowman to the same region. The reports of 
the missionaries were spread on the minutes of S3^od, and cover 
sixteen folio pages, and show great diligence in missionary wc»rk, 
and the alarming want of ministers. 

In consequence of an overture. Synod ordered their several 
Presbyteries to call on their respective members and church ses- 
sions, and their several licentiates and vacancies to render an ac- 
count, once a year, how they discharge their respective duties to 
each other ; '' yet the Presbyteries are to conduct, as to vacancies, 
as prudence may direct" 


New Providence^ Thursday ^ Oct. 1st, 1796. 

The Synod was opened with a sermon by the Rev. James Tern* 
pleton, from Isaiah Ixii,, 6 and 7. The Re^v. James White Ste- 
phenson was chosen moderator. The Presbytery of Orange reported 
new members by ordination, — ^John Robinson, James Bowman, 
John M. Wilson, and John Carrigai) ; also Samuel Stanford and 
Humphrey Hunter, from other Presbyteries. The Presbytery of 
South Carolina reported Robert B. Walker, William Montgomery, 
and David Dunlap« 

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It appearing to Synod, that an ordained missionary was required 
in the Western Territory, and it teing stated that Mr. Wm. Me- 
Gee, of Orange Presbytery, was willing to take an appointment 
for that purpose — " Ordered that the Presbytery be directed, and 
they are hereby directed to ordain Mr. McGee, as soon as may be 
convenient, agreeably to the permission granted to this Synod, in 
such cases, by the General Assembly, at their sessions of last 

The Presbytery of Orange was divided by a line running along 
the Yadkin River. The Rev. Henry Pattillo, David Caldwell, 
Colin Lindsey, David Kerr, William Moore, William Hodge, 
James M'Gready, Samuel Stanford, Angus McDermaid, John 
Robinson, and James H. Bowman, retain the names of the Pres- 
bytery of Orange, to meet at New Hope, on the third Wednesday 
of November. The Rev. Henry Pattillo, to preach the opening 
sermon and preside ; in case of his absence, the senior minister 
present to perform these duties. 

The Rev. Samuel E. McCorkle, D.D., James Hall, James 
McRee, David Barr, Samuel C. Caldwell, James Wallis, Joseph 
D. Kilpatrick, Lewis F. Wilson, Humphrey Hunter, Alexander 
Caldwell, John M. Wilson, and Joseph Carragan, to be known by 
the name of the Presbytery of Concord, to meet at Centre Church, 
on the last Tuesday of March, 1796, Mr. Wallis to preach and 
preside till a moderator be chosen. 

Dr. McCorkle produced to Synod receipts for £80 128. 9d. ; 
paid towards the printing of Doddridge's Rise and Progress, &c. 

" The Synod taking into consideration the unusually adverse 
dispensation of Providence towards our Southern States, respecting 
the fruits of the earth ; the critical situation of our nation vrith 
respect to Great Britain ; and the languishing state of religion in 
the church, do earnestly recommend to all the societies under their 
care to observe the second Wednesday of December next, as a 
day of humiliation, fasting and prayer, to Almighty God, that he 
may avert the calamities of famine, continue with us the blessings 
of peace, and favor his church with a revival of religion.'* 

session IX. 

Morganton, Thursday, Nov. 8d, 1796. 

The Synod was opened with a sermon by the Rev. Samuel 
Carrick, from Psalm Iviii., 5. Mr. Carrick was chosen moderator. 
The Presbytery of South Carolina reported new members — John 

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Foster, George E. Macwhorter, John B. Kennedy, James Gille- 
land, and Samuel W. Yongue ; and also the Rev. Thomas Reese 
, and Thomas H. McCaule, deceased since the last meeting. 

Upon inquiry, it appeared that Dr. Sibley had not executed the 
promised edition of Doddridge ; and fears were expressed of a 
total failure of the contemplated edition. 

The members of South Carolina Presbytery, living irest of 
Savannah River, viz., Rev. John Newton, John Springer, Robert 
M. Cimningham, Moses Waddel, and William Montgomery, were, 
by request, set off to form a Presbytery by the name of Hope- 
well, to meet on the third Thursday of March, 1797, to be con- 
stituted by the Rev. John Springer, or in his absence, the senior 

The following question was overtured, viz. : " Is it expedient 
to admit baptized slaves as witnesses in ecclesiastical judicatories 
where others cannot be had ?" Answered in the negative. An 
orider was passed enjoining upon heads of families the religious 
instruction of their slaves ; and the teaching the children of slaves 
to read the Bible. 

By documents from Abingdon Presbytery and others, it appear- 
ed there had been great excitement in that Presbytery ; and that 
in consequence. Rev. Charles Cummins, Edward Crawford, 
Samuel Doake, Joseph Lake, and James Balch, had separated 
themselves from their brethren, and formed the Independent Pres- 
bytery of Abingdon. The cause assigned was, that Rev. Heze- 
kiah Bdch had published in the Knoxville Gazette, a number of 
Articles of Faith, which gave great offence to many brethren, and 
also to many of the people ; the matter had been laid before the 
Presbytery, and Mr. Balch apologizing for some personal abuse 
and imprudent doings, and explaining his doctrines as not contrary 
to the Confession of Faith, the majority were satisfied to dismiss 
the matter. The brethren mentioned above, were so dissatisfied 
with this conclusion of the matter, that they withdrew and formed 
their Presbytery. In their letter to the Presb3rtery, they say — 
** There is no manner of doubt but they, who have declared them- 
selves Independent, will immediately return to the imion, in form, 
as soon as they shall," &c. The conditions of their return were, 
dealing with Balch, and those who held his sentiments, and an 
assurance of protection " in preaching and exercising church disci- 
pline, according to the Confession of Faith.** What Mr. Balch's 
creed was, which they considered erroneous, does not appear. 
The Synod directed letters to be sent to the churches in Abingdon 

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Presbytery, and to the Independent Presbytery ; but what were 
their contents does not appear on the records. 

" A memcNrial was brought forward and kid before Synod, by 
the Rev. James Gilleland, stating his conscientious diffioilties in 
receiving the advice of the Presbjrtery of South Carolina, which 
has enjoined upon him to be silent in the pulpit on the 8abje<^ of 
the emancipation of the Africans, which injunction Mr. GiDeland 
declares to be, in his apprehension, contrary to the counsel of 
God. Whereupon Synod, after deliberation ^upon the matter, da 
concur with the Presbytery in advising Mr. GiHeland to content 
himself with using his utmost endeavors in private to c^n the 
way for emancipation, so as to secure our happiness as a people^ 
preserve the peace of the church, and render them capable of en- 
joying the blessings of liberty. Synod is of the opinion^ to preadi 
publicly against slavery, in present circumstances, and to lay^ 
down as the duty of every one, to liberate those who are aider 
their care, is that which would lead to disorder, and open the 
way to great confusion.** 

Synod adjourned, to meet at Mount Bethel, on the second 
Thursday in August, 1797. 


The minutes of the session held at Mount Bethel, near Green- 
ville, Tennessee, never passed into the hands of the stated derk. 
It appears, however, from reference in succeeding minutes, that 
the formation of the Independent Presbytery was condenmed^ 
and the members suspended ; and the discontent in the bounds 
of Abingdon Presbytery being very great, a commission of Synod 
was appointed to meet at Mount Bethel, in November, to hear 
and adjudicate the complaints and charges made against members 
of the Presbytery. 


A commission of Synod, consisting of fourteen ministers and 
twelve elders, met at Mount Bethel, near Greenville, Tennessee, 
Tuesday, November 21 st, 1797. Rev. Francis Cummins preached 
from Romans viii., Ist, and was chosen naoderator. The first 
step was to set apart the next day as a day of public feusting and 
humiliation before God. The people were requested to join with 
them in the services. The Rev. Samuel Doake, Jacob Lake, 

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and James Balch, appeared^ and having declared their submission 
to Synod, and disavowing their independence, and confessing 
their irregularity, and declaring their return to order, the com- 
mission removed their suspension, and restored them to the full 
exercise of the ministerial office. 

Various charges were exhibited against Rev. Hezekiah Balch, 
and the witnesses brought forward, and their testimony given. 
1st. He was charged with contradicting himself in a certain state- 
ment about Drs. Hopkins and Edwards being members of the 
association of Connecticut, and in conmiunion with the General 
Assembly ; first affirming and then denying his having said so. 
On this charge he was acquitted, and the persons who brought 
it were reproved. He was also charged with saying " the saints 
appeared in heaven in their own righteousness," and afterwards 
of denying. He admitted the declaration, and disclaimed the 
denial. It was proved that he explained it as 'Uhe firuit of 
Christ's righteousness," &c. This part of the charge was not 
sustained, and the reporters of it were reproved. 

2d. He was charged with preaching false doctrine. No manu- 
script or printed paper of his preparation was produced. The 
witnesses stated what they recollected of his sermons and con- 
versation, that they thought culpably erroneous. He was accused 
of charging the church of Scotland and some of our Calvinistic 
divines of holding the doctrine " that there were infants in hell 
not a span long ;" of saying *' that original sin is not conveyed 
by natural generation ;" that if it were, the procreation of children 
would be sinful, a damning sin ; that he justified a man in saying 
Jie was not afraid to take upon himself the original sin of the 
whole human family, Adam excepted (the person explaining that 
by original sin he meant Adam's particular act in eating the for- 
bidden fruit); of saying "there was no sin but in self -love ; 
that Adam's sin was his only, by approbation and imitation " (but 
that he also affirmed that the corruption of our nature, and the 
propensity to make a wrong choice, was from Adam) ; of saying 
that " we were not liable to condemnation till we became moral 
agents, or capable of a wrong choice, then the dire consequences 
of Adam's sin were imputed, but not his personal act ;" of saying 
" that answer in our catechism was wroug, which says * no mere 
man can keep the commands of God perfect,^ for they were able, 
if they were willing ; that through Adam's sin our nature was 
corrupted, but none were chargeable till they acted; and 'that the 
first act was original sin in our posterity." 

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On this charge with the specifications, the commission of Synod 
" view it as involving in it doctrines akeady referred to the General 
Assembly, and therefore unanimously agree to refer the charge, 
with the testimony, to the General Assembly for consideration 
and judgment." 

During this part of the trial, one witness made a statement, 
which, although it bears not on the merits of the case,'ffl!d was 
incidentally given in, is nevertheless interesting, viz : " Mr. Balch 
said he had no new doctrine, though Mr. Doake and Mr. James 
Balch had labored to establish that he had. In his late tour (to 
New England) he had gathered no new doctrines, only explana- 
tions, for he considered mankind as guilty as ever he did, only 
the old way was a lie, and the new one was true.'* From the 
firequent reference to Dr. Hopkins, it would seem that he intended 
to hold and preach the peculiar doctrines of that celebrated man. 

The third charge was " for marrying Joseph Posey and Jane 
Reeves together, knowing that he, Joseph Posey, had a lawful 
wife living within three miles of him." The first part of the 
charge, the marrying, he admitted ; the latter part, involving cri- 
minality, he denied. Though he admitted he knew she had been 
his lawful wife. The judgment of the commission was, that 
" Posey had not been legally freed from his former wife " at the 
time Mr. Balch performed the marriage ceremony, and that " Rev. 
Hezekiah Balch had conducted in a precipitate and irregular man- 
ner, in marrying Joseph Posey to Jane Reeves, and that this ac- 
tion, if received as a precedent, would introduce great and mani- 
fold evils, both in church and state." 

The fourth charge was for creating a new session in Mount 
Bethel, contrary to the constitution. The fact of creating a new 
session was admitted ; and the principal circumstances were agreed 
upon by the witnesses. The new session had suspended the old, 
and those who went with them ; and great confusion had arisen in 
the congregations and the Presbytery. The cause of division 
which led to the appointment of the new session, was the novelty 
of the doctrines Mr. Balch preached, which, notwithstanding all 
his explanations, appeared to many of his people, and part of the 
Presbj^ery, to be erroneous ; they have been stated under the 2d 
charge. The new session was made up of fiiends to Mr. Balch, 
— the old session greatly opposed him. 

The judgment of the commission was, " that the new session 
was unconstitutionally created, and all their judicial acts null 
and void." Mount Bethel was released from the pastoral care of 

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Mr. Balch, and pronounced a vacancy. The petition of Abingdon 
Presbytery for division, was granted : and the Rev. Charles Cum- 
mins, Samuel Doake, Jacob Lake and James Balch, were set oflF 
to compose Abingdon Presbytery, to meet at Salem on the 14th 
inst9.nt, Mr. Lake to preach and preside ; — and Rev. Hezekiah 
Balch, John Cossan, Samuel Carrick, Robert Henderson and 
Gideoff»^Blackbum, to compose the Presbytery of Union,, to meet 
at Hopewell on the 2d Tuesday of February, 1798, Mr. Carrick 
to preach and preside ; in case of absence of either person ap- 
pointed to preside, the oldest member present to supply his place. 
The subject of promiscuous communiort was taken up by the 
commissioners on an overture ; and the decision was, that as it 
was not necessary, and as it gave olSence to some of the people as 
implying a coalescence with other denominations in doctrines not 
held by him, from " prudential motives," a minister ought to ab- 
stain. No decision was given respecting the occasional commu- 
hion of private members. 


Bethel Church, South Carolina, Oct. ISth, 1798. 

The session was opened by Rev. S. C. Caldwell, the last 
moderator, with a sermon from Philippians ii., 12th and 13th, and 
the Rev. Francis Cummins was chosen moderator. The Pres- 
bytery of Concord reported new members, Wm. C. Davies, from 
South Carolina Presbytery ; and by ordination, George Newton and 
Samuel Davies : the Presbytery of Union reported Samuel G. 
Ramsey by ordination ; the Presbjrtery of Hopewell reported the 
death of John Springer. 

Inquiries were made about the edition of Doddridge's Rise and 
Progress ; no satisfactory information was obtained. Rev. Ed- 
ward Crawford, who was suspended in 1797, as being member 
of the Independent Presbytery, appeared ; and having made suita- 
ble concessions and received an admonition from the chair, was 
ceived as a member of Synod and a member of Abingdon Pres- 

Charges which had been brought against Rev. Hezekiah Balch, 
by the old session of Mount Bethel, before Union Presbytery, and 
by them referred to Synod, were read : The 1st charge accused 
Mr. Balch of having held an election for elders in Mt)unt Bethel 
Church, soon after the first meeting of the Presbytery of Union, 
while the congregation was vacant, against the will and desire of 

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the old session : and refusing the privilege of toting to any who 
had not signed a call for himself. The 2d charge accused him of 
intruding on the congregation the first Sabbath after his return 
from Philadelphia, and preaching without leave of session, while 
they had two young men engaged and there, on that day : and 
also ordaining elders against the express order of the existing ses- 
sion ; and also for persisting to preach in the congregation, dd 
charge — " We charge Mr. Balch for deviating from the truth, by 
denying in the Assembly, that he ever said in Presbytery, August, 
1796, that he meant the same by the word transfer as impute. 
Also for denying in the Assembly that he ever held that there was 
not a covenant made with Adam ; for proof of which, see the As- 
sembly's judgment on his creed. And that he did hold there was 
not a covenant made with Adam.** 

The 4th charge accused Mr. Balch of falsehood in denying 
what he had said in a sermon about original sin, and of charging 
his accusers with drunkenness, &c. , 

5th Charge. — " We charge Mr. Balch for saying since his re- 
turn from the General Assembly, that he was fifty thousand times 
stronger in belief of that definition of holiness (alluding to the 
creed) than he was before he went away. For those expressions 
we give Josiah Temple and Alexander Galbraith as evidence ; and 
that that definition of holiness was pointed out as erroneous by 
the General Assembly, we refer you to the judgment on his 

Charges were brought against Mr. Balch by two other indivi- 
duals, of minor importance. 

Mr. Balch brought charges against the old session, for using 
violence towards him, by driving him from the meeting-house ; and 
for not keeping their word, &c. 

Synod judged on the first and second charges, that the election 
of the elders after the rising of the commission (held at Mount 
Bethel) was irregular; and that Mr. Balch. is highly censurable 
for ordaining them so disorderly and schismatically ; and that he 
was imprudent in preaching in the house to but a part of the con- 
gregation. Respecting Mr. Batch's charges against the elders, 
the Synod decided, — That the elders " had blameably violated " 
their promise in not withdrawing certain civil suits ; and were 
highly censurable for interrupting Mr. Balch in time of worship, 
and driving him out of the house ; and that one of the elders had 
improperly used the name of God, for which he is highly censur- 

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As the other matters were not ready for trial, Synod postponed 
fiival sentence on these matters until the Extraordinary Synod, ap- 
pointed to be held at Little Britain, on the second Tuesday of Feb- 
ruary, 1799, for the purpose of attending to all the charges and all 
matters of difficulty. 


Little Britain, Rutherford Co., N. C, 13^A Feb., 1799. 

Synod was opened by the moderator, Francis Cummins, with a 
sermon from Titus iii., 10, 11. Present thirteen ministers and 
seven elders. 

About thirty folio pages of evidence on the three remaining 
charges against Mr. Balch, for and against them, had been taken 
by a committee, and were read in Synod. Mr. Balch was heard 
in his defence ; and Mr. Galbraith was heard for those who had 
accused him : and both professed they had nothing more to say in 
the case. 

The Synod decided on the 3d and 4th charges brought by the 
session, that they were not sustained by the evidence. On the 5th 
charge Mr. Balch acknowltdged that he had expressed himself as 
charged, and that his only objection was, it was not strong enough ; 
" instead of fifty thousand times, he would say five hundred thou- 
sand times." Whereupon " the Synod, after mature deliberation, 
jvdgey that Mr. Balch has acted with duplicity in expressing him- 
self as laid down in the charge, considering the judgment of the 
Assembly, and his submission to that judgment." 

The two other charges were pronounced unsustained. 

The Synod proceeded to pronounce sentence on Mr. Balch : 
" Do hereby suspend him from the exercise of his office as a mi- 
nister of the gospel, and refer him to the Presb3rtery of Union, to 
which he belongs, who will be adequate to the removal of the 
suspension, when reformation on the part of Mr. Balch shall open 
the way." They also pronounced the sentence of suspension 
from the office of elder and the^'conmiunion of the church upon 
four of the elders who had appeared against Mr. Balch, for the 
impropriety and irregularity of their course ; also the sentence of a 
public reprimand on two others who appeared ; and that of a pri- 
vate reprimand on two others, as not having exhibited a proper 
spirit. A conunittee was appointed to repair to Mount Bethel, 
and conmiunicate the sentence and administer the admonitions. 

On the sentence being read, Mr. Galbraith, who appeared in the 

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name of the session, expressed his submission Mr. Balch asked 
till the next day for consideration. The next day Mr. Balch asked 
a re-hearing, which was refused, as, in the judgment of Synod, 
there did not appear to be sufficient cause. 

After a session of six days, the record of which, with the eiri- 
dence, covers about forty-one foUo pages, the session closed with 
the following minutes : 

" The Rev. Hezekiah Balch read the following paper, which he 
requested to be entered on the minutes, viz : To the Rev. S3rncMl 
of the Carolinas : As I do not wish to do anything that may have 
the least appearance of obstinacy, I do cheerfully submit to your 
judgment ; at the same time solenmly declaring that I am not con- 
scious of anything, in the matter referred to, more than impru- 
dence, which I hope I shall always be ready to acknowledge, as 
far as I can without injury to my conscience or the truth. I hum- 
bly request that this, my answer, may be entered on your minutes. 

" I am yours, 
(" Signed,) " Hezekiah Balch." 

" The parties having both submitted to the judgment of S3rnod, 
received a suitable admonition from the moderator." "At the 
request of Mr. Balch, Mr. Galbraith and he shook hands in the 
presence of Synod in testimony of their personal affection to and 
cordial wishes for the welfare of each other, and hopes of a per- 
manent friendship hereafter." And the Extraordinary Session 


Hopewell Church, October 3lst, 1799. 

Rev. Francis Cummins opened the sessions vrith a sermon from 
Luke xiii., 22 ; and James McRee was chosen moderator. 

Four new names appear on the list of Orange Presbytery as 
ordained either in the year '97 or '98 ; the list of '97 was lost with 
records ; and in '98 the list is not given. The four were William 
T. Thomson, WilUam Paisley, John Gillespie, Samuel McAdo, 
and Robert Tate. The Presbytery reported also Mr. John An- 
derson, from another Presbytery. 

Several cases came before Synod, by overture or request, con- 
cerning marriages within the forbidden degree of relationship : one 
respecting a man marrjring his former wife's half-brother's widow ; 

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— dismissed, as not within the prohibited degrees : one of a man 
who had married his deceased wife's sister's daughter, — laid over 
till the matter could come before the Assembly, for a general rule 
on such subjects : and one of a man who had married his former 
wife's sister, and had with her been under suspension for some 
time, — ^laid over. 

The case of Mr. Bowman, who had been suspended by the 
Abingdon Presbytery, for unsoimd doctrine, was taken up ; and, 
after hearing Mr. Bowman's explanations, the Synod reversed the 
sentence, and addressed an affectionate letter to the Presbytery. 
The subject of dispute was the extent and manner of the offer of 
the Gospel — Mr. Bowman using the phrases of Dr. Hopkins, and 
his views of Election, which were disagreeable to his brethren, 
and, though not altogether agreeable, yet not condemned by 

This year four of the Presbyteries presented a report of their 
preachers, with their places of preacing, which may interest the 

Presbytery op Orange — 14 members. 

Henry Pattillo, Grassy Creek and Nutbush. 

David Caldwell, Buffalo and Alamance. 

Colin Lindsay, without charge. 

William Moore, Upper and Lower Hico. 

William Hodge, wiUiout charge. 

Samuel Stanford, Black River, and Brown Marsh. 

Angus McDiarmid, Barbacue, Bluff, McCoy's. 

James H. Bowman, Eno, and Little River. 

William F. Thompson, New Hope. 

John Gillespie, Centre, Laurel Hill, and Raft Sw|imp. 

William D. Paisley, Union, and Lower Buffalo. 

Samuel McAdo, Speedwell and Haw River. 

John Anderson, without charge. 

Robert Tate, South Washington and Rockfish. 
Licentiates — ^John Rankin, Robert Foster, Andrew Caldwell, 
and Edward Pharr. Candidates — Daniel Brown, Ezekiel B. 
Currie, John Matthews, Duncan Brown, Murdock McKillan, Mal- 
colm McNair, Hugh Shaw, and Murdock Murphy. They have 
ordained William McGee; — ^have licensed Barton Stone, — ^and 
dismissed them both to connect themselves with the Presbytery of 

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Presbytery of South Carolina — 18 ministers. 

Joseph Alexander, Bullock's Creek. 

John Simpson, Good Hope, and Roberts. 

James Templeton, Nazareth. 

Francis Cummins, Rocky River. 
Robert McCuUock, Catholic and Purity. 

James W. Stephenson, Indianstown and Williamsburgh. 

John Brown, Waxhaws. 

Robert Wilson, Long Cane. 

William Williamson, Fairforest. 

Robert B. Walker, Bethesda. 

David E. Dunlap, Columbia. 

Samuel W. Yongue, Lebanon and Mount Olivet. 

John Foster, Salem. 

James Gilleland, Bradoway. 

John B. Kennedy, Duncan's Creek and Little River. 

George E. Macwhorter, Bethel and Beersheba. 

Andrew Brown, Bethlehem and Cane Creek. 

John B. Davies, Fishing Creek and Richardson. 
They have three licentiates, — George Reid, William G. Ros- 
borough, and John Couser : and two candidates, — High Dickson 
and Thomas Neely. 

Presbytery of Concord — 15 ministers. 
Samuel E. McCorkle, D.D., Thyatira. 
James Hall, Bethany. 
. James McRee, Centre. 
David Barr, Philadelphia. 
Wm. C. Davies, Olney. 

Samuel C. Caldwell, Sugaw Creek and Hopewell. 
James Wallis, Providence. 
Joseph D. Kilpatrick, Third Creek and Unity. 
Lewis F. Wilson, Concord and Fourth Creek. 
Humphrey Himter, Goshen and Unity. 
John M. Wilson, Quaker Meadow and Morgantown. 
John Carrigan, Ramah, and Bethpage. 
John Andrews, Little Britain. 
Samuel Davies, Mamre. 
George Newton, Swannanoe and Rim's Creek. 
They have one candidate, Thomas Hall. 

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Union Presbytery— 4 members. 

Samuel Carrick, the Fork and Knoxville. 
Robert Henderson, Westminster and Hopewell. 
Gideon Blackburn, Eusebia and New Providence. 
Samuel G. Ramsey, Ebenezer and Pleasant Forest. 
It would have been gratifying, if the other Presbyteries had made 
a return, that we might know the places in which the rtwiisters of 
the Synod labored at the close of the last century ; with all the 
candidates, vacancies, and licentiates ; a reference and compari- 
son would be advantageous to the present generation. 

On petition, the Presbytery of South Carolina was divided, and 
Sroad River made the dividing line. The members on the north- 
east side of the river, viz., Joseph Alexander, Robert McCuUock, 
James W. Stephenson, John Brown, Robert B. Walker, David E. 
Dunlap, Samuel W. Yongue, John Foster, George E. Macwhorter, 
and John B. Davies, to constitute the first Presbytery cf South 
Carolina, to meet at Bullock's Creek, on the first Friday of Feb- • 
ruary, 1800, and Rev. Joseph Alexander to preside, or the senior 
member in his absence. And the members on the south-west 
side, viz., Joseph Simpson, James Templeton, Francis Cummins, 
Robert Wilson, Wm. Wilhamson, James Gilleland, John B. 
Kennedy, and Andrew Brown, to be known as the Second Pres- 
bytery of South Carolina^ to hold its first meeting at Fair Forest, 
on the first Friday of February, 1800. The Rev. John Simpson 
to preside, or in his absence the senior member. The first named 
Presbytery to keep the records of the past, furnishing to the 
second such extracts as they may need. 

Synod resolved to hold its annual meetings, hereafter, in Octo- 
ber, commencing the first Thursday. 


Sugaw Creek, Oct. 2d, 1800. 

Synod was opened by Rev. James McRee, with a sermon from 
Ist Tim. iv., 16. The Rev. John Brown was chosen moderator. 
The Rev. James S. Adams and Thomas Price, of the Indepen- 
dent church, being present, were invited to seats as corresponding 

It appearing, that the letter, on the subject of the difficulties 
attending marriages in. affinity, which was prepared for the last 
Assembly, failed to reach the Assembly ; a conunittee was appoint- 
ed to drs^ another this meeting. 

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From the report of Orange Presbytery, it appeared, that the 
Presbytery had conditionally suspended Colin Lindsey, and had 
dismissed Wqi. Hodge, Samuel McAdo, and Mr. John Rankin, to 
go to the West. An overture for the purpose of conmiencing a 
correspondence with other religious denominations in the State, 
about petitioning the legislature for the emancipation of the slaves, 
on the principle that all children of slaves bom after a fixed time, 
shall be free, which was brought in last meeting of Synod was 
taken up and disposed of by the following report, which was adopted : 
" Your committee report, that though it is our ardent wish that the 
object contemplated in the overture should be obtained ; yet, as it 
appears to us that matters are not yet matured for carrying it for- 
ward, especially in the southern parts of our States, your com- 
mittee are of opinion that the overture should now be laid aside ; 
and that it be enjoined upon every member of this Synod to use 
his inflwnce to carry into effect the directions and reconmienda- 
tions of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia, and those ad- 
ditionally made by the General Assembly, for the instruction of 
those who are in a state of slavery, to prepare them the better for 
a state of freedom, when such shall be contemplated by the legis- 
latures of our southern States." 

" The S)mod considering the importance and necessity of carry- 
ing on the missionary business, — ^that the Rev. James Hall has 
been appointed by the General Assembly to the Natchez, and 
ought, if possible, to have company, — determined to send with 
him two members, viz., the Rev. Messrs. James H. Bowman and 
William Montgomery, who are directed to spend eight months, if 
convenient and they find it expedient, in that country and places 
adjacent ; conmiencing their mission about the 15th instant : and 
for the support of these missionaries the Synod itself to give them 
thirty-three and one-lhird dollars per month from the time they 
engage in the work; they rendering a regular accoimt of all 
moneys received by them during their mission." ( The reason for 
passing the subject of missions for a few years is nowhere given,) 
Overture from the First Presbytery of South Carolina. — " In 
case of fornication, will an acknowledgment before the church 
session, and reported to the congregation, be sufllcient ?" Answered 
in the negative. 

A pastoral letter on the subject of domestic missions was pre- 
pared and sent to the Presbyteries to be laid before the congrega- 

Ret. Heaekiah Balch brought a complaint against the Presby- 

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lery of Abingdon for having ordained Mr. Witherspoon 'in Mount 
Bethel church before they had settled their money accounts with 
himself; and also because Mr. W. held the following sentiments, 
as expressed in a public sermon : ** 1st. That Jesus Christ is not 
the object of faith. 2d. That the justification of a sinner through 
the atonement of Christ is an act of justice. 3d. That the justifi- 
cation of a sinner through the righteousness of Christ, is not as 
wholly an act of God's free grace, as if there had been no atone- 
ment made. 4th. That there was no difierence between saving 
faith and historical faith, only in degree of evidence." 

Trial of the complaint was ordered for next meeting of Synod. 

On petition from Hezekiah Balch and others, a new Presbytery 
was set ofi", to be known by the name of Greenville, to consist 
of Rev. Messrs. George Newton, Samuel Davis, Heaekiah Balch, 
and John Cossan, to meet at Swannanoe church, on the third 
Tuesday of November next, and Mr. Nev^rton to presi(fe and 
preach ; and that Messrs. John Bowman and Stephen Bovelle, ^ 
with their congregations, be attached either to the Abingdon or 
Greenville Presbytery, as they may choose. 


Fishing Creek, October Isty 1801. 

Synod was opened by Rev. John Brown, with a sermon from 
Rom. xi., 13 ; and William Montgomery was chosen moderator. 

The Presbytery of Orange reported they had removed the con- 
ditional suspension of Colin Lindsey, dismissed the Rev. John 
Anderson to the first Presbytery of South Carolina : that they had 
deposed Robert M'CuUoch, and ordained William Rosborough ; 
the Presbytery of Concord, that they had suspended Rev. David 
Barr ; th^ Presbytery of Greenville, that they had ordained John 
Bowman and dismissed him, and had ordained Stephen Bovelle. 

** The reports of our missionaries to the Natchez were called for 
and read, together with some other papers relating to that business. 
The Synod were happy to find, that by the blessing of Divine 
Providence, the good consequences of that mission appear to have 
far exceeded their most sanguine expectations. The missionaries 
received the cordial thanks of the house for thtir prudence, zeal, and 
diligence, in the execution of the important duties assigned them." 

The case of the man who had married his wife's sister's daugh- 
ter, and was put under discipline by the Synod at its session in 
1789, was taken up, and after much consideratioa the Synod 


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adopted the following : " This Synod so far rescind their former 
judgment, as to leave it to the church session of tht congregation 
to which Mr. Latham belongs, to do as they think prudence and 
duty may direct them ; keeping carefully in view the glory of God, 
and the peace and happiness of the church in those parts." 

The complaint of Mr. Balch against the Presbytery of Abingdon 
was taken up. On the first complaint (see last session) the Synod 
judged that4he Presbytery ought, at the time Mr. Balch presented 
his claim against the people, or at some other convenient season, 
to have endeavored to bring the matter to a proper adjustment ; 
and also that it was neglect, if not unfriendly, in Mr. Balch, not to 
have presented his claims earlier, for a fair adjustmeH. 

On the complaint and charges against Mr. Witherspoon (see 
last session), the action was as follows : Having heard Mr. With- 
erspoon esplam the first specification that, he meant " the immedi- 
ate object of faith ; Ae Scriptures, or the report of the Apostles 
about Christ was the immediate objecty the Synod do judge — that 
the young man's mode of expression was imhappy and unguarded ; 
yal it appear* to this Synod, that the Presbjrtery may probably 
have had satisfactory testimony of his orthodoxy on that particu- 
lar." On the second specification, Mr. Witherspj)on said, he used 
the expression, ** and well remembers that he added, it was also an 
<ict of mercy ; that it was mercy as it respected the sinner, but 
justice as it respected God, who passed the act ; that the atone- 
ment answered the demands of justice, and laid the ground for the 
tct to pass in justice." Synod judged — ^*/Mr. Witherspoon's 
phrase, that justification, as it respects the atcmement, is an act of 
justice, may be explained in a good sense." On the third specifi- 
cation, Mr. Witherspoon said, he had read in a work of Mr. Ed- 
wards, borrowed of Mr. B. — " that the justification of a sinner is 
:as wholly an act of God's free grace as if there had been no atone- 
ment," and that he had expressed a doubt on the matter, that the 
atonement might thereby be superseded. The Synod passed by 
what m^gU have been said in private by Mr. Witherspoon, and 
judged,'"** inasmuch as Mr. Witherspoon appears to have held, and 
still to hold, that the justification of a sinner is not wholly an act 
of grace, or not as wholly a« if there had been no atonement, the 
Presbytery ought not to have proceeded to oidain Mr. Wither- 
spoon, without endeavoring to bring him to a right view of the doc- 
flrine." On the fourth specification, after hearing Mr. W.^ expla- 
nation, the Synod judged, " that Mr. Witherspoon's proposition is 
.^Hottrue; yet he has explained himself consistently with truth; 
and thdt the Presbjiery oujjiit to have endeavored to bring him to 

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a mode of expression more consistent with his own ideas, as hie 
propositi<p and explanation appear to be very different." 

" Upon the whole, this Synod, sorry to find that the brethren 
over the mountains still retain sc^much of die spirit of warm oppo- 
sition, DO SOLEMNLY RECOMMEND to Mr. Balch, and those who 
apft opposed to him, to pray for and endeavor to exercise more of 
that spint^pf, meekness and brotheriy kindness which the gospel so 
frequently recommends to us, and endeavor to cultivate friendship 
with each other. And further, the S3mod recommend to the Pres- 
bytery of Abingdon a more strict regard to our standards of doc- 
trine and discipline, especially in introducing young men to the 
ministry of the gospel." " The parties acceded to the judgment." 
The Synod passed orders, for the purpose of bringing the sub- 
ject of missions before all the congregations ; and for obtaining 
collections from them all for the support of missionaries. 

A petition from the congregations of Greenspring and Sinking 
Spring, with a remonstrance against the proceedings of Abingdon 
Presbytery, in ordaining Mr. Bovelle pastor of Sinking Spring, in 
the peculiar case of the congregation, particularly that there was so 
strong an opposition to him. After much time spent in hearing 
papers produced by the Presbytery and Mr. Bradley, the represent- 
ative of the congregation, the Synod judged that the Presbytery 
** acted incautiously " in ordaining Mr. Bovelle in the circum- 
stances ; and after appointing a committee to take the sense of the 
congregation on the continuance or discontinuance of the connex- 
ion and to lay the result before the Presbytery, who are to act. 
accordingly, they say — " And further, this Synod do seriously and 
solemnly, and with all the authority which they possess as a judi- 
cature of the church of Christ, recommend to the ministers and 
people beyond the mountains, and espedally to the people of Sink- 
ing Spring and Greenspring congregation«, to seek peace and pur- 
sue It. brethren, live peaceably among yourselves ! Let 
broilierly love continue. See that ye fall not out by the way." 
The Presbytery of Greenville was directed to hold a meeting t)n 
the second Tuesday of February, to receive the report of the. com- 
mittee and to determine the case. 

The Rev. William Montgtjpiery, of Presbytery of Hopewell, 
and Mr. John Matthews, a Ecentiate of Oiange Presbytery, were 
appointed missionaries to the Mississippi Territory, from the 15th 
of November, to act as long as they shall judge c^mvieoMilit. 
Thomas Hall, a licentiate of Concord Presbytery, was appointed 
to itinerate through the Carolinas and Georgia, for the S{»ce (d 
eight months. 

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Tennessee is the daughter of North Carolina, having been in 
ihe chaHereaTwnnds of the colony, and also reckoned a part of the 
independent confederated State, Vtf'] \}}^ year 1791, when she was 
reckoned one of the territories of the United States ; and having 
received many of its earliest settlements and strongest reinforce- 
mentsfrom the old North State, and from the original stock in Ire- 
land and their descendants in the Middle States. The beantifhl 
fieldip along the Holston and Clinch, and the charming valleys, al- 
lured the early emigrants by the same inducements as charmed and 
captivated the wander^^ from Ireland and Pennsylvania, to fix their 
abodes between the Yadkin and the Catawba. "^ 

The phrases — *^ weslq^ cciihties'^-^^tliOTiItains " — ^^ mountain 
men " — ^^ Washington County," as ased during the invasion of 
the Carolinas, by Hie "King's forces, had reference to sections of 
country now in, or bordering upon the State of Tennessee. Fergu- 
son was in pursuit of the soldiers of these regions, when he visited 
Rutherford county, and sent his insulting message; and on the 
Wataga, the forces began to assemble that gave him the fatal an- 
swer at King's Mountain. 

The troubles and trials of the first settlement we can scarcely 
glance at, nor in the present connection is it necessary, they being 
in kind and cifcumstances altogether similar to those of the pioneers 
of the western part of the motiier State, with this only exception, 
they were farther removed from market, and from the influence of 
/ royal authority either in church or state. The wide ranges for cat- 
tie and for game, were the first inducements to settle on the Hols- 
"^-v^on ; and the time of the first cabin and the name of the pioneer 

.^ will probably never be known. Next to this influence, was the 
4>olicy of giving bounty for military service, in wild lands ; and 

/ Carolina gave a value to the forests of her western wilds by re- 
warding the labors and exposure of her sons, with titles to lands, 
that jnight become a home p them or their descendants. So rapid 
was the influx of enterprising men^ particularly about the close of 
the Elevolutionary war, that an ^ort was made in the years 

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1784r-6, to form a State by the name of Franklin. This movement 
waspremature rather than micalled for; and in 1791, a territory 
was set off, and idtimately a state was organized by the najjae^^of 
, Ten nessee ^Jthe-iwUap appellation of the principal river. Meck- 
TenSurg, v^wan, Orange and Granville Counties, North Citolina, 
sent forth CTowds of emigrants, and nmnerous ministers in their tram?^ 
TBeTamily of the Polks, so numerous and so noted in the time of 
the Revolution, all but one branch, emigrated, and cast their lot in 
-with the bold spirits that sought a home in the great valley of the 
Mississippi. The old Carolina names are numerous in Tennessee. 

To the great crowds from Caiolina were joined many families of 
the Scotc hjirish race from Virginia, and from Pe nnsylv ania and 
New JerseyT^hese collected families of the same race, but differ- 
efitrpafts^orthe United States, gave a tone to the rising population 
of the State, which all the influx of other i^aces from other regions 
has only modified. The S^pnt(^[i-Tr;gh i^j^^ tViPJrjjl^gp^nflnnfg may not 
nnwbfi a majnr jty in the Stat e ; they may perhaps be a minority ; 
but the character impressed by'their predecessors will remain for 
ages, perhaps for ever — enterprise, independence, and a desire for 
improvement. The church, the school-house, and the college, grew 
up with the log cabins ; and the principles of religion were pro- 
claimed, and the classics taught where glass windows were unknown, 
and books were carried in bags upon pack-horses. 

The first minister of religion, that is known to have preached in 
Tennessee, was-a Presbyteri an by th e.jiamc-^'Ciiniming, from Vir- 
ginia, who accompanied the expedition from Carolina against the 
Cherokees in 1776. As he passed through the Holston settlements, 
he preached in the forts and stations, those places of defence and of 
instruction, and, for a time, of public worship. Among the Scotch- 
Irish that settled West Pennsylvania, Carolina, Virginia, and enter- 
edlEe^vrtMerness of. Tennessee, and were gathered into forts and 
stations, so often made the opportunities of dissipation, it was no 
uncommon thing for those gatherings to be improved for instruct- 
ing children, and for seasons of religious worship. Mr. Cummins 
did not remain long in Tennessee, neither did he organize* any 
churches at that time. 

The first minister that took his abode in Tennessee, was the Rev. 
Samuel Doak ; and as he is identified with the history and progress 
of sound learning and religion in North Carolina, west of the Blue 
Ridge, a few particulars concerning h^ early training and the la- 
bors of his maturer years cannot be improper. His parente, Sam- 
uel Doak and Jane Mitchell, emigrated very young from the North 

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of Ireland, and took theif abode in Chester count}', Pennsybraiya. 
At the time of their marriage, they were both members of ilie 
church ; and soon after that Qvent they emigrated to Virginia, and 
settled in Augflsta county, in the bounds of New Providence con- 
gregation. They were both of that party called the Old Side in dis- 
tinction from that called the New Side, which two then divided the 
Presbyterian church. Their son, Samuel, was bom August, 1749. 
He remained with his parents, and worked on the farm till he was 
sixteen years old. At that time he was admitted member of the 
chiu'ch in full communion ; and soon after commenced a 'course of 
classical study with Mr. Robert Alexfiinder, who resided about two 
miles from his father's house. This grammar-school was soon after 
removed two or three miles further, to about the place where the 
Seceder meeting-house, called Old Providence, now stands. The 
school was taught by a Mr. Edmondson, who afterwards studied 
medicine. About this time the school came more immediately 
under the charge of the pastor, the Rev. John Brown, who having 
served the church of New Providence some forty-four years, re- 
moved to Kentucky, and lies buried near Pisgah church. By Mr. 
Brown the school was removed to Pleasant Hill, within about a 
mile of his dwelling, and about the same distance north of the vil- 
lage of Fairfield. While here, Mr. Ebenezer Smith, the brother of 
John B. and Samuel Stanhope Smith, was employed as teacher. 
A Mr. Archibald succeeded Mr. Smith, and William Graham suc- 
ceeded Mr. Archibald. At this time the Presbytery of HanoVer 
adopted the school. From near Fairfield it was removed to Timber 
/ Ridge ; and from thence to near Lexington ; and is now Washing- 
ton College, in Lexington, Virginia. 

In Oct., 1773, Samuel Doak entered Princeton College and re- 
mained two years. Returning to Virginia he was married to Esther 
Montgomery, sister of the Rev. John Montgomery, whose family 
belonged to New Providence; and shortly after became tutor in 
Hampden Sydney College iji Prince Edward county. Here, for 
about two years, he pursued the study of divinity under the direc- 
tion of the Rev. John B. Smith, the President of the College. 
Being licensed by the Hanovet Presbytery, after preaching in Vir- 
ginia for a short time, he removed to the Hdlston settlement, in 
what is now Sullivan county, Tennessee. Not finding this a suita- 
Utt field for the designs of education he Tiad in view, he removed in 
the course of a year or two to the settlement on Little Limestone, 
in Washington county, purchased a farm, and on his own land built 
a small church, and log college, and founded Salem' congregation. 

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His institution was incorporated by the Legislature of North Caro- 
lina, in 1788, under the name of " Martin Academy;" and is the 
first literary institution that was established in the great valley of 
the Mississippi. la 1796 it was changed into a college^ and receiv- 
ed the name of " Washington." From the incorporation of Martin 
Academy till 1818, Mr. Doak continued the President of the Insti- 
tation ; and his elders of Salem congregation formed a part of the 
Boird of Trustees. He procured for his institution a small library 
in Philadelphia, caused it to be transported in sacks on pack-horses, 
across the mountains, and thus formed the nucleus of the library at 
Washington College. The brick buildings overlook the site of the 
log college ; but long must it be before the enlarged institution can 
equally overshadow the miefulness of the log academy and college 
that for a time supplied the opportunities for education for ministers, 
lawyers and doctors, in the early days of Tennessee, and still is 
sending out its stream. 

Having organized a number of churches in the county in which 
he lived, also Bethel and Timber Ridge in Greene county, about 
the year 1818 he reagned the Presidency of Washington College 
in favor of his son, Rev. John M. Doak, M.D., and removed to 
Bethel. Here he opened an academy to prepare youth for college, 
and named it Tusculum ; and passed the remainder of his days in 
usefulness and honor. Under his son, Samuel W. Doak, the acade- 
my has grown into a flourishing college. Says a gentleman who , 
knew him well — ^** His praise is in all our churches. During the 
Revolutionary war he was a warm, decided and uniform friend to 
civil and religious liberty, took part in the defence of his country, 
was a member of the convention that in 1784-5 gave rise to tha 
insurrectionary state of Franklin ; was upon the committee that re- 
ported an article of its constitution, making provision for the support 
of learning ; and to the close of life was still its devoted servant, 
advocate, and patron. A rigid opposer of innovation in religious 
tenets ; very old school in all his notions and actions ; uncompro- 
mising in his love of the truth, and his hostility to error or heresy ; 
a John Knox in his character, fearless, firm, nearly dogmatical 
and intolerant ; but no one has be«n more useful to church or state, 
except it be Hall or Caldwell in N. C, or Waddell in South Caro- 
lina and Georgia. A volume would not exhaust the incidents of 
his life." 

About the same time that M. Doak settled in Tennessee, Rev, 
Samuel Houston, reared in the same congregation, and at the same 
school, took his residence in Washington county. After a few 

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years he returned to Virginia, and li?ed to a good old age in Rock- 
bridge county. Having been a soldier in the battle at Guilford 
Court-house, and ranking among the bravest of the brave, tiiere 
can be no doubt of his love of American liberty. While living in 
Tennessee he took an active part in public matters, and was a con- 
spicuous member of the Franklin convention. A brother and other 
connexions settled near Houston's station in Blount county ; and his 
co-emigrants formed Providence church at Maryville. The name 
of Houston is familiar in Texas. 

The Rev. Hezekiah Balch and Rev. Samuel Carrick came to Ten- 
nessee about the same time ; both were members of Hanover Pres- 
bytery. Mr. Balch from Pennsylvania, Donegal Presbytery, formed 
one of the original members of Orange, and Mr. Carrick had been 
ordained by Hanover Presbytery, in whose bounds he labored for a 
time. These gentlemen met undesignedly in 1789, in the settle- 
ment where Lebanon church now is. Mr. Carrick had sent an ap- 
pointment to preach, and on a short notice a great crowd assembled 
to hear the strange minister. Mr. Balch came that day. The place 
chosen for preaching was a large Indian mound at the junction of 
Holston and French Broad. Mr. Carrick courteously yielded the 
precedency to Mr. Balch as being the older man. After listening 
to the sermon, he observed " that he had selected the same subject, 
and as it was not yet, and could not be exhausted, he would still 
preach upon it." After preaching, the ordinance of Baptism was 
administered. Mr. Balch assisted in the organization of churches ; 
under his patronage Greenville College was founded and rose to 
usefulness. Mr. Carrick organized Lebanon church, and also the 
«hurch in Knoxville. He was the first President of Bloimt College 
in that place, and finished a life of usefulness in 1808, very sud- 
denly. For want of memoranda little can here be said of these 
men, whose lives afforded matter of great interest to the Christian 
public, and must hold a prominent place in a correct history of Ten- 
nesseie. Says a gentleman who knew him — ^^ Rev. Samuel Carrick, 
equally orthodox, and not less learned or devoted to the service of 
his master," — ^he is running a parallel with Mr. Doak, — " was yet 
more liberal, tolerant, and refined. He had a great deal of urbanity, 
much of the suaviter in mo^o, less of the fortiter in re, dressed neat- 
ly, behaved courteously, grave, polite, genteel, in short he was a 
model of an old-fashioned Southern gentleman, and had been evi- 
dently (as all Presbyterian clergymen of that day were, and ought 
still to be) well raised.^^ 

About the same time a son of the first minister of Sugar Creek, 

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after preaching for a time ia tke church of his father, removed to 
West Tennessee, and settled near where Nashville now is, on the 
Cumberland river. A man of fiiie talents and capable of close 
thought, he did the cause of religion much service. In the lat- 
ter part of his life he had some difficulties that hindered, for a 
time, his usefulness, hot which served to draw forth the friendly in- 
fluence and imqualified approbation of General Jackson, who was 
not unacquainted with Sugar Creek and its recollections. Mr. 
Craighead lies buried near the Hermitage. 

The above short notices are given merely to show the connection 
of the churches in Tennessee with those in Carolina and Virginia, 
to the first for the most emigrants, and to the second '^or most 
ministers; and also to say, that there are a variety of incidents con- 
nected with the first settlements, that must be, if preserved, of ex- 
ceeding interest to succeeding generations. 

Abingdon Presbytery was formed August, 1785, its first meeting 
being held at Salem. A well written history of that Presbytery, and 
those formed from it, would comprise a history of the struggles and 
tempests of the Presbyterian church, which were felt in all their 
force in Tennessee, before the surface of the ocean was agitated 
around Philadelphia, as will be seen by a reference to the minutes 
of the Synod of North Carolina, in the preceding chapter. 

We shall close this short chapter, by giving the names of the first 
trustees of three of the Colleges : — 

1st Washington College : — Rev. Messrs. Samuel Doak, Charles 
Cummins, Edward Crawford, Robert Henderson and Gideon Black- 
burn : — ^Messrs. Jonathan Cottom, Alexander Matthews, John Nelson, 
Henry Nelson (father of two preachers, Kelso Nelson and David 
Nelson), John McAllister and John Blois, who were elders of Salem 
church ; and Messrs. Joseph Anderson, John Sevier, Landon Carter, 
Daniel Kennedy, Leroy Taylor, John Tipton, Wm. Cooke, Archibald 
Roane, James Hamilton, John Rhea, Samuel Mitchell, Jesse Payne, 
James Aiken, Wm. Hott, Wm. Chester, David Deaderick and John 

2d. Of Blount College: — ^Rev. Samuel Carrick, President, 
Messrs. James White, Francis Alexander Ramsey, George McNutt 
and John Adair, elders in Mr. Carrick's churches; and Messrs. 
William Blount,* Daniel Smith, David Campbell, Joseph Anderson, 
John Sevifer, Alexander Kelly, Wm. Cooke, Willie Blount, Joseph 
Hamilton, Archibald Roane, Charles McClung, George Ruolstone 
and Robert Houston. 

3d. Ghreenville College : — ^Rev. Messrs. Hezekiah Balch, Samuel 

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Doaky James Balch, Samuel Carrick, Robert Henderson and Gideon 
Blackburn ; ami Messrs. A. Roan, Joseph Hamilton, Wm. Cooke, 
Daniel Kennedy, Laudon Carter, Joseph Harden, John Rhea and 
John Sevier. 

The efforts for Uterature and morals in Tennessee, are not sur- 
passed in any of the western or southwestern States, and they compare 
advantageously with any of her older sisters. There is much pure 
religion and vital goodness in Tennessee. 

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RBV. TtmUS HA£S: 315 



I^ELCHizEDEK was a king, and a priest of the Most High God. 
Abraham, the Father of the Faithful, led, for once at least, a military 
e3cpedition, and on his return from a complete victory received the 
blessing of the king of Salem, whom the Apostle set forth ws a type 
of Christ the Lord, tb« author and finisher of Faith. In the war of 
the American Revolution there were many young men to be found 
in the ranks of our armies, and in the prisons of the enemy, who, 
after hazarding their lives for their country, entered the ministry 
and spent their days in preaching the everlasting gospel of our Lord 
and Saviour Jesus Christ, — such as Hunter of Carolina, and Marshall, 
and Houston, and Lyle of Virginia. There were also many clergy- 
men that went with the armies to act as chaplains, and displaj^ed in 
the various dangers and exposures of the camp and a soldier's life, 
the cool collected bravery of men at peace with themselves and with 
their God, and engaged in a good cause, — such as McCaule of Cen- 
tre, afterwards of South Carolina, who was beside General Davidson 
when he fell at Cow an's Fo rd ; some of whom were made a sacrifice 
to their country's safety — as Rosborough of New Jersey. But there 
is not perhaps another instance of a man, a licensed preacher of the 
gospel, that took part in military expeditions, and commanded com- 
panies, and still retained the character and maintained the dimity 
and office of a minister of the gospel, beside that of James Hall of 
Iredell, the preacher and the soldier. There were some ministers 
that laid aside their office for a military command, and never re- 
sumed it, as Muhlenburg of Pennsylvania, and Thruston of Virginia. 
But James Hall performed both offices, a military commander and 
a preacher of righteousness ; was acceptable in bo^ as a young man, ' 
and died at an advanced age a minister of the gospel. Said Dr. 
Robina&n of Poplar Tent, " when a boy at school at Charlotte, I saw 
James Hall pass through the town, with his three-cornered hat and 
long sword, the captain at the head of a company, and chaplain of 
the regiment" An amalgamation of characters and offices justified 
4Bly by special emergencies, and to be successfully attempted only 
by few. Born, of Scotch-Irish parentage, at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 

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August 22d, 1744, and removed by them to Nortti Carolina, whea 
about eight years old, he grew up in the upper part of Rowan, now 
Iredell, in the bounds of the congregation to which he afterwards 
was pastor during his whole ministerial life of thirty-eight years. 

The first grants of land, in that part of the country, bear date 
about the time that the fiunily of Dr. Hall emigrated to Carolina, s^ 
may be teen from a grant in the possession of Col. Allison, whose 
tract was perhaps the second that was located. The name of Gran- 
ville,'by his deputy, is affixed. The settlements along Fourth Creek 
and South Yadkin, from which the congregations of Bethany, Tabor, 
Fourth Creek or Statesville, and Concord, were ultimately formed, 
all being called Fourth Creek for a length of time, were of the 
names of Harris, Alexander, Hill, Luckey, Bone, Eng, Patterson, 
Shnipe, Henry, Morrison, Johnson, McKnight, Stevenson, Watts, 
Hall, Boyd, Milligan, Adams, Scroggs, McLean, Allison, Purviance, 
Warson, Ireland, Sloan, McLelland, Potts, Snoddy, Murdock, Bell, 
and Ar.chibald. Coming from Pennsylvania here, these people 
naturally looked to the Synod of Philadelphia, and the Presbyteries 
of which it was composed, for their ministers ; and being many of 
them pious people, their " supplications" for ministerial labor ap- 
pear very early on the records of the Synod. In the year 1753, the 
following minute was made, viz. : — ^^ The supplications from Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina were considered, and the Synod orders 
Mr. McMordic to supply the vacancies in those parts for ten weeks, 
or longer if he find it needful, and that he pay a greater regard to 
the larger societies that have supplicated this Synod from time to 
time, and at the same time do what he can to promote the benefit 
of younger settlements, and that he set out the 1st of July next, and 
that Mr. Donaldson, in like manner, supply the same back parts, 
and continue there for ten weeks or as much longer as he thinks fit^ 
and that he shall set out the 1st of October. The Synod recom- 
mends it to Messrs. McMordie and Donaldson to show a special 
regard to the vacancies of North Carolina, especially betwixt the 
Atkin (Yadkin) and Catawba Rivers, in giving them a considerable 
part of the time they spend in those parts." This commission cov- 
ered not only Fourth Creek, but the neighborhoods that formed the 
old churches of Conoord Presbytery, all of which had been com- 
menced previous to this date. In J765, there is the following 
order — " That Mr. Donaldson supply the back inhabitants of Vir- 
ginia and North Carolina, at least three months next fall ; and that 
he in particular pay a regard to the supplications that were laid be- 
fore this Synod by some of these back inhabitants. That Mr. Wil- 

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son supply them in like manner for three months next winter ; and 
Mr. McKennan for three months next spring." Considering the 
small number of preachers in the Synod, and the great number of 
vacancies requiring aid in Pepnsylvania, as well as south of the 
Potomac, this supply of nine months was liberal. In 1757 it was 
ordered, " That Mr. Millar supply the following settlements in order 
in the fall, each one Sabbath day, viz., Gather's (Thyatira), Osbom's 
(Centre), Morison's (Rocky River), Jersey's on Atkin, Buffler's, 
Hawfield's and Baker's settlements. And that Mr. Craig supply 
the same one Sabbath day in the spring." These Sabbaths, one in 
the fall and the other in the spring, were great days in the settle- 
ments, and people gathered from their dispersed homes and followed 
the preachers, eager to catch something that should be their scrip- 
tural food for the long abstinence to come. 

In the year 1755, we find in the minutes of the Synod of New 
York, that the brethren composing that energetic body, were not 
unmindful of the southern vacancies. Beside constituting the Pres- 
bytery of Hanover, they passed the following order, viz. : " Upon 
sundry petitions from various parts of North Carolina, setting forth 
their distressing circumstances for want of a preached gospel among 
them, and requesting help from this synod, Messrs. John Brainerd 
and Elihu Spencer are appointed to take a journey thither before 
winter, and supply the vacant congregations there, and in parts ad- 
jacent, for six months, or as long as they shall think necessary ; 
and the appointment for supplies for Mr. Spencer's congregation is 
referred till to-morrow." 

After the Synods of New York and Philadelphia were united, in 
the year 1758, the supply of the southern vacancies claimed their 
attention; missionaries were sent that were so acceptable, that 
numerous calls came up to Synod for them, to be located as settled 
pastors. In the year 1766 is the following minute, — ^^ a call for 
the Reverend Mr. Spencer from Cathy's settlement (Thyatira) and 
Fourth Creek, which was presented to him ; also a supplication for 
supplies from the inhabitants of North Carolina, living between the 
waters of Yadkin and Catawba rivers, and particularly for the re- 
moval of Mr. Spencer and Mr. McWhorter to settle among them." 
Then follow the applications from Bethel and Poplar Tent, New 
Providence and the Six Mile Spring, Hawfields, and Little River, 
and from Long Canes in South Carolina. ^^ In consequence of sun- 
dry applications from North Carolina ibr supplies, the Synod ap- 
pointed Messrs. Nathan Kerr, George DuflSeld, William Ramsay, 
David Caldwell, James Lattar, and Robert McMordie, to go there 

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as^on as they can conveniently, aiid each of them to tarry half a. 
year in these vacant congregations, as prudence may direct.** 

fourth Creek church was organized by the Mr. Elihu Spencer 
mentioned in the two preceding minutes, and embraced the inhabit- 
ants between the South Yadkin and the Catawba rivers. This toolc 
place some time in the year 1764, or early in the year 1765, when 
the bounds of all the congregations were settled. From all the 
effi>rts made for settled pastors, there was but one congregation* 
that of Rocky River, that could obtain any preaching except from 
missionaries, for many years ; and Fourth Creek had no regular 
pastor till James Hall, who grew up in the bounds, became their 
minister in 1778. From the records of Hanover Presbytery, it ap- 
pears that Mr. Craighead was directed by his Presbytery to supply 
Fourth Creek two Sabbaths, and Mr. James Hunt the same number 
of days in the year 1762. 

That these vacancies, some of them at least, expected i» con- 
tribute to the support of their ministers, appears from the minutes 
of the Synod in the year 1767. Besides mentioning the reception 
of petitions for supplies from Cathey's settlement (Thyatira), Long 
Canes, Indian Creek, and Duncan's Creek ; and motions for sup- 
plies for Edenton, Newbem, Fourth Creek, Upper Hico, Haw 
River, Goshen in the forks of Catawba, the south fork of Catawba, 
the forks of Yadkin and Salisbury ; the following record is made, 
viz. : " The £(^owing congregations in North Carolina, viz. : Sugar 
Creek, Fishing Creek, Bethel, the Jersey settlement, Centre congre- 
gation. Poplar Tent, and Rocky River, united in a petition for one 
or more of the Rev. Messrs. Spencer, Lewis, McWhorter, and 
James Caldwell, to be sent there, promising for their encourage- 
ment that the sum of eighty pounds be paid by any of these con- 
gregations in which he shall choose to spend half of his time, and 
another eighty pounds by the vacant congregations he shall supply." 
Neither of the ministers referred to was willing to accept the call, 
and as Mr. Craighead of Sugar Creek was dead, there was no set- 
tled minister south of the Yadkin for a few years. 

Secluded in the forests of Rowan, alike ignorant of the knowledge 
and the follies of the great world, James Hall, grew up under the 
watchful care of pious parents, and the instructions he could receive 
from tliese faithful and laborious missionaries, whose visits to the 
congsegation were, less often than welcome, about once a quarter. 
He was made familiar with the Bible and the Westminster 
catechism in his early days, and his mind stored with the best of 
truth before he pould appreciate the excellence of the truth itself, or 

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the motiyes of the pious paorents who so assiduously taugkt him. 
The Qoming of a missionary was an event of magnitude, an epoch 
in the current of time, in these Carolina settlements of Prolestant- 
Irish. * He V brought news from a far country, for Philadelphia, in 
those days, was at the distance of a horseback journey of two or 
three weeks, and no current of passengers in stages or rail cars, no 
daily or weekly mail, brought the latest information; he was 
messenger from friends and acquaintances left behind, or coming on ; 
he proclaimed the truth many were desirous of hearing, pouring in 
tiie oil of grace to the wounded spirit, coq^forting the bowed down ; 
he administered the ordinances, called the children to catechual in- 
struction, and visited the sick. Thi^ impressions made by these 
visitations were of the most happy and religious kjpd, and were 
followed by hopeful conversions. The asfore important matters of 
discipline and church order were particularly attended to during the 
excursions of the missionaries ; for instance, — in the records of the 
Synod of New York and Philadelphia, in 1756 — " The Synod more 
particularly considering the state of many congregaticms to the 
southward, and particularly North Carolina, and particularly the 
great importance of having those congregations properly organized, 
appoint the Rev. Messrs; Elihu Spencer and Alexander McWhorter, 
to go as our missionaries for that purpose j that they form societies, 
help them in adjusting the bounds, ordain elders, administer sealing 
ordinances, instruct the people in discipline, and iinally, direct them 
in their after conduct, particularly in what manner they shall proceed 
to obtain the stated ministry, and whatever else may appear useful 
or necessary for those churches, and the future settlement of the 
gospel among them.'' This mission was fulfilled to such entire 
satisfaction that these gentlemen were importuned to settle in 
Carolina ; and Mr. McWhorter was ultimately chosen president of 
the college erected at Charlotte. From the term of this visit, we 
may consider the bounds of the old churches in Orange and Concord 
Presbyteries as settled, and the sessions as generally duly organized. 
Previous to this the settlements acted independently in their religious 
matters. At this time numbers were united into one congregation. 
It was probably during this visit that Mr. Hall made profession of 
religion, as it is stated that he united with the church when he was 
about twenty years old. Of the exercises of his mind previously to 
that event little more is known than that he had been a subject of 
religious impressions, from term to term, commencing in his eighth 
year. In a paper drawn up by him in the year 1787, it appears that 
from his first entrance on a religious life, he wis diligent and faith- 
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^£a\ in self-examination ; thi^ his condiict, and motiyes, and feelings, 
were all often tested by the \yord of God. His enjoyments in 
religion were often sweet, and his hope of salvation strong. ** Not 
long,'* says he, " after my first eomforts, I felt a strong^ desire 
towarcb the ministry of the Gospel. Of this I coa'adered it in vain 
to think, when I took a view of my family circumstances. My 
' father, at that time aged, and in a declining state of health, my 
two eider brothers married, and my two yoimger brothers were in a 
' measure children — so that as a means, I was almost the only support 
of the family, which w^ in comfortable, hut not a£9uent circum- 
stanc^r It was, however^ my constant prayer to God, that he 
might, in some way, open a door in the course of his providence, 
that so I might obtain my wished-for object, even when I saw no 
prospect of an ans^\^. Alter about four years I communicated my 
"sentim^ts to my parents, whom, contrary to my expectations, I 
foui\d willipg t«k sufport m^ in a course of study." 

About the time he communicated his wishes to his parents, he 
e^lered jpto a solemn covenant with God to devote his whok life to 
the preaching of the go^el, if he could be suitably qualified by a 
proper preparatory education. 

After it was determined in the family that he should conmience a 
course of education for the ministry, a dangerous sickness, with 
other causes, delayed his actually entering upon his studies for 
about a year. During this interval an event, or train ^f events, oc- 
curred, which caused him bitterness of soul, and which led him ulti- 
mately to determine to spend his life an unmarried man, in direct 
opposition to that tenderness of heart, and affectionate disposition, 
he was known to possess firom his earliest boyhood, to his latest 
breath. Attending the wedding of a young firiend, he enjoyed to 
a high degree the company of an amiable, pious lady, in all the 
loveliness of youth, rendered more lovely by the excitement of the 
occasion. On his return home, his thoughts were so busied about 
this absent fair one, that he visits her, and frankly declares his 
attachment, and is made very happy in the anticipation of that 
union she permitted him to hope for. He seemed to have forgotten 
his devotion to the work of the ministry, and his projected educa- 
tion, in the ardor of his first love. As he said afterwards, *' he 
thought of nothing but the object of his affections, he saw in her 
piety and amiableness, every quality to make him happy, and he 
revelled in his anticipated felicity." But when he began to reflect 
how he was to dispose of himself for life, he called to mind his for^ 
mer purposes, and felt the difficulties in his path. His perplexities 

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R£V. 1AHB8 HALL. » 321 

increased upon reflection. One sabbath| after attending preaching, 
he walked out hy himself to indulge in meditation. He thought 
of &ia having devoted himself to God in the ministry, anJ the obli- 
gations of thai covenant he had voluntarily made and solemnly 
impotel upon himself, to preach the gospel during his wl^le life, 
if he couTd b^ prepared by a luitable education ; that Grod, on his 
part, had ratified the covenant by opening the way, unexpectedly, 
for his attaining the desired education ; and that he had now rashly 
and voluntarily declined from the object of his praya^ and desires, 
and had involved hiaoself in dii&culties from which he iftw no 
escape. As he was meditating on these things, his former back- 
slidings came up to his recollection one afl^r another, and rushing 
upon him like a mighty tosrent overwhelmed him with a sense of 
guilt His conscience goaded him with agonies ine3q)ressible. 
He stood in amaiement, and trembled under the stings of remorse. 
He was aftei^ards heard to say — ^that the experience of that day 
liad given him some conceptions of the sufferings that could be in- 
flicted on a lost soul by the remembrance of its foriner guilt, and 
that it might be intolerable. He sought an interview with the lady 
and stated the case to her, and by mutual consent, t&e matrimo- 
nial engagement was dissolved, and he returned to his former pur- 
pose to prepare for preaching the gospel, with an bundled and 
chastened spirit, less inclined to self-dependence, and more fearful 
of sinning against God. This was his first and htet efibrt towards 
the Patrimonial life* The scheipe of action he proposed to himself, 
and which was carried out by him through life, was not compatible 
with the duties of the head oi a family. He saw the wants of his 
countrymen ; he knew little of preachers but as travelling mission- 
aries; and his devotion to God to preach the gospel hU whole, lifej 
appeared to him to stand directly in the way of his performing the 
duties of a husband and a father. Had he been a married man he 
might have been more happy, and probably would have been ; he 
might have been as useful, and even more so ; but it would have 
be^ Qsefulness of a different kind, and probably very many that 
heard the gospel from his lips in his various long journeys, would 
never have seen his face. In his determination that no matrimo- 
nial engagements should be a barrier to his preconceived purpose 
of preparation for the ministry he is worthy of all praise ; and in 
his determination ta hold himself in readiness for a missionary life 
in the state in which he had grown to manhood, he is not lightly 
to be blamed when the vacancies and desolations, are surveyed by 


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the eye of faith and benevplence, and the little band of laboren are 
numbered up. 

In his Iwenty-sixth year he commenced the study of the classics, 
and made rapid progress, as his mind was matured, and his appli- 
cation unremitting. He had been accustomed to study by himseil^ 
and had acquired habits of mental applicaAon, while unaided by an 
instructor. When about seventeen years of age, a treatise on 
geometry fell in his way and excited his attention. He applied 
himself to study during his leisure from his daily avocations on the 
farm, till he became possessed of ttie principltes, and master of the 
contents. By the help of the plates he constructed a quadrairt witk 
which he amused himself and his friends by measuring the height 
of trees, and the distance of objects. The taste for the exact 
sciences acquired by him at this time, in the midst of the labois 
and toils of a farmer's life, remained with him through life. The 
mathematics were his favorite study, and such was his estimation 
of them, he could not be persuaded to think favorably of the intel* 
lectual powers of any man who lightly esteemed this branch of 
education, or consider his course of study liberal whose progress in 
mattiematics was small. 

He pursued his collegiate studies at Nassau Hall, Princeton, thai 
under the direction of President Witherspoon ; and his proficiency, 
particularly in tiie exact sciences, attracted the attention of that 
clear-sighted man. He took the bachelor's degree in the year 
1774, in his thirty-first year. Soon after. Dr. Witherq)oon ex- 
pressed his desire to have him employed in the college as teacher 
of mathematics. Such a proposition firom such a man was the 
highest eiicomtum. But however gratifying the offer of enq>loy- 
jnent by such a man as Dr. Witherspoon might have been to him, 
.the recollection of his early dedication to C^od for the ministry— of 
the mental agony he had endured, when, by his imprudent matrimo- 
nial engagement he had, to all appearances, thrown himself out of 
the way of preparation for the sacred office, and the already ad- 
vanced period of his life, together with the great necessity for 
nunisters of the gospel in North Carolina, forbade his connection 
with the college as a teacher. 

The theological reading of Mr. Hall was pursued under the di- 
rection of Dr. Witherspoon, that eminent minister and patriot, 
whose ^iriews in religion, morality and politics, were thoroughly im- 
bibed by his scholar. The Presbytery of Orange licensed him to 
preach the gospel as a probationer some time between the meeting 
of the general assembly in 1775, and the meeting in 1776 ; tradition 

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says in the spring of 1776. In the ^tioe loss of the records of the 
Presbytery of this date, we take the following minute from the 
records of the Synod of New York and Philadelphia, May 28th, 
177p. " A letter from the Presbytery of Orange was brought in 
and read, informing that they have, since the last Synod, licensed 
Messrs. Robert ArchibtAd, Thomas Harris McCaule, and James 
Hall, to preach the goqpel, and requested the Synod to send as 
many supplies as they can to the relief of the numerous vacancies 
in those parts.'* 

There were at this time the folfewing ministers in North Caro- 
lina, viz. : James Cabipbell, who commenced his labors among the 
Scotch on Cape Fear, 1766 ; his name appears on the roll of Synod 
in 1746, as member of Newcastle Presbytery: Hugh McAden, who 
visited Dvplin County, 1765, as a licentiate of Newcastle Presby- 
tery ; his name first appears on the roll of Synod as member of New- 
castle Presbytery, 1757 ; he was received into Hanover Presbytery, 
1769, October 4th. Henry Pattillo, licensed by Hanover Pres- 
bytery, in 1755, ordained 1758, and accepted a call from Hawfield, 
1765 : James Criswell, licensed by Hanover Presbytery, 1764, and 
was ordained pastor of Nutbush, Grassy Credt, and Lower Hico, 
1765 ; Davh) Caldwell, ordained by New Brunswidc Presbytery, 
1765, received into Hanover 1767, pastor of Buffalo and Alamance, 
1768 : Joseph Alexander, ordained by Hanover Presbytery, March, 
1768, as pastor of Sugar Creek, having been received as licentiate 
from Newcastle Presbytery. Hszeeiah James Balch, ordained by 
the Donegal, and reported to Synod 1770, pastor of Poplar Tent 
These were in connection with Orange Presbytery, which then ex- 
tended over North and South Carolina, and had in all twelve 
members, eight in North Carolina, and four in South Carolina. To 
these may be added Mr. James Tate, who was living in Wilming- 
ton, but not connected with the Presbytery. The congregations 
and neighborhoods that required the labors of a Presbyterian minis- 
ter, were more than five times that number. It is not wonderful) 
th^efore, that numerous invitations to hecaam pastor should be 
given to Mr. Hall ; and that his intention to pursue the study of 
divinity still longer before becoming a pastor, should be overruled 
by the pressing calls for the word of life. 

The neighborhoods composing Fourth Creek church, in the bounds 
of which he had passed his youth, persuaded him to take his resi- 
dence with them, to become their pastor. Some time previously the 
church had been divided, and into three distinct organizations ; one 
of which retained the name, the preadiing place being at Statesville 
the county seat, — one was called Concord, the place of preaching 

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about six miles west of Statesvyie, — ^the other Be&any, the preaching 
place about six miles east of Statesville. On the 8th of April, 1778, 
Mr. Hall was installed pastor of the united congregations of Fourth 
Creek, Concord and Bethany. There is no recoSrd of the time of his 
ordination ; it is probable the ordination took place at the time oi 
installatioji. In the records of the Synod of ^ New York and 
Philadelphia, there is no list of the ministers in Orange Presbyteiy, 
after 1774, till 1780; and for the years 1777, 1778, 1779, there 
is no report of any kind. Mr. Hall's name appears on the list giren 
for 1780. 

The names of the elders at Fourth Creek were James Barr, 
William Sterenson, John Stevenson, Andrew McEnzie, John 
Murdock, Mussentine Mathews and John McLelland. 

During the exciting scenes of the Revolution, in which he had 
been licensed and ordained, Mr. Hall held the office of pastor of 
these three congregations, which extended from South Yadkin to 
the Catawba, and some members of the congr^ation coming from 
beyond these rivers ; and after the Revolution he served them till 
the year 1790, when wishing to devote more time to the cause of 
domestic missions than could be consistent with so large a charge, 
he was released from his connection with Fourth Creek and Concord. 
His connection with Bethany continued till his death, July 2dthy 
1826, a period of twenty-six years. 

A full account of his actions during the Revolution would fill a 
volume ; his active, enterprising spirit would not let him be neuter ; 
his principles drawn from the Word of God and the doctrines of his 
church, and cultivated by Dr. Witherspoon, carried him with all his 
heart to defend the ground taken by the convention in Mecklenburg, 
May, 1775, and by the Continental Congress in 1776. He gave 
his powers of mind, body and estate in the cause of his country. As 
the citizens would assemble to hear news and discuss the politics of 
those trying times, and were making choice of the side they would 
•spouse, Mr. Hall was accustomed to meet with them, and addressing 
them, infused his own spirit and inflamed their love of liberty, and 
strengftened their purpose of maintaining their rights at all hazards. 
The tradition about him, in these cases, is that he was eminently 
successful ; and the fact that there was great unanimity in that sec- 
tion of country, in a measure the effect of his exertions, would of 
itself show that he was both influential and eloquent 

When the adjacent State, South Carolina, was overrun by the 
British forces, under Comwallisj Mr. Hall's spirit was stirred within 
him as he heard of the massacres, and plunderings, and battles, and 

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varied distretss and sufferings of the inhabitants of the upper part 
of the State, from the same stock as himself, of the same re- 
ligious creed, and holding the same general principles of govern- 
ment, and civil and religious liberty. He assembled his flock, 
and addressed them on the occasion. He painted to their view 
in a most thrilling manner the wrongs of his country, and the 
sufferings of their friends and countrymen in the neighboring state, 
and called upon them to take arms in their defence, the defence 
of all that was dear. A company of cavahry, composed of choice 
men, was immediately organized. By general consent he was 
demanded for their leader ; all his objections were overruled, and 
to encourage his countrymen to act rather than to talk, he ac- 
cepted the conmiand. In the year 1T79, he led them on an ex- 
pedition into South Carolina, of several months' continuance, 
performing the double office of Commander and Chaplain, and 
marched over a large part of the western section of the State. 

During this expedition two of his men were taken prisoners. 
As he could not recover tliem by force of arms, he made their 
case a subject of prayer, both in private, and in public, with his 
men. In a few days they rejoined the company, having made 
their escape. As their captors lay encamped one night on the 
banks of Broad River, in South Carolina, their sentinel at the 
door of the guard-house, their place of confinement, was observed 
to be drowsy ; they remaining quiet, he fell asleep. Stepping 
noiselessly over the soldier, as he lay with his gun folded in his 
arms, they run for the river. The noise of their plunge called 
the attention of the other sentries ; the alarm is giveii ; boats are 
manned for pursuit, but the active swimmers reach the opposite 
bank first, and escape their pursuers, to the great joy of the 
praying Captain and the company. 

Going one day on a reconnoitring expedition, accompanied by 
an officer of the company, his friend Mathews, as they emerged 
firom a dense forest into an open field, near to and in full view of 
a house, they observed some fifteen or twenty British dragoons 
around the house, some walking about, and some ready mounted. 
In a moment they observed the peril of their situation, from the 
number of the enemy, and the position of the house and open 
fields ; that it was as impossible to escape by flight, as reckless to 
make an attack on ten times their number, fully aware of their 
approach. They halted ; Mathews drew his sword, and turning 
in his saddle towards the wood, waves it as if summoning a com- 
pany to advance. The dragoons take the alarm, and dashing off 

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at full speed, were soon out of si^t, leaying our two (^cers to 
make good their retreat. 

On another occasion there was a call for a Volunteer conapanj, to 
break up a nest of tories on the rich lands of the Uwhanee RiTer, 
in Montgomery county, who were infesting the country greatly. 
Mr. Hall attended the meeting of the citizens assembled upon the 
occasion, and delivered them an address full of patriotism and 
feeling. At the close of his speech a greats number offered their 
services than were called for the expediuon. 

When it was necessary for the American forces to mardi into 
the Cherokee country, in Georgia, to quell the Indians, a company 
was raised in Iredell for that expedition, andiVIr. Hall went with 
his friends as chaplain to the army. During the expedition, which 
lasted about two p[ionths, the chaplain offered public prayers very 
regularly morning and evening ; but had but one opportunity of 
preaching. On that occasion he took his stand under a large shady 
tree ; the army, consisting of about four thousand men, was drawn 
up around him ; the soldiers brought from the neighboring woods, 
each a young sapling, or long branch of a tree, with all the foliage, 
and as they were drawn up around in close ranks, seating them- 
selves on the ground, and resting their shady branches upon the 
earth, they formed a dense shade, and under this novel shelter from 
the Sim listened to the sermon. In honor of that first go^>el ser- 
mon in the Indian territories, the adjacent country viras nanoed 
after the chaplain, Hall county, of which Gainsville is the seat of 

Mr. Hall possessed all the attributes necessary for a military 
commander. His fine person, his stature above six feet, his great 
muscular strength and action, rendered his appearance command- 
ing. His courage, both mdral and physical, undaunted, he vn» 
cool in council, intrepid in danger, and decided in action. His 
acquaintance with the mathematics, both scientifically and practi- 
cally, his great capability for mechanical pursuits and his acquaint- 
ance with the details, and his skill in the operations, enabled him 
to form bis plans with readiness and execute them with precisicm. 
His kind and tender feehng, and enthusiastic love of liberty, hav- 
ing the control of a fine voice and pleasing manner, together with 
his great attention to personal appearance, fitted him to gain and 
to hold the affections of men. His stem morality, undoubted piety 
and practical religion, carried everywhere with him, combined 
with an amiable disposition, called forth the reverence of the good 
and the respect of all. But he delighted not in the warlike camp 

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His mission was one of peace in the name of the Prince of peace. 
To encourage his congregations and his comitrymen to the defence 
of their rights of conscience and of person, he went with them 
into the midst of wars and fightings ; but he went always as the 
Christian man and minister ; and when that object was gained, he 
decUned military service when offered to him in high places. 

After the skirmish at Cowansford on the Catawba, between the^ 
forces of Comwallis and the North Carolina miUtia, in which his ^ 
fellow licentiate, Thomas H. McCaule, was at the side of Gen- y 
eral Davidson when he fell, Mr. Hall was singled out by Generrf'^^ 
Greene to be commissioned as Brigadier General, to fill the place 
of Davidson. But the proffered honor was declined, not through 
disaffection or timidity. A nobler feeling possessed the heart of 
Mr. Hall — the thought that there were others that could fill that 
post as well as himself, or better, while there were few indeed to 
act in thie cause of the gospel to which he had devoted his '' whole 

When the war of the Revolution was ended in the independence 
of the United States, Mr. Hall devoted himself, with imdivided 
energies and unwavering purpose, to his beloved work, the gospel 
ministry. The effects of the long and harassing vtrar upon the 
churches in the Carolinas were deplorable ; the regular ordinances 
of the gospel had been broken up — discipline neglected, — the 
preached word had become less valued ; some congregations mostly 
broken up, and the vices that ordinarily attend a camp, and are left 
by war, such as drinking, card playing, profanity and the Uke, ex- 
tensively prevailed. Though Mr. HalFs congregations were not 
in the track of either of the armies nor the seat of war; and 
though he had exerted himself during the war to sustain reUgion 
and morality in the congregation and in the camp, the general tone 
of pubUc feeling had evidently declined, and the necessity of great 
efforts in the cause of the gospel to prevent the most melancholy 
effects, was stirring up his spirits to activity, and his heart to zeal 
for God. His efforts met the Divine approbation, and were at- 
tended with his blessing, and resulted in a revival of rel^on. 

Soon after the war, his charge was greatly blessed ; the atten- 
tion of the people was very generally turned to the subject of re- 
ligion. The meetings were characterized by great solenmity and 
stillness ; and the preaching, for simplicity, earnestness and ten- 
derness, in setting forth the great truths of the gospel. At one 
conununion season, about eighty persons were received into the 
church on the profession of their faith ; at a succeeding commu- 

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nion about sixty more made profession and united with the church. 
This revival was confined mostly to the churches in IredeU, there 
being no account of much unusual interest in other parts of the 
Presbytery till after some years. In consequence of the mmie- 
rous calls upon him for ministerial labor, and his own great anxiety 
for the welfare of his fellow men, Mr. Hall's labors were inces- 
sant ; and under his continued preaching his health failed, and 
sjrmptoms of a pulmonary consumption became alarming.' By the 
advice of physicians he was induced to cease from his ministerial 
labors, and seek for renewed health in a sea voyage. Owing to 
head winds, his voyage from Charleston, South Carolina, to Phila- 
delphia, was long and boisterous, and proved, on that account, 
more advantageous. After attending upon the meeting of the Sy- 
nod of New York and Philadelphia, he returned home with renewed 
health and spirits, to engaged in his ministry. The records of Sy- 
nod make this his first attendance to be in 1786; the Iraditions 
would place it somewhat earlier. He was on the Committee of 
Synod, appointed to prepare a plan for the division of the Sjrnod 
in preparation for the formation of the general assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church. But as there is evidently an omission in 
the minutes of the preceding years, his first attendance might 
have been earlier. 

The Synod of the Carolinas held its first meeting in 1788, at 
Centre Church ; during the next year measures were taken to re- 
lease Mr. Hall from the charge of Bethany and Concord churches, 
which took efiect in 1790. In the year 1793, the year that his 
amiable successor, Lewis Wilson, was ordained and placed 
over these beloved churches, he commenced his missionary ex- 
cursions, under the direction of a commission of Synod. Besides 
a great many short excursions which he was in the habit of mak- 
ing in the counties nearer home, he performed fourteen long and 
toilsome missions, either under the direction of the commission 
of Synod, or by order and arrangement of the General Assembly. 
His reports were often made in writing, and some of them re- 
corded on the minutes of Synod. His mission to the Natches, 
the pioneer of Protestant efforts in the lower part of the 
valley of the Mississippi, was commenced in the Fall of 1800, 
under a commission of the General Assembly. The Synod ap- 
pointed two companions for this mission, which was expected to 
continue for eight months, James H. Bowman and' William 
Montgomery. The report of these missionaries, made to the 
Synod of 1801, was received with a high degree of satisfaction. 

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An account of this mission was published by Mr. Hall in the 
* newspapers of the day, and was read with great interest, as being 
the best description ever given of that part of the southern coun- 
try, in which he had spent about nine months. 

The extracts from the records of the Synod of the Carolinas, 
which form part of this volume, contain some of the more interest- 
ing parts of Mr. Hall's reports, especially those that are of abiding 
interest ; particularly his method of preparing questions on the 
Confession of Faith, and instructing the congregations he visited 
on his mission ; his account of his visit to Lincoln county in 1809 ; 
and his report of a mission on the Cape Fear ; and his visit to 
Colin Lindsay and Angus McDermaid. These will be read with 
great interest by multitudes now living ; and will assist the general 
reader to a better understanding of the revival that spread over the 
coimtry from 1802 to 1806, and onward, the effects of which are 
distinctly irisible throughout the State. 

His exertions in the cause of Domestic missions are worthy of 
all praise, and have conferred upon the State and the southern coun- 
try lasting obligations. 

He attended the sessions of the General Assembly in Philadel- 
phia sixteen times, as delegate of the Presbytery of Orange, and 
was once the moderator of that venerable body. Travelling by 
private conveyance, in his chair (or sulky), he embraced the op-* 
portunity afforded for preaching on his journey, and made his trips 
to Philadelphia domestic missions : and by taking different routes 
much enlarged his acquaintance and the sphere of his usefulness. 
In one of these excursions, being driven into a house by a storm 
of rain, and detained all night, he kindly and courteously intro- 
duced the subject of religion. The family had hitherto been 
utterly careless on the subject of their salvation ; but that night 
they were deeply convicted of their sinfulness. The servant of 
God passed on, unaware, perhaps, of having accomplished anything 
for his Lord. A Methodist minister who became acquainted with 
the circumstance related to a friend of Dr. Hall that the impres- 
sions made that night were never effaced ; that shortly three of the 
members professed faith in Christ ; and one after another the 
whole family entered the visible church. 

In a sermon, while urging his congregation to reUgious conver- 
sation, he mentioned the circumstance, tKat a private conversation 
he had with two young men before he became a preacher, resulted 
in their hopeful conversion ; and they both became ministers of 
the gospel. These instances are mentioned as showing the effect 

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produced by his kind and affectionate manner in introducing a 
faithful conversation on the subject of religion. 

One sphere of usefulness in which Mr. Hall excelled, was the 
education of young men. He must have conmienced the work of 
superintendence, for he did not confine himself to the teaching <^ 
a classical school, very soon after his licensure, as the certificate 
giren to Humphrey Hunter, afterwards a minister of the goepel, 
says he had been a student at Cho's Nursery firom August, 1778, 
to October, 1779. The institution was located on Snow Creek, in 
a pious neighborhood, that formed an important part of Bethany 
church and congregation. This he superintended with care, and 
through its agency brought out many useful men, that might not 
otherwise have obtained an educaticMi, — as the Rev. Richard King, 
of Tennessee, esteemed the man of the finest powers of mind 
ever trained in Western Carolina, — Dr. Waddel, of South Caro- 
lina, and Judges Laurie, Harris, and Smith. 

To remedy the inconvenience felt by those unable to meet the 
expense of attending a northern college, and yet wishing to acquire 
a knowledge of the sciences, he purchased a philosophical appa- 
ratus, and opened an " Academy of the Sciences," at his own 
house, himself being the sole professor. This institution was 
continued for many years ; and, previously to the establishment of 
the University, was considered the best scientific school in the 
State. A large number of eminent men received their scientific 
education there ; besides a number of ministers, who studied theo- 
logy under his direction,whose names will be hereafter given, there 
were Andrew Pickens, Israel Pickens, late Governor of Alabama, 
Hon. Joseph Pearson, and Judge WiUiams, of Tennessee. 

To promote useful knowledge in his congregation, he formed a 
class of young people to meet him every Saturday, to take lessons 
in granunar. To remedy the want of books, which threatened 
the ruin of his plans, he wrote out a system of grammar, and had 
manuscript copies circulated among the members of the class. 
He afterwards published through the press, and circulated it ex- 

He founded a circulating hbrary in his congregation, which 
became eminently useful ; and encouraged debating societies 
among the young people, sometimes attending, and often availing 
himself of the opportultity of laying before them some written 
communication on important subjects. 

His efforts in leading young men into the ministry, were emi- 
nently successful. His character for talents and piety, and public 

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REV. JAM4» nXLL. •. 331 

spirit ; his soundness as a Theologian ; his great facility in im- 
parting instruction ; and the pleasure he took in the employment ; 
and his well selected Ubrary, caused his house to become a school 
of the prophets, from which came out some of the best ministers 
in our southern Zion. The following catalogue will show the im- 
portance of this school of divinity : Rev. Messrs. Robert Hall (his 
brother), James McEwin (his brother-in«»law), Daniel Thatcher, 
Ga. ; Francis Cummins, D.D., Ga. ; John Brown, D.D., Ga. ; 
James Blythe, D.D., Ken.^ J. M. Wilson, D.D., Rocky River ; 
George McWhorter, S.C. ; John Robinson, D.D., Poplar Tent ; J. 
Andrews, Ohio ; James Adams, S.C. ; Thomas Price, S.C. ; James 
Mcllheney, S.C. ; Wm. Barr, D.D. ; Andrew Flinn, D.D., Charles- 
ton ; John Bowman, Tenn. ; James Bowman, Tenn. ; Thomas J. 
Hall, Tenn. ; Joseph D. Kilpatrick, N.C. ; and Thomas Neely, 
S.C. These have now, with scarce an exception, passed away 
from the earthly vineyard ; but their memorial is with us ; they 
have rested from their labors, and their works do follow them. 
Their history will show that Iredell county has been the nursery 
of good men, and the birth-place of the most laborious ministers of 
the last generations. 

The views Mr. Hall had of the proper preparation for the labors 
of the gospel ministry, and his own experience, so eminently suc- 
cessful, of the advantage of training the young for the work, led 
him to desire a seminary for the purpose. The motion in the 
Assembly of the Presbyterian church to found a Theological 
school, met his hearty approbation and co-operation. He greatly 
desired a more southern location than Princeton, with the hope that 
(me would unite all the South ; but when it was determined that 
Princeton should be the place, he united in giving it existence 
and stability, by giving to its funds, by donations to the library, 
by riding extensively as an agent in its favor, and by remember- 
ing it in his will with a bequest of two hundred and fifty acres of 
valuable land in Tennessee. 

He was zealous and active in the circulation of the Bible. As 
a delegate, he was present at the formation of the American Bible 
Society, and became a life member by the contribution of thirty 
dollars. On the formation of the North Carolina State Bible 
Society, he was elected the first president, and in his attendance 
on its meetings gave an example of his punctuality in attending 
upon appointments, and in meeting with those ecclesiastical bodies 
with which he was connected. His residence was about one 
hundred and fifty-six miles from Raleigh. On a certain occasion, 

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setting off to attend an annual meeting, a liolent stcmn of rain 
and snow came on, the first day of his journey, and continued all the 
way through. A legal friend meeting him on the way, in surprise 
he accosted the Tenerable minister : " Where are you going, in 
this storm r "To attend the Bible Society in Raleirfi." 
" "Where were you yesterday ?" "I traTelled about thirty miles ; 
where were you?" **0, I was lying by; it was too bad to 
trayel.'^ On his arriyal in Raleigh, he found himself the only 
delegate present. The inclemency gf the weather rendered it 
" too bad to travel." 

He attended all the meetings of the Synod of the Carolinas 
from 1788 to 1812, but one, and was the last moderator; the 
Synod of North Carolina was then constituted, and on its sessions 
he attended with punctuality, till age and infirmity took away his 
ability to travel. His attendance on Presbyterial meetings was 
equally exact ; his various missions being so assigned, as, with 
the exception of his trip to the Natches, to permit his meeting 
with his brethren in the judicatories. 

In his reproofs he was generally very kind and tender, and 
spake as one entreating or instructing; sometimes his boldness 
and decision were felt in the tone of authority, and severity of 
manner, in which he addressed bold transgressors. To them he 
seemed rough and unreasonable, and sometimes angiy,' especially 
when his indignation was roused. During one of his missions 
to the eastern part of the State, he accepted a very polite invita- 
tion to tea, after divine service on the Sabbath. The residence 
of his host was on an eminence, commanding a beautiful view of 
the low grounds, and pf the river that wound its way towards the 
ocean. After a little time he observed a boat sailing along the 
stream, and soon after, that the men were -hauling a seine. Tum- 
ning to the gentleman, he inquires, " Whose seine is that T " It 
is mine, sir." " Is this the way you keep the Sabbath ?" " Oh, 
it is the fishing season ; I will give God Almighty another day in 
a slacker time of the year." Mr. Hall, rising and taking his hat, 
" I cannot consent to remain under the roof of a man that treats 
his God in that way," with a bow, left the house, and returned to 
his former lodgings. 

Ardor, tenderness of affection, and strong sympathy, character- 
ized the preaching of this successftil minister of God. His man- 
ner was, in part, his natural temperament speaking out, and in 
part the firuit of his own distressing experience. An occasional 
depression of spirits was the vice of his constitution ; and a deep 

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conviction of the sinfulness of sin and his own worthlessness, the 
characteristic of his religious experience. The influence of both 
these was occasionally felt at the same time, and produced a state 
of distress and degree of unhappiness not to be described. About 
the time of his licensure, a season of mental depression and heart- 
sickness so overwhelmed him, that for the space of about a year, 
he considered it to be little short of blasphemy, and a direct insult 
to God, for such a polluted, undone, hopeless wretch as himself to 
offer to preach the gospel. These seasons occasionally returned 
upon him throughout his whole life, so ftdl of activity and useful- 
ness. Once at least, he was oppressed when on a mission ; his 
friend Mathews, that served with him in the war, found him in 
Kentucky, so overwhelmed with melancholy and a sense of his 
sinfulness, that in compassion he took him under his charge and , 
conducted him to his home. IJven in his old age he felt the gath- 
ering of the cold clouds that shut out his Maker's face and hid the 
Saviour's beauty. At one time he intermitted his pastoral labors 
about a year and a half. Spiritual darkness overhung his mind ; 
he was always complaining that ^^God had hid his face from him ;" 
his own smfulness was ever present with him, and he could not 
get a view of Christ as the Lord his righteousness ; and he refused 
to lead the devotions of his people. He attended the house of God 
and joined in the worship carried on by the elders, and could occa- 
sionally be. induced to take a part by leading in prayer or giving a 
short exhortation from the clerk's stand in front and below the 
pulpit, esteeming himself too great a wretch to preach from the 
sacred desk, or even to enter it. 

" Won't you preach for us to-day ?" said the eldership, one Sab- 
bath, when, in this state of mind, he appeared at Bethany ^mong 
a large assembly of people. " Oh no — ^no— no — it is impossible !" 
One of the elder's of Fourth Creek, William Stevenson, was 
later than usual that morning. Advanced in Ufe, a convert under 
the preaching of Whitefield, grown to full manhood in piety, the 
congregation loved the elder, and from his small stature, and fer- 
vency in prayer, called him " little Gabriel,^^ — they thought he 
approached nearer the throne than anybody else in the congregation. 
The other elders waited for him. When Mr. Stevenson under- 
stood that Mr. Hall was still in darkness and distress, and could 
not preach, he was deeply affected. Entering the seat appropriated 
to the elders, before the pulpit, after a psalm was sung, he com- 
menced a strain of humble petition and adoration that touched all 
hearte. His first petition was — " O Lord, cast the deaf and dumb 

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devil out of our pastor ; this deaf devil, that will not allow him to 
hear the promises of the gospel ; and this dumh devil, that will 
»ot suffer him to preach a« he has heretofore done." AX the close 
of the prayer, the venerable form of the beloved pastor was seen 
rising and making its way to the long unvisited pulpit. " I will 
try to preach to-day," said Mr. Hall to Mr. Stevenson. The sermon 
that followed gave evidence that the praym of little Gabriel had 
been heard and answered, — ^for the deaf and dumb devil was cast 

The abiding recollection of tke wormwood and the gall, which 
he had so often drunk to the very dregs of bitterness, made him 
sympathize with the afflicted, particularly those walking in dark- 
ness. He would go far to see them : and the interviews were the 
pouring out the sympathies of a wounded heart that had been healed 
by the balm of Gilead. He was tender to his fellow men seeking 
' salvation : but his heart melted for those bowed down under a sense 
of the hiding of the Saviour's face. He scarce ever preached without 
exhibiting deep emotion, and was often in tears. One of the most 
eloquent and impressive sermons his people recollect to have heard 
firom him, was drawn from him under the following circumstances. 
Mr. Charles Story, a gentleman of irreproachable charadgr and 
piety, came up from Black River, S. C, with his family, to spend the 
summer in Iredell county, on account of his low state of health. 
His spirits were greatly depressed, and his mind became clouded 
with doubts about his spiritual state. At length his hope in Christ 
forsook him ; — ^his sins appeared always before him, and the light 
of God's countenance was hidden. Mr. Hall became deeply in- 
terested at once, — he had gone down into the dark vale, and had 
himself sunk in the mire. His kind and tender conversation, full 
of Christian sympathy, failing to relieve the offerer's mind, he 
prepared a sermon for the occasion, from the words of Isaiah 1., 
10 : '* Who is among you that feareth the Lord, that obeyeth the 
voice of his servant, that walketh in darkness and hath no light ? 
Let him trust in the name of the Lord, and stay upon his God." 
From these words he described, with great clearness, the child of 
God walking in darkness ; then pointed out the foundation of his 
hope, Jesus Christ, the Chief Comer-Stone ; and brought forth 
the glorious promises and consolations of the gospel. His own 
heart was deeply affected : he preached in tears ; the people were 
moved and melted ; the place became a Bochin. The gentleman 
Ustened, — ^was enUghtened, — ^was relieved, and went away from the 
gormon with a glad heart, as his minister had done from the prayers 

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of " little Gabriel," — ^his feet were placed upon a rock, and a new 
song was put into his mouth, even praise to his God. The hearers-. 
of that sermon could never forget the impression. The solemnity, 
the tenderness, the deep emotion of their pastor, from the first 
naming his text, the wonderful description of the saint in darkness, 
were all treasured in tbeir memories and in their hearts. 

Nassau Hall, his Alma Mater, honored him with the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity ; and the University of North Carolina repeated 
th« compliment. And if activity as a pastor, enterprise as a mis- 
sionary, success as a guide of youlh in their literary course, and 
ability in training young men hr the ministry, are qualifications for 
that honorary degree, the honors were in this case well conferred. 

His reply to the degree from the University of North Carolina 
is characteristic of tlie honesty of the man, and the tone of public 
feeling, at that time, in regard to that institution. He made a 
donation of sixty volumes to the Library, out of his own collection, 
which, tliough not large, was valuable. The copy of Turretine 
that stood upon the Doctor's shelf is now in the library of a pastor 
in the mountains of Virginia. How he ever found time to read 
enough to be able to lead young men in the study of Theology can 
be accoimted for only on the ground of his having no fanyly, and 
resolutely devoting all his time to build the church of the Living 

In July, 1819, Dr. Hall returned from the Anniversary of the 
American Bible Society, and the sessions of the General Assem- 
bly, for the last time ; and soon after his return delivered his last 
sermon. The last seven years of his life were years of weakness, 
languor and depression; and not unfrequently spiritual sorrows 
gathered around his soul as he reflected upon his own sinfrilness 
and helplessness. Confident that God had used him as the instru- 
ment for the conversion of others, he often feared about his own, 
IfBt having preached to others, he himself should be a castaway. 

His body was entombed in Bethany church graveyard, by the 
side of his co-laborer and friend, Lewis Feuilleteau Wilson. On 
a vdiite marble head-stone near the gate is the following inscrip- 
tion: — 

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Beneath this ttone are deposited 

the remains of 

The Rev. JAMES HALL, D.D., 

who departed this life 

July 25th, 1826, 

in the 82d year of his age. 

For 12 years he sustained the oflke of Pastor 

to the united congregation of Fourth 
Creek, Concord, and Bethany ; and for 26 years 
to that of Bethany alone. He was a man of 
science as well as piety ; and for his ex- 
tensive labors in the cause of his Divine 
Master, as well as for his great usefulness 
as a preceptor of youlh, his memory is 
embalmed in the heazti of his people. 

The pains of death are passed. 

Labor and sorrow cease. 
And life's long warfare closed at last. 

His soul is found in peace. 

Soldier of Christ, well done. 

Praise be thy new employ. 
And while eternal ages run. 

Rest in thy Saviour's joy. 

Thus rest, in this retired spot, the remains of the man whose 
charge was visited with the first revival of religion, in Concord 
Presbytery, after the American Revolution. 

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The Rev. Mr. James Hall, upon giving up his pastoral charge of 
Concord and Fourth Creek in Iredell county, in the year 1790, was, 
in the course of two or three years, succeeded by the man whom on 
account of his private friendship, and his estimation of his talents 
for usefulness, he would have chosen of all others, recently entered 
upon Ae office of the ministry of the gospel, Lewis Feuilleteau 
Wilson. A foreigner by birth, Mr. Wilson both loved and served 
the country of his adoption ; and was beloved and honored by all 
that were favored by his acquaintance, in his office as a physician, 
in which capacity he served in the Revolutionary war, and the more 
serious one of a minister of the gospel, in which he closed his days. 

On his mother's side of French extract, on his lather's of English, 
he was born on St Christopher's, one of the West India Islands, 
June, 1753. His father, a wealthy planter, preferring an education 
in England for his son, to the indulgence and desultory life of 
planters' children in the islands, embarked his two sons, Lewis, then 
about four years of age, and a brother two years older, for London, 
to be put to school under the care of his connexions. The brother 
died on the voyage ; and Lewis, an entire stranger, commenced his 
education in his tender years. Some time after his father removed 
to London ; and the son was continued at the granmiar school until 
he completed his seventeenth year. At that time an uncle of his 
emigrated to America and settled in New Jersey ; young Wilson 
accompanied him, and soon after his arrival entered upon the course 
of studies at Nassau Hall, in Princeton. 

In his literary course Mr. Wilson was successful, and received the 
Bachelor's degree with honor. In his religious course he was kindly 
crossed by the Providence and Spirit of God, and from being an 
opposer was changed to an huoMe, yet firm believer in Jesus, bi 
the year 1772 a very general revival of religion took place in the 
college ; and so great was its influence, that he and thirteen of his 
class, after they had completed their cx)llege course, turned their 
attention to the study of theology in preparation for the gospel 


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miiAilry, profes^jpg that their first impressions of grace were dnrisg 
that refre^ing with which the institution was favored. 

At the commencement of the reviyal and for a time daring its 
progress, young Wilson was violentl^opposed to all religious things. 
So embittered were his feelings that he would not permit any one 
to converse with him on the subject of religion at all^ eitho' as a 
general subject or matter of personal experience. He had been 
educated in the Episcopal forms of worship ; was a regular attend- 
ant on divine service, and correct in his external conduct ; and did 
not wish to be troubled about his experience by Presbyterian minis- 
ters and teachers. Probably at that time he would not have listened 
to any person. One of the tutors made an effort to call his attention 
to the concerns of his soul ; entering his room, he began to converse 
on the subject of religion. Mr. Wilson interrupted him, ^ Mr. 

, I am engaged in my studies, — ^this is my room, — thcteisthe 


Buoyed up by a spirit of pharisaic righteousness he went on, for 
a time, pouring contempt on the work of Grod, till that same spirit, 
that arrested a persecuting Saul, arrested him. One evening wMr 
Dr. Spencer was preaching in the College Hall he was seized with 
deep convictions,-and felt that these things which he had hitherto 
receive as enthusiasm, and little better thatt madness^ were realities 
of amaang importance. His distress of mind continued for some 
time before he could see his way of being saved through the Loi4 
Christ When Jesus was manifested as ^^ the way, and tke truth, 
and the life," he embraced him with full purpose of heart; and from 
having been an opposer, like Saul, he became a full and heaity friend 
that said, Lordy what wiU thou have me to do y and when he found 
his Lord's will he went and did it The memory of his decided 
opposition to the gospel and a revival of religion led him often to 
confession and deep humiliation, throughout his whole ministerial 

The Rev. John Makemie Wilson, of Rocky River, tells us in the 
sermon he preached on occasion of the death of Rev. L. F. Wilson, 
"frat during the revival of religion that spread over Carolina, in the 
south and west, in &e year 1802 and the following years, the sub- 
Jict of this short sketch was often heard to address opposes to that 
work in the following words : — ^ My dear friends, I pity you, be- . 
cause I mce stood on the ground on which you now standi and 
know something of your disposition towards die present woik. I 
have fek the du^>osition of a very devil towards a virork similar to 

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\ . • 

the present. Therefore I feel for you, and pily yfiia with all my 

During the remainder of his college life, his zeal to promote 
the cause he once opposed, was tempered with great humility, 
that essential grace of a Christian. Having been brought up in 
high life, and with the expectations of a son of a wealthy citizen 
of London, he bowed to the deserving, however lowly in their 
sphere. His companions and friends were chosen without respect 
to wealth or poverty, but according to his estimation of their 
moral and spiritual excellence. His desire for excellence was 
totally dissevered from that thirst for applause, which so often 
stimulates to great efforts. He was content with having merited 
approbation. This trait in his character was manifested in the 
course he pursued respecting a college honor, so coveted by 
Mttdents, particulariy when about to be graduated. At the last 
examination of his class, when the members stood for their diplo- 
mas, five honorary orations were voted by the trustees, to be de- 
livered from the public stage on the day of commencement, by 
that number of the best scholars, as orators. Mr. Wilson ob- 
tained the second honor by vote of the trustees. Whether he 
knew of some one of his class who would be mortified in being 
left out rf the list of honors, or whether he acted solely from the 
humility and modesty in his own breast, we cannot now say ; but 
when information was given him by the president, in the presence 
of tlie board and of the class, he arose and said : " Sir, I feel 
mysell under obligation to the trustees for their compliment to me ; 
it is well enough to deserve such an oration, but I do not choose 
to accept it, and desire that it may be given to another." He did 
not appear on the stage at commencement, according to his re- 
vest the honor had been conferred upon another, more desirous of 

' Uie eminence. This trait of character was manifested by him 
through life ; always deserving a high rank in the estimation of 
his brethren, he never thrust himself forward to public notice. 
His bravery was equal to his modesty ; and his worth was cona-^ 
pounded of both. He sought no honors ; he shunned no dangers 
in the path of duty. 

After receiving his Bachelor's degree, in September, 1773, he 
viiHed London, designing to take oiders in the Episcopal churcb» 
if, upcAi examination and inquiry, he could see a reasonable pros- 
pect of usefulness and satisfaction. His father was a man of suf- 
ficient wealth and influence to obtain for him wfcat is called "a 
good living ^ in the city, or some pleasant place in the country, and 

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finding that his son wished to engage in the ministry of the gospel, 
pressed him earnestly to take orders in the national church. The 
son, upon consideration and observation, became convinced that 
he could not be satisfied in such a connection as his father wished, 
and he himself had at first designed ; and frankly conmiunicated the 
result of his deUberations. The father upbraided him with be- 
coming a Presbyterian in America, and threatened to disinherit 
him unless he complied with his expressed vnshes. The son con- 
tinued firm in his determination not to enter the national church. 
The father was resolute in withholding firom him all assistance in 
making preparations to enter the ministry in any other church. 
The son was resolved to enter another church, and was left 
by his father penniless. Having obtained possession of a bequest 
of 300 guineas, made to him by an aunt, whose death occurred a 
little before this event, and furnishing himself with a wardrobe asd 
a small library, he set sail for America, after a residence in England 
of about five months. 

Landing at Philadelphia, he returned to Princeton, and com- 
menced the study of Divinity under the care of Dr. Witherspoon, 
in the spring of 1774. Soon after this he was chosen tutor in the 
college, and performed the duties of that station about a year. 
New Jersey being overrun by the British army, the college was 
broken up. A class-mate of Mr. Wilson, who had been a fellow- 
tutor, having determined to enter upon the study of medicine with 
an uncle in Philadelphia, prevailed upon him to commence the 
study in his company. It is said that the principal reason for this 
change of professional studies was the perplexity of mind that 
came upon him in consequence of a careful perusal of church 
history. What this perplexity was, or whether it was anything 
more than discouragement in view of his own native sinfulness, 
and the errors into which &ail men had precipitated themselves, is 
not now known. 

After pursuing his medical studies about two years he embarked 
in the cause of American Independence, and entered the conti- 
nental service as surjgeon. In this capacity he continued a number 
of years ; part of the time in the land service and part Of the time 
on board of vessels of war. In the year 1781 he was informed by 
letter of the death of his father, and of a legacy in his will of £500 
stexling. This communication caused him another voymge to 
England. Having obtained his legacy, he returned to America 
and settled in Princeton in his profession, as practising physician ; 
the superior religious advantages of the place in connection with its 

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seclusion, presenting powerful inducements to him to make it his 
X>ermanent residence. 

As soon as he became permanently located, he secluded himself 
very much from intercourse with the world till he had carefully 
perused the whole both of the Old and New Testaments. He was 
heard to say that when he looked through the last six or seven 
years of his life, he seemed to himself like one who had beon in a 
dream. During the whole of his connexion with the army, and in- 
deed throughout the whole course of his trials and changes from 
the time of his first landing in America to his settlement as a phy- 
sician in Princeton, it was observed by the pious and discerning, 
who had been acquainted with him in all his tossings and trials, 
that his deportment as a Christian was more than blameless, — it 
was exemplary. His attachment to the pious was seen in his un- 
disguised selection of his companions, — ^treating all with the respect 
becoming their station in Ufe, he accounted the righteous the ex- 
cellent of the earth, and was pecuUarly attached to those who 
exhibited a pious temper and a consistent Christian life. He 
might have said to such people as Ruth did to Naomi, " Intreat me 
not to leave thee, for whither thou goest I will go ; and where thoii 
lodgest I vrill lodge ; thy people shall be my people ; and thy God 
my God." 

The Rev. James Hall, who had contracted a strong friendship 
for Mr. Wilson while a member of college, being well acquainted 
with his acquirements and the estimation in -which he was held by 
the students and faculty of college, visited Princeton in the year 
1786, and succeeded in pursuading his friend to remove to Iredell 
county, North Carolina. Both had been diUgent students at Nas- 
sau Hall; both professing Christians; both had served in the 
armies of the Revolution and come out honorably ; both held to 
their faith in Christ through all the besetments of the camp and the 
temptations incident to war, and each exercised an influence over 
the other, particularly in the latter years of Mr. Wilson's Hfe. 

After the revival in Mr. Hall's congregation, and the consequent 
feeble health of that laborious and self-denied man, he made a sea 
voyage, and attended the meeting of the Synod of New York and 
Philadelphia in the spring of 1786. In the August following, his 
friend Dr. Wilson made a journey to Iredell, North Carolina, and 
finally made his residence in the sphere of that good man's labors, 
and there continued until his death, a period of some eighteen 

Soon after his settlement in Iredell, Mr. Wilson became con- 

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necteci in marriage with Miss Margaret Hall, the daughter of Ifr. 
Hugh Hall, and a near connexion of the friend by whose persua- 
sion he had emigrated to North Carolina. This marriage was a 
happy one to both parties, till death made the separation ; and in 
the desolation of widowhood was reflected upon by the bereaved 
wife as matter of thanksgiving and consolation. As a physician 
and as a preacher, he was the good husband, and kind fitther, and 
faithful friend. 

Although his practice of medicine was very accq)table to the 
people, evincing great ability and skill, he continued in that profes- 
sion but about four years afier his removal to Nwth Carolina. He 
had never been fully satisfied with himself from the time he had 
laid aside the study of theology ; a secret uneasiness preyed upon 
his mind, lest he should be found to have run from his duty, and 
he often wished himself in another sphere of life, — that to which he 
had once devoted himself, but which afterwards be had declined. 
But every year seemed to remove him farther and farther from the 
object of his convictions ; and the cares of a family and the caUs 
of his profession were heaping up difficulties and impediments, 
and rendering an entrance on the ministry a difficult, it not an im- 
possible thing. 

In this state of his mind, some of the pious pe<^e began to ex- 
press a desire that so well qualified a person as Dr. Wilson 
should be taken from the practice of medicine and put into the 
pulpit ; and from healing the maladies of the people and curing 
their bodily infirmities, should jwreach the unsearchable riches of 
Christ for the salvation of their souls. 

Some of the leading ministers in Orange Presbytery also added 
their voice, amongst which the most feeble was not that of Mr. 
Hall, that he should come and take part of the ministry with them. 
Induced by this external call and his internal convictions, he ofl%?ed 
himself to the Orange Presbytery a candidate for the gospel min- 
istry ; and having passed his various trials with much approbation, 
he was licensed to preach in the year 1791. 

It soon appeared that his friends had not been mistaken in theit 
anticipations of his usefulness as a minister. His preaching was 
so acceptable, that various respectable vacancies made exertions to 
obtain his services as their pastor. His inclinations were in favor of 
Fourth Creek and Concord, which were united in a call presented 
to Presbytery, and in June, 1793, he was ordained and installed 
their pastor, and became the successor and near neighbor of his 
friend Mr. Hall, whose desires were accompUiAi^d in seeing Mr. 

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Wilson in tkft' ministry, and the churches of his former cllarge 
suppUed with an able and deroted preacher. 

His connexion with these two churches continued about ten 
years with uninterrupted harmony. 

The revival which began, in the year 1802, to be felt in Iredell 
county, was hailed with joy by Mr. Wilson. He, with some of 
his flock, had been engaged in social prayer to God for an outpour- 
ing of his spirit, for some time before the meeting in Randolph, on 
which the ministers of Concord Presbytery attended with so much 
interest. Mr. Wilson believed that a work of grace was going on 
by the agency of the Holy Spirit using weak means, and he re- 
joiced in it, notwithstanding those bodily exercises which then ac- 
\companied it, and afterwards became so obnoxious to all the judi- 
cious. He encouraged the protracted meetings that followed in 
such quick succession in the upper country of Carolina, in which 
the people encamped upon the ground near the place of preaching ; 
and remained for some days altogether absorbed in the subject of 
reUgion. There is no evidence that he encouraged any disorder, 
or pursued any improper course, ob used any hurtful measures ; 
he desired the salvation of his people, and preferred the excitement, 
with all the objectionable exercises, to that sleep of death which 
brooded over the multitude. 

The exercises were so objectionable to many of the people of 
Fourth Creek, that they became opposed to the camp meetings, 
and doubted the genuineness of the whole work. With this was 
connected a discussion on the qualifications for admission to the 
sealing ordinances. Mr. Wilson, of Rocky River, says, " it was 
not unlike that which took place between President Edwards and 
the people of Northampton." That, it is well known, was on the 
following grounds : On the side of Mr. Edwards it was contended 
that a credible profession of experimental religion was the only 
proper qualification for admission to Baptism and the Lord's Sup- 
per. On the other side, that baptism in infancy and a blameless 
life were all that could be required by the church or its officers. 
Jn the case of Mr. Wilson and Fourth Creek congregation, the 
discussion probably was, for we have no detailed account, whether 
that kind of experience given by the converts at these protracted 
meetings, was the proper experience for admission to the privileges 
of the church ; and if the proper, was it the only proper experience, 
in kind for such admission ? The terfnination of the discussion in 
Fourth Creek, like that in Northampton, was the dissolution of the 
pastoral connectioa. There is no evidence, however, of the exist- 

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eoce of any bitterness of feeling towards Mr. WDscByby the party 
in Fourth Creek that was exposed to his views, while it is known 
that many of the church agreed with him in opinion, and were his 
firm ^ends till death. It is more than probable that Mr. Wilsan 
might have retained the charge of the congregati(»i, notwithstand- 
ing the disagreement, if his own feelings would have permitted 
him to preside OTcr a divided session. He chose to withdraw from 
Fourth CstA, and confine his labors far the remainder of his life 
to the church of Concord. 

This disagreement and consequent dissdution of the partoral 
connection, had an unhappy influence upcm the church and congre- 
gation of Fourdi Creek. For many years they were without a 
regular pastor. Neither of the two parties was aUe to {nevail in 
the congregation, and neither was willing to make a decisive 
movement ; consequently no call was made out fmr a pastor {or 
twenty years. Mr. William Stevenson, a warm-hearted, pious 
man, led one party, and maintained the (pinions of Mr. Wilson, 
preferring the revival wiUi all the objectionable exercises; and 
John McLelland, cool and determined in his course, would rather 
give up the excitement on reUgion than countenance in any way 
the attending objectionable circumstances, and led the other party. 
The tradition in the congregation has been, that the great body of 
the people would have been easily satisfied could these elders have 
agreed to drop the discussion. After having had temporary sup- 
plies for nearly twenty years, the Rev. Daniel Gould, from Not- 
tingham, New Hampshire, visited them, and in 1823 was installed 
pastor. An active man, he was of great advantage to the congre- 
gation ; was one of the first movers of the general supply of the 
Bible throughout the United States, and did much for the dissemi- 
nation of religious knowledge in Iredell county. His useful life 
was ended in 1834, April 29th, in his forty-fifth year ; and his 
body interred in the Fourth Creek burying-ground. After some 
years of temporary supply, the Rev. E. F. Rockwell was installed 
in 1844. During the vacancy that occurred from the time Mr. 
Gould ceased to preach in Fourth Creek in 1828, six years before 
his death, the Rev. Robert Caldwell, a grandson of D^. Caldwell, 
of Guilford, after preaching as a licentiate, was ordained and 
installed in 1831 ; and dying in 1832, was buried in the same 
yard with Mr. Gould. 

The separation of Mr. Wilson from Fourth Creek took place in 
1803, and in 1804 he was removed firom all earthly scenes and la- 
bors to the spiritual Mount Zion. The Rev, John M. Wilson, of 

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Rocky River, preached his funeral sermon from Revelations liv., 
13 : **^ And I heard a voice from heaven sajring unto me, write, 
blessed are the dead that die in the Lord from henceforth ; yea, 
saith the spirit, that they may rest from their labors, anA theur 
works do follow them." In the appendix to the printed sermon, 
which is the authority for much that has been already stated, he 
says : " Mr. Wilson was a most extraordinary and useftil compa- 
nion. His natural temper lively and cheerful, his edudrtion finished, 
his judgment penetrating, his acquaintance with the world large, 
qualified him at once to entertain and edify those that were conver- 
sant with him." 

** Freed from a useless round of ceremony and unshackled by 
modes and forms, it was impossible not to be easy in his company. 
Our deceased friend, as a divine, certainly stood in a point of 
view highly respectable. He wus not a wandering star, running 
off into eternal eccentricities. With respoct to his system of faith, 
it was that which you might have expected from his profession. It 
was not like Nebuchadnezzar's image, composed of heterogene- 
ous materials which cannot coalesce. He was firmly Calvinistic. 
In this respect he believed, and many will believe with him, * that 
he went his way by the footsteps of the flock, and fed his kids 
beside the shepherd's tent.' 

" In the arrangement of his public discourses he was clear and 
judicious ; his gesture natural, indicating deep engagement of 
heart ; his style elevated and nervous ; his eloquence flowing and 
persuasive. The language of Mr. Wilsoti's precepts and practice 
was one. By a life and conversation confonned to the gospel, he 
silently exhorted those to whom he ministered, as the great Apos- 
tle of the Gentiles did the churches — * My little children, be ye 
followers of me, even as I am a follower of Christ.' " 

" From a life and conversation thus upright, holy writ advises 
us to expect a peaceftil latter end. This expectation, in the pre- 
sent case, was not disappointed. He had been under declining 
circumstances of health for several months before he took his last 
illness, but had recovered considerably, which gave hopes that 
he was about to be restored to his usefulness in the church. But 
the will of heaven was to remove him. His last illness, if the 
writer mistakes not, was a fever of the inflanunatory kind. 
Shortly after he was taken ill, he mentioned to a firiend who 
called to see him, that he knew he never would survive it, and 
added that he had two reasons for saying so : * 1st. Because I have 
felt myself more dead to the world for about two months past, 

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than I ever did before. 2d. I feel symptoms now that I never 
felt before in any sickness.' 

" On the Friday and Saturday week before he died, he fr^ 
quently spoke of that uninterrupted peace and joy that he found 
in beUeving. About this time the hiccough became so violent 
that he could scarcely utter a single sentence. On Sabbath 
morning he called his little sons to him, and said : ' Retire into 
the other room and read your books, and may the Lord God of 
your father bless you.' On Monday morning, being asked whether 
*he enjoyed the comforts of religion, he answered, yes. Being 
told that it was probable he would never rise from that bed, he 
replied, * I am willing to die, if God is willing. Death has been 
no terror to me for five years past.' 

** On Sabbath morning, December 9th, immediately preceding 
his death, the hiccough materially subsided, so that he was able 
to connect sentences, and give regular addresses. Early in the 
morning he called to his bedside a number of his friends, who 
were waiting with him, aod gave an address to every one, accord- 
ing to the opinion he had formed of their religious standing. To 
a young man who asked him how he did, he replied, ' I am 
almost in heaven.' To a young woman, ' Beware of this world, 
or it will ruin you ; it has ruined thousands.' After this, sitting 
up in bed, supported with one behind him, he called for a drii^ 
after which he collected into his countenance a cheerfrd air, and 
proceeded as follows : * My friends, thirty years have elapsed 
since I first discovered the vanity of this world, and ever since it 
has been growing less and less in my esteem ; and now every 
worldly attachment is broken up, and I am ready to take my 
flight at a moment's warning. The reason why I left the coun- 
try where I then resided was, lest I should be carried away with 
the worldly sprtt so prevalent in that part (London), and you, my 
friends, are my witnesses, that since I came among you, I have 
uniformly acted on the same principles, and been influenced by 
the same views.' 

'' Early on this day the Rev. Dr. Hall made him a visit, and 
upon asking him how he was, he re|4ied, — * I am going to heaven.' 
About 1 1 o'clock a member of the session came to him and said, 

* Farewell, I am going to the session-house.' To whom he replied, 

* Carry this my last message to the people of Concord, — ^tell them 
that I am on the borders of the eternal world, and my wish is that 
Gtxl may enable them to improve every dispensation of his provi- 
dence that has any tendency to promote their eternal salvation.' 

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" About 12 o'clock he requested those who were present to join 
in singing, himself naming the hymn that he wished to sing. At 
aft interval of this exercise he broke out into thanksgiving and 
praise as follows : ' O God, I thank thee for the supports thou hasi 
granted me under my present affliction, and through all the stages 
of my past life. I praise thee for another Sabbath ; and for the 
present communication of thy spirit and grace which thou hast 
granted me this day above all the Sabbaths I have ever enjoyed. 

Lord, thou hast supported me ; and thou promised to support 
me ; and thou wilt support me ; and poor as I am, and sinful as I 
am, and worthless as I am, I shall sit down with Abiaham, and 
Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of my heavenly Father.' 

'' He was much engaged in exhortation through the whole of 
this day. In the evening he desired all to leave the room except 
his wife and children. This being done, he gave to each of them 
his dying charge. The same evening he said to the physician who 
attended him, * Doctor, you can do me no good ; I am just going 
into the eternal world ; and were it not for the comforts of religion, " 

1 believe I should be completely on the rack. The most painful 
hours are the most happy hours ; I never read or heard of any- 
thing that will support a man in a dying hour but the gospel of 

" On Monday, the 10th, he was very weak, not able to utter 
more than two or three words at a time ; but still manifested his 
good will to every person who came in, by reaching out his hand. 
A very aged man coming to the bedside, he took him by the hand 
and said, * You are come to see a dying man.' 

"Tuesday, 11th. This day ended the life of Mr. Wilson. 
Through the former- part of it he was very uneasy. About 3 
o'clock in the evening he appeared to be dying ; but recovering a 
little, he cast an affectionate look at his two little soM, who stood 
by the bedside, and reached out his hand, and lock each of them 
by their hands, but said nothing. Shortly after, Mrs. Wilson sit- 
ting by the bedside, he took her by the hand, and with a pleasant 
countenance said, * You and I will yet rejoice together in this great 
salvation.' A few mmutes aftft: he whispered to her to turn him ; 
which being done, he lay easy a little while. As he lay, his lips 
were observed to be constantly moving. Some who stood near 
him say that he whispered, Holy, holy. He then appeared to 
compose himself for his last sleep by laying his left hand under 
his cheek, and bringing his right hand down by his side. This 

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being done, he breathed outliis last, December 11th, 1804, in the 
62d year of his age, without a struggle or a groan." 

He was buried near Bethany Church, a few paces firom the gate 
ti the grave-yard, in a place chosen by his wife's relations. His 
friend Hall was, many years after, buried a few paces from his 
side. On a white marble head-stone is the following inscription : 


To the memory of the late 

Rev. Lewis F. Wu^son, who 

departed this life Dec*r 11th, 1S04, 

in the 52d year of his age. 

Through almost the whole 

of his ministerial course with 

ability and faithfulness, he sus- 

Urined the pastoral relation 

over the united congregations 

of Fourth Creek and Concord. 

Preserve, venerable pile. 

Inviolate thy precious trust ; 
To thy cold arms the Christian Church, 

Weeping, commits her precious dust. 

He left a widow and seven children, threa sons, and four daugh- 
ters. All his children grew up to mature years, and all, by the 
time they reached their twenty-first year, were united to the church 
on a credible profession of reUgion. Two of the sons became 
ministers of the gospel, one of whom was the pioneer of settled 
minifters in Texas, and is now laboring there (1845), and the other 
resides in Virginia. " I doubt not," says one of the children, 
" that the instruction which we received on Sabbath after returning 
firom church, was the means of bringing us thus early to devote 
our lives to the service of God." 

Hall had the longest race, and produced the greatest inunediate 
effect on his fellow-men ; Wilson had the most triumphant end, 
and being dead, yet speaks in his descendants. Both undoubtedly 
fought the good fight, and won the prize, and in the last great day 
will wear the conqueror's crown. 

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The settlements which composed the congregation of Thyatira in 
Rowan county, were made about the time those on the Catawba 
began to cluster together. But of the various missionaries that 
visited the Presbjrterian families between the Yadkin and Ca- 
tawba, sent from Pennsylvania and New Jersey, the memoranda 
or journal of but one has yet been found, that of Hugh Mc- 

He crossed the Yadkin on Tuesday, Sept. 12th, 1756, after 
having spent some days in the congregation at the Ford, making 
his home part of the time at the house of a Mr. Henry Sloan ; and 
passing on about ten miles, tarried with a Mr. James Aleson ; and 
the next day, passing on three or four miles, he tarried with a Mr. 
Brandon, a countryman of his. On Sabbath, the 14th, he says he 
rode to the meeting-house and preached, but does not tell the name 
of the house or its location. On Monday, he went to John 
Luckey's, five or six miles. Wednesday was a day appointed for 
a fast, on account of the great drought, and the Indian War. 
After visiting and praying with a man, who had been dangerously 
injured by a fall from his horse, he went home with a Mr. John 
Andrew, of whose engagedness in religion he speaks warmly. 
On Thursday, he rode with Mr. Andrew to Justice Carruth's, 
about eight miles. On the Sabbath (the 21st), he preached in a 
meeting-house about a mile off, and returned to Mr. Carruth's. 
The next day, went to David Templeton's, about five miles, and 
on his way came up with a company of people that had left the 
Cow Pasture in Virginia on account of the depredations of the 
Indians, supposed to be a part of Mr. Craighead's congregation, 
while he preached in that Stale. He rode home, four miles 
further, with William Deimey, who gave him a pair of shoes 
made of his own manufactured leather, by William Woodsides. 
On Tuesday, he rode to Mr. Templeton's again, and remained 
with him, and preached on Wednesday in the meeting-house. He 
went to Captain Osbom's, about six miles, with whom he tarried 
till Sabbath, and then preached in the new meeting-house, a]j)out 

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three miles off. After preaching again on Wednesday, he rode 
hqrm with William Rees^ about seven miles. On Sabbath, he 
preaohed at Captain Lewis's, going from Mr. Reese's ; and on the 
Wednesday feU^ming, preached there again on a fast day, accord- 
ing to the appointment of the governor. From this neighborhood, 
he proceeded to Rocky River. 

On his return, in November, h« called again at Capt. Lewis's, 
and says, it was in the Welsh settlement ; thence he returned to 
WilUam Reese's, made a visit to Coddle Creek, and passing, 
called on David Templeton, Justice Carruth, and John Andrew. 
WMi the last fair tarried aome days, and went with him to " Ca- 
they's meeting-house," the last Sabbath of December. " tlere," 
he says, " a number of the people were exceeding urgent upon 
me, and very desirous to join with Rocky River in a call for me 
to come and settle among them." 

This matter finally fell through, on account of the division of 
sentiment in the congregation respecting the kind of minister 
they sliDuld have, whether of what was called the Old Side, oe the 
New Side, in the division of the Sjrnod of Philadelphia. 

From these memoranda, from the short journal of Mr. M'Aden, 
it appears that he went through neighborhoods fhat were accus- 
tomed to hear preaching from missionaries, which have since been 
parts of Thyatira tdd Centre, and more lately pf Prospect, Back 
Creek^ sad Unity, and perhaps Franklin. Some of liiese had 
meeting-houses, and some were dependent on private dwellings 
for their worship of Almighty God. Each settlement was, very 
properly, anxious to have preaching convenient; and being on 
different sides in the division of the Synod, there was at the time 
of M'Aden's visit some difficulty from the numbers and clashing 
interests of these smaller societies. 

The visit of Messrs. Spencer and M'Whorter in J 764 and 
1765, was successful in composing these differences in a great 
measure, and Cathey'd me^ting-hottltty under the name of Thya- 
tira, and a new place called from its position. Centre, superseded 
all other places in a strip of country extending from the Catawba 
to the Yadkin, in which are acrw some ten regular organized 

Whether Thyatira had a settled pastor before the Rev. Samuel 
E. M'Coikle, caimot probably be now ascertained to a certainty, 
though the probability is he was the first pistor. This eminent 
man became thfe minister of that church in early life, and«ton- 
tinujsd with it till his death, a space of more thin thirty years. 

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Samuel Eusebius McCorkle was beam August 23d, 1746, near 
Harris's Ferry, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. Hit mother was 
•wter of the Rev* Joseph Montgomery. At the age of four years, 
Samuel was put to an English schi>ol, and contio^^ a^ it, making 
rapid progress, till he was ten years of age. At that time, his 
parents removed to North Cai'olina, and settled in the western part 
of Rowan county, in the bowds of the congregation now khown 
•8 Back Creek, which was set off from Thyatira in the year 1805. 
His parents were pious people, and constant attendants at Cathey's 
meeting-house, and Thyatira, when l|iere was preaching. After 
their soh became the minister, a gentteaian, ncHv living in Salis- 
bury, says he often saw the old gentleman, who was a ruling 
elder in the church, sitting on the pulpit stairs, on account of his 
deafness, that he might get as near as possible to his son while 
preaching. The remains of Mr. McCorkle's parents were Ifld 
side by side, in Thyatira yard. Having enjoyed the rare pleasure 
of sitting under the sound of the gospel from the lips of their own 
80% in whom they had unbounded confidence, these woi|by peo- 
ple closed their earthly career at an advanced age. 

Young McCorkle*s proficiency was such, that for some time 
after his removal to Carolina, he was the instructor of the younger 
children of the family ; and in a few years was employed in a 
public English school. His taMes and desires being for literature 
and science about his ^20th year he commenced a classical 
course, which was completed by his receiving his degree, Sept. 
20th, 1772. A* part, if not all, (rf his previous preparation, was 
under the tuition of the Rev. David Caldwell, in Guilford county. 

From a firagment of a diary, conunenced in Princeton, the 
spring before his taking the degiee of A#B., it appears that the 
revival of religion in that College, in the year 1772, was blessed 
to his so^l in some measure, as it was to Lewis Feuilleteau Wil- 
son, and alM to James Hall, the means of conversion to one, and 
of growth in grace to the otbfflr, both of whom were afterwaijJs his 
brethren in the ministry and co-presbyters in adjoining congrega- 

The diary commences thui :— 

" Saturday, April llth, '72, Nassau. 

" 1st. Resolved, This day to begin a religious diary, having 
been a long time convinced of its necessity and importance, and 
having oftentimes made faint resolutions to begin it. 

" Resolved, T* begin with a short record of my whole life, 

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offering up a prayer to AlxDighty God for his assistance and direc- 
tion, intending to devote Ae whole day to religious purposes. 

" Very early in life I was impressed with a sense of diyina 
things, and li^ed convinced of the necessity of religion, and con* 
vinced that I was without it, sometimes careless, sometimes awak- 
ened, till about the age of 20, when, at the approach of a sacra- 
ment, I was more than usually concerned, and resolved to defer it 
no longer. Here I fell into a self-righteous scheme, and mistook 
a certain flow of natural affection for real deUght in religion, while 
I never saw the enmity of my own heart, the odiousness of sin in 
its own nature, nor the giory and excellence of God in his own 
nature ; only hated sin because it exposed me to misery, and loved 
God because I hoped he would make me happy. Upon this I fear 
thousands are apt to rest, as in all probability I shouki have done, 
had it not pleased God to send me to college, where, the last year 
of my residence, was a considerable revival, in which it pleased 
God to open my eyes to see my awful deception." 

" In the beginning of this work, I found my heart not properly 
engaged, but indifferent and unaffected. I read the following re- 
mark in Borton's Fourfold State : — * When winter has stripped the 
trees of their verdure, it is hard to distinguish those that have life 
from those that have not ; but when the spring approaches, then 
they are msily kuoiXm by their spreading leaves, while those that 
are dead still continue the same ; thus when religion is in decay, 
the saint can scarcely be distinguished from the sinner ; but when 
a time of refreshing comes, then will they blossom and bring forth 
fruit abundantly ;' partly condemned by this remark, I cast back 
my thoughts upon past Ufe, and began to examine my religion and 
the motives of my actions. I found they were all selfish, and that 
since the time when I thought I had got reUgion, I had fallen 
away even to the neglect of secret prayer, which is quite incon- 
jiistent with the Christian character." 

" Here I was further condenmed, but still appeared very imwil- 
ling to give up all my reUgion, till I came to read Hopkins's State 
of the Unregenerate, which presented such a picture of vricked- 
ness and enmity of the human heart, and of the misery they are 
in by nature, as fully convinced me that I had never seen my own 
heart, never had had any proper views of God ; and, in short, 
that I had never known anything about religion. Here I felt my- 
self in great distress, and had very violent exercises, till my pas- 
sions subsided, aad, seemed to end in a calm rational conviction. 
Here my views were all confirmed on searching tl^ enmity of my own 

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heart, which seemed to increase and ahnOst amaze me, that I had 
never seen it before, having read Mr. Edwards's sermons on that 
subject. Also in viewing the dreadfulness and misery of man's 
estate, and the horrid natm-e of sin, which Mr. Hopkins's sermon 
on the faw seemed to present in an aggravated Uglit, I could never 
raise my thoughts to contemplate the feelings and glory of God ib 
Christ, though I sometimes attempted it ; my sins seemed to be 
80 aggravated, that they made me sometimes almost despond of 
God's mercy ; and what seemed most of all terrible to me, was, 
that I had in that state been admitted to the table of the Lord." 

"Here I ran into frequent cavils against the dispositions of 
Providence in the creation of man, and His justice m condenming 
him. I found a secret disposition to clear myself by the doctrine 
of man's inability, till I read Mr. Smalley's Sermons on that sub- 
ject, which seemed to give me considerable light in vindicating 
the justice of God. Another cavil seemed to be against the mercy 
of God. I thought I desired salvation, and found fault that it was 
not given me ; upon this neglect I received considerable light by 
Mr. Green's Sermon, which showed me that sinners only desire a 
partial Saviour — a Saviour from misery, but not a Saviour from 
sin. Here I thought I gave up all my cavils, thought I discovered 
the justice of God, the mercy of a Saviour, and the expediency 
of the Gospel ; and thought I was willing to renounce all other 
Saviours, and accept Him in all His offices and relations. Here- 
upon I felt considerable comfort." 

Afterwards, in speaking about that comfortable feeling, the 
origin of which he could not determine, he says : " Being sen- 
sible that I did not then, nor have I yet, undergone that change 
which is from death imto life." When he did experience that 
change is not on any record that can be obtained. The short diary 
that is extant goes over but a short space of time. That he did 
come to experience a change which he thought was unto life, is 
evident from his commencing the course of theological reading for 
the ministry soon after he was graduated. 

In his later life he drew up for his children a memoir of his 
life ; this manuscript was mislaid or lost by a gentleman, a hearer 
of Mr. McCorkle in his younger days, and a friend of the family, 
who was conveying it from Tennessee to North Carolina, for the 
purpose of affording materials for a printed memoir. Probably in 
this MS. there is a fuller account of his religious exercises in ac- 
cepting the Lord Christ as his portion. 

A part, at least, of his theological reading was under the direc- 


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354 saramuBi or ifoftm cimoLHUu 

tion of his maternal unck, the Rey. Joseph MontgtHnery, of New 
Castle Presbytery. His license to preach was received fran the 
Presbytery of New York, in the sfwing of 1774, as appears by 
report of Presbytery to Synod. 

After his licensure he was employed about two years in Virgi- 
sia ; then spending some time in the congregation of Thyatira, and 
accepting their call to become their pastor, he was ordained by 
HanoTcr Presbytery, August 2d, 1777 ; and never left his charge 
till he was removed by death. 

■ Some time previous to his ordination, July 2d, 1776, he was 
united in marriage to Miss Steele, of Salisbury, sister of the H<m. 
John Steele, conspicuous in the councils of the State axxi nation. 
She bore him ten children, six of whom survived him ; and fifteen 
years after his death, closed her pious and useful Ufe. 

Of the mother of his wife Dr. McCorkle entertained the hi|^- 
est estimation ; and in this he was joined by the public at large. 
A very pretty anecdote is told of her, the event occurring in the 
Revdutionary War. She was then landlady of the principal hotel 
in Salisbury, and lived between the post-office and ^e comer now 
occupied by Shafier's tavern, a few steps north of the courthouse. 

While the American army, under General Greene, was retreating 
before Comwallis," in the memorable and successful effort to coo- 
vey to Virginia the prisoners taken by Morgan in the battle of the 
Cowpens, the line of march embraced Salisbury. While Com- 
wallis was crossing the Catawba, Greene was approaching this vil- 
lage. Dr. Reed, who had charge of the sick and wounded pri- 
soners, was sitting in an apartment of Mrs. Steele^s tavern, over- 
looking the main street, writing paroles for such British officers as 
were unable from sickness and debility to proceed farther, when he 
saw the general, unaccompanied by his aides or a single individual, 
ride up to the door. " How do you find yourself, my good general T 
eagerly inquired the doctor. " Wretched beyond measure,** repBed 
Greene, as, exhausted, he slowly dismounted from his jaded horse — 
** without a friend — without money — and destitute even of a com- 
panion," — his aides having been dispatched to different parts of the 
retreating army. " That I deny," said Mrs. Steele, stepping for- 
ward with great alacrity — ** that I most particularly deny. In me, 
general, you have a devoted friend. Money you shall have ; and 
> this young gentleman will not, I am certain, suffer you to be with- 
dut a companion, as soon as the humane business about which he 
is employed, is finished." When she had prepared refreshments 
for the exhausted general, she proceeded to frilfil her promise about 

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the money ; taking him to an adjoining apartment, she laid befcHre 
him her store of gold and silver pieces, and generously filled his 
pockets, giving him at the same time many kind and encouraging 

Greene's stay was short ; but before leaving the house he took 
from the walls of one of the apartments a picture of George III., 
which had come from England as a present from one of the mem- 
bers of the court to a member of an embassy, a connexion of Mrs. 
Steele, — and with a piece of chalk wrote upon the back — "O 
George, hide thy face and moum^ and replaced it with the face ID 
the wall. The picture, with the writing, both unharmed, is still 
preserved by a grand-daughter of Mrs. Steele, a daughter of Dr. 
McCorkie, and may be found in the town of Charlotte, at the post- 
office« \ 

The following obituary notice of this excellent woman appeared , 
in the Fayetteville Gazette of January 3d, 1791: "Died, on 
Monday, the 22d of November, in Salisbury, of a lingering and 
painful illness, Mrs. Elizabeth Steele, relict of Mr. William 
Steele, and mother of Margaret McCorkie, wife of Rev. Samurf 
McCorkie. ^ 

" Her name and character are well known, but best by her most 
intimate friends. She was a devout worshipper of God ; she was 
distinguished during the war as a friend to her country ; she twice 
suppcNTted with dignity the characters of wife and widow ; she was 
a most tender and £Lffectionate parent ; kind, obliging neighbor ; 
frugal, industrious, and charitable to the poor. 

" Her character will be better understood by the following letter, 
found among her choice papers, since her death, than by anything 
that can be said of her. The letter is believed to be, and appears 
to be, her ovm diction ; and is published exactly as it was found. 
It may be a useful lesson to all parents, and to all children as well 
as her own. It bears date February 5th, 1783, when her other 
son Robert Gillespie was living, and begins thus : 

" *My dear children — If I die before any of you, I wish that this 
letter may fall into your hands after I am dead and gone, that you 
may see how much affection I have for you, and that what I have 
often said while alive may be remembered by you when I am in 

" *If the Almighty would suflfer me to return to talk with you, I 
think now I should take a pleasure to do it every day : if this can- 
not be allowed me, I think it would be some satis&ction to see 
you, especially when you are reading this letter, which I leave you 

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as a legacy, to see what effeqt it will have on you, and whether it 
will make you think of what I have often told you. 

" *I have many a time told you to remember your Maker, and 
ask him to guide you ; it is a good old saying — they are well 
guarded whom He guides, and he leaves them that don't ask him, 
in their ovm ways. I want you to keep out of bad company, — it 
has ruined many young people. I want you to keep company with 
sober, good people, and learn their ways, — ^to keep the Sab- 
bath, to be charitable to the poor, to be industrious and frugal, just 
to all men, and above all, to love one another. 

" * Believe me, my children, if anjrthing could disturb me in the 
grave, it would be to know that you did not live as brother and 
sister ought to live : nothing could be worse, except to know that 
you would not follow me to heaven. Oh, my dear children, I have 
had a great deal of trouble and sorrow in raising you ! If I should 
feel as I do now, I could never endure to see any of you without 
an interest in Jesus, at the great day, and forced away, never to 
meet again. Parting here with your parents you know had almost 
taken my Ufe, when I had hope to see them again ; but I am now 
sure I could not live to see any of you cursed by your Maker, and 
driven away to dwell with the Devil and his angels." 

" * While I lived, you knowihat it was my great desire to have 
you all around me and near me here ; but my great desire has 
been to have you with me in the world to come. Believe me, 
nothing could make me so happy as to have my three poor dear 
children there ; yes, and your children, and all your connexions. I 
would wish to take you all to heaven. Then, think of the vanity 
of this world, — ^think of Jesus the Saviour, — death, — judgment, 
and eternity ; and don't forget the Uving and dying desire of your 
most afieclionate mother till death, and after death. 

"* Elizabeth Steele.' 

*' Folded in the foregoing letter was also found, in her own 
handwriting, the following prayer, which must please every pious 
mind : 

" * Oh Lord, my God, thou great Three-One ! I give myself to 
thee this day, to be thine, to be guided by thee, and not by an- 
other : and I desire to take God for my God, — ^Jesus Christ to be 
my Saviour, — the Holy Ghost to be my sanctifier and leader. 
Lord, thou hast promised that all that will come unto thee thou 
wilt in nowise cast out. All I beg, is in the name and for the sake 
of Jesus Christ, my Lord. 

" * To this I set my hand, " ' Elizabeth Steele.' 

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" The date of the above was either not affixed, or was torn 
from the paper. It cannot be disagreeable to the serious mind to 
add, that she was remarkably fond of the following hynm, and left 
it in her Bible, where it was foui\d since her death, in the hand- 
i¥riting of her grand-daughter, who had transcribed it for her • 

•* * The hour of my departure 's come, 
I hear a voice that calls me home ; 
At last, Lord, let trouble cease, 
And let thy servant die in peace, 
The race appointed I have run, 
The combat o*er, the prize is won, 
And now my witness is on high. 

And now my record 's in the sky. ♦ 

Not in mine innocence I trust, 
I bow before thee in the dust. 
And through my Saviour's blood alone 
I hope for mercy at thy throne. 
I come ! I come ! at thy command, 
I yield my spirit to thy hand; 
Stretch forth thy everlasting arms. 
And shield me in these last alarms.' 

" It would be a severe and ill-natured reflection on the religious 
taste of the present age to be making apologies for publishing the 
above memoirs ; and, therefore, no apology shall be made. It is 
a debt due to an amiable character, and may not be without its use 
to the public. 

[" The above is published at the request of the Rev, Samuel E, 

About the year 1785, Dr. -M'Corkle commenced a classical 
school at his house, which stood on the great road from Salisbury 
to Statesville, in an eligible situation, with the avenue leading to it, 
80 common in the western part of North Carolina, at a moderate 
distance from the meeting-house, which is about nine miles west 
of Salisbury. In connection with his classical school was a de- 
partment for preparing school teachers. Poor and pious young 
men were taught free of expense for tuition, and were also assisted 
by him to books necessary for their instruction* If young men of 
good talents were wild or not studious, his rule was to talk with 
them in private, and if the desired reformation did not take place, 
to avoid any exposure, he would write to their parents or guardi- 
ans to withdraw them. And if he, upon mature dehberation, 
judged the children committed to his charge, to be below medio- 
crity, in point of talents, he invariably discouraged their being 
trained to a classical course. On account of these principles 

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which he carried into action, he sent out a less number of classical 
students, but a greater amount of piety and talents. 

The first class, that was graduated at the State Unirersity at 
Chapel Hill, consisted of seven scholars ; six of these had been 
pupils of Mr. McCorkle. His students were, in after life, found 
on the Bench, in the chair of State, snidfony-Jive of them in the 
pulpit. The number of ministers is given on the authority of Mrs. 
MeCorkle, who survived her husband about fifteen years. 

It appears from the North Carolina Journal that at a meeting 
of the board of trustees of the North CaroUna University, Dec. 
8th, 1795, the board, after resolving that the state of the funds 
di*not permit the choice of a president, and that his duties must 
be fulfilled by the first professor, made choice of the Rev. Samuel 
E. McCorkle, Professor of Moral and Political Philosophy, and 
History, and the Rev. David Kerr, Professor of Languages, and 
Charles W. Harris, Professor of Mathematics ; Mr. Dehraux, and 
Mr. Holmes, tutors in the preparatory school. On account of 
some objections made by General Davie, one of the board, which 
led to a correspondence between him and the Hon. John Steele, 
brother-in-law of Mr. McCorkle, and which were followed by an 
apology, the appointment was not accepted. Mr. McCoride's 
desire for the advancement of the University, in opposition to 
every selfish feeling, led him to desire harmony in the board, in 
preference to the honor of being the first and presiding Professor. 
His attachment to the University was undoubted and unwaver- 
ing ; he made excursions to raise funds for its use ; he attended 
the laying the comer stone of the first building erected on the 
University groimds, and delivered an address ; his pupils com- 
posed the first class of graduates, almost entire, and he was on 
the list of the first named board of trustees. His declining the 
office of first Professor made way for the exercise of talent by 
that successftil man, under whom, by the blessing of God, the 
university arose to its influence and respectability, of late so 
widely spread by his successor. 

The bounds of Thyatira were, like all the other congregations 
whose limits were settled by Messrs. Spencer and McWhorter, 
very extensive, embracing many settlements that had desired 
preaching, and had engaged the labors of missionaries. This 
congregation bordering on the Yadkin northward, and southwest- 
ward on Centre, which reached the Catawba, westwardly on Fourth 
Creek and Bethany, in Iredell, and southwardly on Poplar Tent, 
and eastwardly without limits, presented an abundance of labor 

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for a pastor. Third Creek was soon formed from the middle 
ground between the churches in Iredell and Thyatira, and has 
been from the first a flourishing congregation. Under the pastoral 
labors of Rev. Joseph D. Kilpatrick, whose name appears on the 
joU of Synod as ordained by Orange Presbytery, 1793, it enjoyed 
numerous times of refreshing from on high. While McCorkle 
stood in doubt about the great excitement which began in 1801 in 
Orange, Kilpatrick's heart grew warm, and with many of his 
people went to take part in thep great meeting in Randolph, the 
effect of which was great upon the churches "beyond the 
Yadkin." He foimd no difficulty in welcoming the revival on 
account of the irregularities accompanying. In fact, it is not now 
easytQ determine whether in his later life he considered ** the 
exercises " a necessary part, or only an accidental appendage of 
the work. But it is evident they never gave him any trouble. 
If he could but see his people cultivating what he esteemed a 
proper religious feeling, it mattered little to him what external 
motions came with it. Some little time before his death, at a 
conmiunion service in his congregation, a great excitement pre- 
vailed ; and as cries for mercy and prayers arose on all sides of 
the house during an interval of preaching, the old gentleman wit- 
nessing the excitement for a time, turned to a young gentleman 
from Virginia, " it does my heart good to hear these young people 
pray so." 

Two of his sons entered the ministry. One, Josiah, a preacher 
of acceptable talent, came to an early grave in Fayetteville, being 
cut off after about one year's service. The other, Abner W., died 
in Tennessee in the year 1844. 

Back Creek was set off in 1805 as a separate congregation. 
The revival of 1802 had great effect upon the neighborhoods form- 
ing this congregation, and made them desire a separate church ca- 
pacity ; and times of refreshing have been granted them since in 
the kind providence of God. Activity in religion has been one of 
the characteristics of this church, which at its organization pos- 
sessed an eldership of peculiar excellence. It has sent out some 
ministers of the gospel who have been blessed from on high. One 
of Mc Aden's resting-places was with a family in this congregation. 

Mr. McCorkle preached frequently in Salisbury, but h^d no 
separate congregation there. About the years 1803 and 1804 Dr. 
McRee preached in that place statedly once a month. From the 
year 1807 to 1809 the Rev. John Brown preached here statedly, 
and was principal of the Academy. He removed first to South 

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Carolina and then to Georgia, and there closed his usefiil life. A 
memorial of him belongs properly to the South Carolina and 
Georgia synod. Till the year 1821 the people of Salisbury had 
no stated Presbyterian preacher, having only the occasional ser- 
vices of missionaries ; in that year a church was gathered under 
the labors of Rev. Jonathan Freeman, D.D., consisting of thirteen 
members, three of whom were appointed elders. In the year 
1826 the Rev. Dr. Freeman laid the comer stone of the present 
Presbyterian house of worship. In 1831 the Rev. Thomas Espy 
became stated supply of this church ; his health failing, he gave 
up the charge, and soon rested from all his labors. 

The memory of such a man as Thomas Espy demands a mcnre 
extended notice than the limits of the present article will admit ; 
a brief notice, however, will bring it to a close. Being engaged 
but a comparatively short time in the ministry, he was blessed of 
God both to do good, and to stir up others to do good, in an unu- 
sual degree. 

Mr. McCorkle was indefatigable in his efforts to improve his 
flock in the knowledge of divine things. Besides his usual ser- 
vices of preaching, he conducted a Bible class on a somewhat 
peculiar plan. In a note to a sermon printed in 1792, he says — 
" Here I beg leave briefly to suggest to my brethren, the plan of 
catechising from the Scriptures, as the platform or ground of a 
Catechism. I have proceeded from Genesis to Job, and through 
part of the four Evangelists ; and I design, if God permit, to pro- 
ceed on to the end, asking questions that lead to reading and re- 
flection. I have found it profitable to myself and my people, and 
can venture to say that as far as I have proceeded, there is not a 
congregation on the continent better acquainted with the Scrip- 

" The congregation I have divided into a number of divisions of 
fifteen or sixteen families each, assigning to each division a set of 
written questions, from one part of one or two books, as they may 
be long or short, in each Testament ; catechising in the morning 
from the Old, in the afternoon from the New Testament, and 
closing by calling on the youth to repeat the shorter Catechism.'' 

" This set of Scriptural questions, thus examined, we pass to 
the next division of the congregation, who often attend as specta- 
tors, knowing that they are next to be examined on the same ques- 
tions. Thus in rotation every individual will be examined on 
every part of the Bible." 

His daughter says, the divisions were eight in nmnber ; and that 

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an elder was attached to each division ; to this elder, he gave the 
copy of questions, and the elder supplied the division. In the ex- 
amination he never publicly questioned the elders, they met him 
at his own house. The children were early brought to say their 
catechism ; and the parents were reproved or commended accord- 
ing to the proficiency manifested in the examination. 

In his preparation for the pulpit, he made free use of his pen ; 
but did not confine himself to his manuscript, or notes ; and some- 
times did not even use notes. In a note to a printed sermon, he 
says, " He would never be seen in the pulpit without full notes, 
when he was to treat on a disputed or argumentative subject ; on 
other occasions, he would use his discretion, whether to preach 
from notes or without." In this, he is to be imitated. 

He published a number of sermons ; four on the subject of 
InfideUty, as it was brought out in the United States, during the 
French Revolution ; feeling with his brethren, that all that was 
dear to man was at stake ; — one on the principle and practice of 
giving to charitable and benevolent objects ; — one on the terms of 
Christian communion ; — and one on the death of General Wash 
ington. The latter is one of peculiar excellence, abounding with 
sound morality, pure philosophy, and true religion. 

In person, he was tall, about six feet one inch ; finely formed ; 
light hair and pale blue eyes ; mild, grave, and dignified in his 
appearance ; cheerful in his disposition ; and of fine conversational 
powers. Firm in his opinions, and devotedly attached to the doc- 
trines of the Presbyterian church, he never attacked, unneqessarily, 
the opinions or forms of others. In appearance and gait, he is 
said to have very much resembled Mr. Jefierson. During a visit 
to Philadelphia, while Mr. Jefierson was there, this resemblance, 
noticed by many, led to an introduction ; and both parties retired 
from the interview, with expressions of satisfaction. 

The pulpit instructions of Mr. McCorkle abounded with argu- 
ment and observation founded upon common sense, and were 
enriched by his historical and literary reading ; and the people 
that grew up under his care, were well instructed in religion and 
moraU. His care in attending the judicatories of the church, is 
worthy of imitation; and his respect for the decisions of his 
brethren, when pronounced judicially, was such as to make him 
especially careful in selecting delegates to the Assembly. If but 
one delegate were to be sent, he preferred a brother of age and 
experience ; if two were to be sent, he desired that tjiere should 
be one of the older and one of the younger members of Presby- 

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tery, that experience might be gained by the one, and might 
grow under the influence of the other. 

At the commencement of the great revival in 1802, in Orange, 
Mr. McCorkle was disinclined to believe in its purity, on account 
of the " exercises" that accompanied. Being persuaded to attend 
the meeting in Randolph, his mind underwent a change, as ap- 
pears from the letter published in the pamphlet prepared by Ehr. 
Hall, which makes a part of the twenty-seventh chapter of this 

Altliough brought to believe in the revival, as a work of God, he 
ever looked upon these " exercises," and some accompanying ex- 
travagances, as profane mixtures, against which he bore open 
testimony. He rather tolerated than approved camp-meetings ; 
and sometimes was opposed to them, especially as standing, 
regular means of instruction or excitement. It is probable that the 
ministers of the Presbyterian church, in Carolina generally, now 
look upon them, much in the light that he did, as being matters of 
prudence and discretion, and possessing no peculiar sanctity in 
themselves, or special efficiency for growth in grace and divine 
knowledge ; that their use or disadvantage must be judged of by 
circumstances. ^ 

The pastor of Thyatira received his death-warrant in the pulpit, 
being struck with palsy while conducting the services of the sanc- 
tuary. His labors as a minister ceased, but his services as a 
suffering man were continued for some years. For a time, his 
disorder affected his mental powers ; and though his mind became 
clear, his body never regained its tone and vigor. In 1807, the 
Presb3rtery required the congregations of Thyatira and Bac^ 
Creek to pay a proper attention to the circumstances and condi- 
tion of the man, who had given the strength of his manhood to 
their service. Whether this was altogether as a mark of respect, 
and for a good example, is not now easily ascertained, nor of any 
practical importance. The example of Presbytery, in the case of 
aged and infirm ministers, is truly commendable ; should the aged 
servant die unhonored by his brethren or his people ? 

On the 2l8t June, 1811, he ceased from his trials. His funeral 
was conducted according to directions left by himself in writing. 
The text for the funeral sermon was Job xix., 25, 26 : " For I know 
that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter 
day upon the earth ; and though after my skin worms destroy this 
body, yet in my flesh shall I see God." The nineteenth Psalm— 
" Through ev^ age Eternal God"— and the sixty-first Hymn of 

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Watts's second book — " My soul, come meditate the day," were 
sung in the church. The elders, attired in black, sat together by 
the corpse before the pulpit, which, out of respect, was also attired 
in mourning. As the body was borae to the grave, the congrega- 
tion sang, " Hark ! from the tombs a doleful sound." 

Thomas Espy was bom August 1st, 1800, in Cumberland 
County, Pennsylvania. Ere he saw the light, his pious parents 
had besought the blessing of God for the child ; and it was espe- 
cially the wish and prayer of the mother that the child might be a 
son, and he a minister of the gospel of Christ. Sprightliness of 
mind and activity of body characterized him from his early infancy 
till his death. But with it, also, from his very early years, a 
thoughtfiilness and a disposition to inquire and ponder on religious 
things, which was ripened into deep seriousness in his 10th year, 
during a revival of rehgion in the congregation in Beaver County, 
to which his parents belonged, under the care of the Rev. Thomas 
E. Hughes. His convictions at this time were deep and sorely 
distressing, and accompanied with some strong temptations, but 
were not followed by Uiose exercises of faith and hope that satis- 
fied his mind in more mature years, though the sense of religious 
things did not leave him, nor was he guilty of outbreaking sins. 

When about ten years of age, he commenced the study of the 
languages with Mr. Hughes, his pastor, and, after pursuing these 
to some length with him, he was sent to the academy in the neigh- 
borhood, and then went through the usual academical classic course, 
together with some branches of the mathematics. Here his edu- 
cation was, for a time, suspended by adverse circumstances in his 
father's situation ; and for some two or three years he labored on 
the farm, and ultimately engaged in teaching a small school, at the 
same time reading medical books under the direction of a physi- 
cian in the neighborhood. 

While thus engaged, he was led by the grace of God to a good 
hope in Christ ; and as soon as he obtained a comfortable assur- 
ance of acceptance in Christ, he longed to preach the gospel to 
others. He united with the church by a pubUc profession, about 
the year 1820, desiring to preach the gospel, but not seeing any 
way by which he might come into that desirable labor. 

After pursuing the study of medicine about two years, he re- 
ceived from an uncle whom he had gone to visit, a proposition of 
assistance to complete his college course. Delighted with the 
prospect, he immediately entered Washington College, then hav- ' 

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ing for its president the Rev. Matthew Brown, D.D., and pursued 
his studies with vigor, looking forward to the ministry. 

He was graduated in the year 1824, taking the second honor 
from a competitor who had been taught in the Westminster school. 
In the month of February, 1825, he went to Romney, Hampshire 
County, Virginia, and taught school, and commenced reading the- 
ology in preparation for the ministry. In the fall of that year, he 
removed to Jefferson County, in the same State, and lived in the 
family of Mrs. Dandridge as tutor : with this lady he continued 
about two years, teaching her children and pursuing his theologi- 
cal studies. On the 11th of April, 1827, he received license to 
preach the gospel, from the Presbytery of Winchester, which held 
its sessions in Middleburg, Fauquier County. In the November 
following, he became a member of the Theological Seminary, 

During his residence in Romney and at Mrs. Dandridge's, his 
conscientious walk and Christian conversation made a deep im- 
pression in favor of his simple-hearted piety. Without ostenta- 
tion, without knowing the fact himself, he produced a deep con- 
viction on the young people of his acquaintance of two things, 
viz. : that there is a reality in experimental piety, and that he pos- 
sessed the reality. He exhibited a happy mixture of modesty and 
independence, that won the favor of the community, never thmsting 
himself forward as for praise or ostentation, and never shrinking 
from duty through alarm, or withholding a frank avowal of the 
truth and his opinion what was truth, through any sinister motive. 

While at Princeton, his letters to his friends in Virginia breathed 
a spirit of exalted piety and unaffected devotion to the cause of his 
Lord and Master, which endeared him still more to their hearts. 
Like as his prayers had been in the prayer meetings, his letters 
touched the heart and drew it out in earnest desires for more grace, 
and knowledge of God. Were there space for the admission of a 
few of his letters, his friends in Carolina would recognize the 
future preacher, in the sentiments which fell from his pen, unstu- 
died and in rich abundance ; no scintillations of genius, but sparks 
of true celestial fire ; no aspirations of a lofty mind, but the feel- 
ings of a lively faith. 

In the spring of 1828, he received a commission from the 
" Young Men's Missionary Society of Concord Presbytery," and 
served as their missionary in Burke county for about a year. His 
labors are not yet forgotten. After his term of engagement ex- 
pired, he was invited to preach in different congregations, and 

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commenced his labors in Centre, in Iredell, and Bethel, formerly 
a part of Centre, in Mecklenburg county. On the 10th of May, 
1830, he was ordained evangelist at Centre, having declined being 
set apart for the services of a particular congregation. For a time 
his services here were much blessed ; but unhappily a collision of 
opinions and practice on the subject of baptism broke up his pros- 
pects of usefulness to that degree, his friends judged a removal 
prudent. The congregation had been accustomed, under their for- 
mer pastor, to see the ordinance of baptism administered to chil- 
dren of parents who had been baptized, whether they had made 
public profession or not. To this custom Mr. Espy felt strongly 
opposed, and expressed his opposition with his usual frankness and 
decision, believing that the ordinance ought to be administered to 
children of professors only. There were some unhappy circum- 
stances attending this collision which distressed him greatly both 
in body and mind, which need not be repeated ; their interest was 

In tke spring of 1831 he removed to Salisbiuy, and about the 
same time was united in marriage to Miss Sarah Louisa Tate, of 
Burke county, a lady altogether worthy of him. In Salisbury his 
labors were greatly blessed, to the building up of the church in 
faith and in numbers. He excelled in the pastoral office ; his 
counsels were so plain, his reproofs so kind and direct, his exhorta- 
tions so earnest, and his example so impressive, he gained his 
people's love, as he built them up in the most holy faith. 

In February, 1832, he was seized with a hemorrhage of the 
lungs, which put an end, in a great measure, to all his pulpit ex- 
ercises. Of middling stature, a slender frame, and somewhat 
delicate constitution, he had permitted his ardent desire to build 
up the cause of Christ to lead him to efforts in public speaking be- 
yond his strength. In many places the cause of religion was 
exciting unusual attention about this time. His ardent heart made 
him forgetful of himself, — ^and, in consequence of a cold caught 
during a series of appointments in the fall of 1831, his lungs gave 
way, and he was able to preach no more. 

His sickness and death preached eloquently. Blessed of God 
to win souls to Christ in his ministry, his success was continued 
to his last breath, some being hopefully converted by witnessing 
his Christian spirit in his last hours. A brother in the ministry, 
who knew him well, in whose house Mr. Espy endured a part of 
^ his last illness, said of him, in a letter some time after his decease, 
— " I knew him well, perhaps no one on earth knew him better, 

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and I feel no hesitation in saying that, in many important respects, 
I have never known his equal. Mr. Espy was an eminently holy 
man. I was intimate with him when in health, and a great deal 
in his company during his protracted illness, and my impression 
is, that I have never known any one who lived so near Christ. 
His religion was not enthusiasm, but a tender and unwavering 
confidence in the Saviour. He repeatedly told me, that, during all 
his sickness, he never entertained a doubt in regard to his situatkn. 
Once, when we thought him dying, and were all weeping around 
his bed, he said to me, * thes^ friends are all nodstaken — ^this is the 
happiest hour I ever saw.' " 

The last few weeks of his life were passed at the house of R. 
H. Burton, Esq., near Beattie's Ford, in the bounds of Unity con- 
gregation, by whom he was held in the highest esteem. On the 
16th of April, 1833, he breathed his last, in full hope of a joyfid 
resurrection. His body was carried to Salisbury, and interred 
• near the west comer of the frame chiut^h, on the skirts of the 
town, a spot occupied for a long time by the Presbyterians and 
Lutherans for public worship, and still as the place for the burial 
of their dead. His wife survived him a few years, and passed 
away, leaving an orphan daughter. " Blessed are the dead that 
die in the Lord." * 

" Mr. Espy," says a brother in the ministry who knew him well, 
" possessed a quickness of apprehension and a patience of inves- 
tigation rarely found in combination. He was not what is gene- 
rally called a popular preacher ; but he was something a great 
deal better. His voice was too effeminate to permit him to have 
great and imgiediate power over a large promiscuous congregation, 
such as we southern pi*eachers have often to grapple with. I do 
not mean to leave the impression that he was not an interesting 
preacher. To those who wished to listen to-the truth he was emi- 
nently interesting. 

" The most distinguishing features of his preaching were great 
point, and a prominent exhibition of the Saviour. Emphatically 
he preached Christ to the people. You will be prepared to be 
told that he was a successful minister. He was useful wherever 
he preached any length of time, but more so in Salisbury than 
anywhere else. There is a people here that will never fnrget 

^^ It is the impression of others, as well as myself, that Mr. 
Espy did much to raise the tone of ministericd piety in this Pres- 

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The name of McGready is connected with revivals. He was blessed 
in being an instrament of a revival of religion in North Carolina, 
in his early ministry, the salutary effects of which are felt at this day 
in churches in different States, enjoying the labors of faithful men, 
that then came in to the visible church of Christ, on profession of 
faith. Subsequently, he was honored of God to be the first agent, 
that moved successfully in breaking up the deep sleep that weighed 
down the Christian public, and was personally active in the com- 
mencement of that revival that began in 1800, in Kentucky, and 
soon was felt in Tennessee and Ohio ; in 1802, on to 1804, was 
enjoyed in parts of North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. 
The fruits of this revival remain to this day, and will be felt in their 
remote consequences for ever, in these United States, and wherever 
else the Gospel has been preached, by those who may l)e considered 
the fruits, more or less direct, of this great display of the Divine 
Spirit upon the hearts of men. 

There has been no memoir of this man given to the world ; but 
it is not right for the church community to let his memory perish. 
To have looked at him, in his early days, as he was laboring in the 
fields in Carolina ; or to have seen him when he was become angry 
that an honest man doubted his religion ; or to have listened to him 
when he passed through Virginia, at the close of the revival, under 
Smith and Graham, we probably should not have said this is the 
man whom Grod has chosen to put in motion the whole conununity, 
on the greatest of all subjects, and the one to which the human 
heart is most averse. But God sees not as man sees, and he choosey 
whom he will for his divine purposes of mercy, both as agent and 
recipient. Let man honor whom God honors ; and let us rejoice in 
him whom. God first made^a vessel of mercy, and then a jewel of 

In the preface to a volume of sermons, which a few years ago 
were published firom his papers, in Louisville, there is a brief ac- 
coimt of the conmiencement of the revival in Kentucky, drawn up 
by his hand. Iti the preface to the second volume, which appeared 
some time after, is the apology of the Editor, for not fulfilling ex- 

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pectations he had excited in the first, of haying a monoir of the 
able and blessed servant of 60^, whose sermons he was sending out 
to the world, and informs the public that he had entirely failed in 
obtaining any information about his early life and labors. McGreadj 
left no son, and no memoranda of himself, among bis papers, except 
the short account of the conmiencement of the revival ; modestly 
estimating himself, and his labors, and usefulness, he was willing to 
wait the developments of the €rreat day, and abide the provideiice 
of God. 

At several different times, in the year 1843, the Rev. £benezer 
B. Currie, of Orange Presbytery, who was a pupil of McGready in 
his youth, gave the writer an extended account of the labors and 
successes of that eminent servant of God, and is the authority for the 
principal facts in his early history, and very many respecting his 
maturer years. He, the Rev. James Hall, D.D., and S. £. 
McCorkle, D.D., are the ^authority for the statements about the 
revival in North Carolina. They all speak of things they saw and 
heard and knew. 

The parents of McGready were of the Scotch-Irish race, but 
whether they emigrated firom Ireland, or were bom in Pennsylvania, 
is not now known. When he was^ite young, they removed to 
Carolina, and settled in Buffalo congregation, in Gruilford county, 
near where Greensboro, now stands, about the time that Dr. Caldwell 
became the pastor of the congregation, which is now occupied by 
Mr. Caruthers. Here James passed part of his boyish days, and part 
of his youth, in such labor, as persons of no very extensive property 
were, in those years, accustomed to in Carolina. 

The sedateness of the youth and his punctuality in religious duties, 
imited to a desire for mental improvement, so pleased an uncle of 
, his, who was on a visit alcjbb father's, that he conceived the idea of 
having James educated for the ministry, and prevailed on the parents 
to consent to his taking his son with him to Pennsylvania to secure 
an education in ^rep^alSon to his preaching the gospel. His uncle 
believed him to be religious ; he thought so himself. In speaking of 
these, his early daj's and impressions, Mr. McGready used to say that 
he never omitted private prayer frpmj^e time he was seven years 
old, and having been preserved from outbreaking sins, from profane 
swearing, from intoxication, and sabbath breaking, and other ex- 
cesses, he had begun to think that he was sanctified from his oirth. 
When about seventeen years of age he united in the communion of the 
church, professing a full belief in the doctrines of the Bible, in whidi 
he had been carefully instructed, and in the formulary, the catechism 

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REV. JAME8 m'gRBADT. 369 

of the Westminster Assembly, in which, at that time, all children of 
Presbyterian congregations were reverently taught 

While he was studying for the ministry, fully satisfied of his own 
interest in the redemption of Christ, an incident occurred that 
destroyed all his peace. He overheard a conversation between the 
gentleman with whom he boarded and a neighbor who had stepped 
in one day. " Do you think," said the neighbor, " that this young 
man you have studying here has got any religion V^ " No," said 
the gentleman, " not a spark." The meaning was, that he did not 
think him a converted man, and that he, of course, had not felt in 
his heart the doctrines of grace. McGhready felt himself mudi 
aggrieved at this opinion, and peculiarly at this expression of it ; 
and resolved to change his abode, not willing to live any longer with 
one that thought so little of his piety or his knowledge of religion. 
After the first rush of his indignation had somewhat subsided, the 
thought arose in his mind, that perhaps there might be some ground 
for the gentleman's unfavorable opinion. He, therefore, commenced 
a thorough examination of his principles of belief, his practice, and 
his feelings. Of his principles of belief, after examination, he was 
satisfied that they were correct Of his practicey it appeared to him 
that he loved what the Scripture required, and turned away from 
those things the word of God Ibrbade. Thus far he felt safe. But 
when he came to examine his feelings^ to try them by such passages 
as, being ^^ filled with the spirit ; filled with joy ; filled with the 
Holy Ghost ; joy of the Holy Ghost ; the fruit of the spirit is 
lovcyjoyy peace, ^ it seemed to him that he did not understand these 
things experimentally. Like Paul, ^' When the conmiandment came, 
sin revived and he died." The conflict in his soul was severe and 
protracted. He said that the first actual sin of which he felt con- 
victed was his having communed improperly ; and then the sin of 
his whole life stood up before hun in awful array. He had no rest 
in his soul till he believed Christ gave him peace in believing, and 
his heart tasted some of the joys of the Holy Ghost 

This part of his experience gave a peculiar cast to his preaching 
through life, and made it peculiarly pungent in Carolina, where he 
commenced his labors. Through life he was famous for pointing 
out the hiding-places of the hypocrite and self-deceived, and bring- 
ing out the thoughts of men's hearts and revealing to them their 
secret purposes, and setting them at war in their own souls, lead 
them to Christ Jesus for peace. Formal professors kad generally a 
very great dislike to him, accusing him of personality and undue 

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Redstone Presbytery gave him license to pteacli "when he was 
about thirty years of age. His education was finished under Dr. 
McMillan, the founder of the Literary and Theological school, that 
ultimately grew into Cannonsburg College, the first institution of 
the kind west of the Alleghanies. Three institutions were com- 
menced by the Scotch-Irish before the Revolution ; one in Western 
Pennsylvania, one in the valley of Virginia, and one in Charlotte, 
North Carolina. The latter was broken up during the ReT^stion ; 
the two former are now flourishing institutions. Dr. McMillan was 
the means of rearing many useful preachers, by whom the "^irants of 
the rising West were for a time supplied. 

After his licensure, McGready returned to Carolina to visit his 
connexions. On Jiis way he pa^ed through the places in Virginia 
visited by the Revival, which spread so far and wide under the 
ministrations of J. B. Smith and William Graham, in 1788 and 
1789. He made some stay in Prince Edward, at Hampden Sydney 
College, then under the care of Mr. Smith, that eminently success- 
ful minister of Christ With his heart warmed by what ne heard 
and saw, and cheered in his soul with the expectations of good to 
come from the Great Head of the church to Zion, through the in- 
strumentality of the excellent young men he saw in preparation for 
the ministry, and of whom Pattillo speaks encouragingly in his 
letter to Synod in 1793, he reached Guilford, prepared to bear a 
testimony to men in favor of divine truth in its spiritual application. 

The form of religious instruction and worship had been continued 
by the churches in Carolina, with commendable exactness, during 
the trying scenes of the Revolutionary war. The attention to cate- 
chetical instruction in families had not much abated. But the life 
and spirit of religion had suffered much from the necessary irregu- 
larity in attending on the public ordinances, and from the harass- 
ing cares and indescribable vexations and suffering from the pro- 
tracted campaigns of Cornwallis, preceding the battle of Guilford 
Court-house. There was much true piety nourished in the congre- 
gations, and much of the heavenly temper cherished in the closet 
and family circle ; but much formsdity had also come in, and close 
upon its footsteps outbreaking sin. The march of armies is marked 
by plunder and vice ; and dissipation and immorality follow in 
their train. The most moral and retired neighborhood suddenly found 
themselves in the track of hostile forces, and felt the moral shock in 
their families with painful sensibility. 

As the subjects naturally presented for discussion, during the 
contest between the colonies and the mother country, by the patri- 

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otic Presbyterian ministers, were of a general nature — ^more often ^ 
referring to the wise providence of God ; the necessity of contend- 
ing for liberty of conscience, of person, and of property ; the pro- 
priety of resistance to blood in a good cause, than to the more spi- 
ritual and devotional duties of the gospel ; it came to pass that ^e 
subjects of experimental religion were less ineisted upon or heeded 
than they might have been, or than they had been in former and 
more q«iet times, it b not to be understood that the standard of 
piety or morality "was either intentionally abrogated or changed, 
but the subjects pertaining to the war in which all were involved, 
assumed a paramount controlling influence, and the sacred fire 
burned less purely in the congregation and the family ; and the 
scenes of bloodshed and plunder witnessed so frequently, hardened 
the heart against the commands of God. 

After the settlement of peace, many things were found to have 
crept into at least some of the congregations in Carolina, which 
could not be justified or tolerated; more easily introduced than 
eradicated ; more clamorously defended than adroitly extenuated. 
Parties for dancing were considered by many as harmless as they 
were fascinating ; the use of spirituous liquors had become more 
free and dangerous ; and in some, neighborhoods horse-racing was 
tolerated as an innocent amusement, from which improvement of the 
breed of useful animals might be looked for as a natural consequence. 
All had sought for freedom of opinion and of conscience through the 
mortal strife of the Revolution ; and many considered freedom from 
moral obligation as part of civil liberty. It is scarcely to be won- 
dered at, though much to be mourned over, that in breaking down 
the opposition to religious freedom, and the unjustifiable hindrances 
to the exercise of religious liberty, the necessary barriers to vice and 
transgression should receive a severe shock, and even some of the 
outworks be broken down. 

Among other things of a very objectionable nature which had 
l)ecome prevalent, was the habit of distributing spirituous liquors at 
fimerals. Provisions of some kind were set out, commonly before 
the door, or carried round in baskets, and spirits offered freely to 
those who de^red. The solemnity of the occasion was sometimes 
lost in the excitement, and scenes of drinking invaded the house of 
mourning. To preserve the appearance of religion, some one, 
an officer of the church, if present,'was called upon to open the 
scene of eating and drinking by asking a blessing on the refresh- 
ments prepared. 

Mr. McGieady attended a funeral soon after his return to Guil- 

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ford, and in (xmipliment lt> the young minister just retomed, he 
was caUed upon to ask a blessing that they might commence thcar 
drinking. " No," he replied, " I will not be guilty of insulting 
God by asking a blessing upon what I know to be wrong." A 
great sensation was produced, and McGready stood up for his de- 
fence, a champion not to be despised, large in form, some six feet 
high, of prominent features, grave in demeanor, solemn in speech, 
plain and neat in his style of dress, unaffected in his fnannors, with 
a powerAil voice, and somewhat ungainly in his address, with the 
appearance of great weight and bodily strength. 

The attention of the neighborhood being turned to hun, he com- 
menced preaching along Haw River, and in various other places in 
Gruilford. His first sermons were to alarm church members. Und^ 
his ministrations very many gave up their hopes of salvation which 
they had been cherishing, and confessed themselves deceived hypo- 
crites. Under his searching addresses they felt themselves to be, as 
he had been, unworthy to be acknowledged members of Christ's 
visible church, and abhorred themselves in dust and ashes. *- He 
would often say to them, " An unworthy communicant in such cir- 
cumstances as yours, is more offensive to Almighty Grod than a 
loathsome carcas^ crawling with vermin set before a dainty prince." 

His pulpit preparations, while he lived in Carolina, were made 
with much study ; what were his habits after removing to the West 
is not known. In Carolina he used to devote some two days of 
each week in writing out his sermons for Sabbath with great care. 
He considered the word of Grod as truth to be taken for granted, 
and of course not to be reasoned about as if to be proved, but to 
be explained and enforced by the various considerations presented 
by revelation itself, by man's condition, and by providence. His 
written discourses were carefully perused and re^erused before he 
appeared in public, but were never seen in the pulpit By his care 
in preparation the subject was sufficiently impressed upon his mind 
for him to speak with fluency and correctness without reference to 
notes. His spoken sermons were much longer than his prepara- 
tions, the different heads being more fully explained, and the appU- 
cation very much enlarged. The volumes of sermons printed at 
Louisville a few years since, were composed of preparations of this 
sort. The Rev. Mr. Currie, who was for a time his pupil, recollects 
to have heard some of those sermons delivered in Carolina. From 
{hese circumstances the printed sermons, exhibiting much good 
thought and power of language, will be less impressive than the 
(Uscourses that fell from hb lips, possessing all the acellences of 

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REV. JAMES m'g«IEADY. 373 

the written ones, and enriched by the tiJFe of feeling from a burning 

He excelled in public prayer, and the prayer before sermon was 
usually long, free from repetitions, and filled with earnest wrestlings 
♦ith God for the assembled people. Often the congregation was 
in tears, under the influence of his devotions. 

In his delivery he was always solemn, and sometimes very ani- 
mated from the commencement Generally he began very calm 
and waxed warmer as he progressed, and in the application was 
always fervent Avoiding metaphysical discussions, he preached 
the plsdn word of Grod with much point and great plainness and 
effect To his hearers he often seemed a " Son of Thunder," and 
always a warm experimental Calvinistic preacher. 

The congregations in which his labors were more particularly 
expended, were Haw River and Stony Creek. Haw River has de- 
clined from being a congregation ; the place of preaching is re- 
moved and is now called Gum Grove. Stony Creek is still a 
congregation and enjoys the labors of a pastor. In these congre- 
gations, and wherever else he preached in the neighboring charges, 
the excitement on the subject of religion was great, and the in- 
quiry about experimental godliness became very general. After he 
had been in Carolina about a year, he was married to a Miss 
Nancy Tliompson, from the bounds of Redstone Prcsbyterj', in 
Pennsylvania, and took his residence some three or four miles be- 
low High Rock, about midway between his two congregations. A 
school was opened at his house, under his direction, but taught 
principally by his brother, who was himself pursuing a course of 
study. TTiis location being near his parents* residence, Mr. Currie 
attended upon its instruction for a length of time, and under the 
preaching of Mr. McGready became permanently impressed with a 
sense of religion, which was ultimately ripened into a desire to 
preach the gospel. 

Buffalo and Alamance, the congregations of Dr. Caldwell, re- 
ceived many profitable visits from Mr. McGready, who frequently 
called upon the school under the Dr.'s care, and became a favorite 
of the students. His intercourse with these young men had an 
abiding influence over their hearts and lives. Many became hope- 
fully pious in consequence of his exhortations and instructions. . At 
one time he lay confined by great debility of body, brought on by 
excessive labors, and a consequent fit of sickness, and was very 
kindly and assiduously attended upon by the more serious of the 
young men. He used occasionally to send for the more thoughtless, 

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and hold a short coDversatioii with them on the subject of their sal- 
vation ; and seldom did any one, says Mr. Curriey leave him with- 
out tears. One young man made himself merry at the tenderness 
of the others, till one day IfcGready sent for him for an interview, 
from which he in a short time returned, more deeply affected thtti 
the others by the kindness and solemnity of the manner, and the 
importance of the subjects presented to his mind. 

The excitement that spread over the congregation of Hawfields, 
Cross Roads, Alamance, Bufialo, Stony Creek, Bethlehem, Haw 
River, Eno, and the churches in Granville, and those on the Hico 
and the waters of the Dan, was great, and ultimately exceedingly 
beneficial Dr. Caldwell, a very sound but dispassioned preacher, 
stood by him and improved the influences in his own congregations. 
Cross Roads and Hawfields were vacant at the commencement of 
the revival. Mr. John Debow, the successor of Henry Pattillo ihe 
first pastor, who is spoken of by tradition as an exceUent preacher, 
had died in September, 1783, and lies buried in the church-yard at 
Ebiwfields. His brother-in-law, a Mr. Lake, preached to the con- 
gregation for a time ; and under his ministrations the congiegation 
of Cross Roads was set off, composed of portions of Hawfields, Eno, 
and Stony Creek. The next preacher was cotemporary wiA 
McGready, a Mr. Hodge. He had been hopefuUy converted under 
the preaching of Mr. Debow, and had commenced preparation for 
the ministry ; but had become discouraged after the death of his 
pastor and abandoned his design. Mr. McGready's preaching kin- 
dled his de^re anew, and finishing his preparatory studies with Dr. ' 
Caldwell he commenced his labors as a minister at Hawfields and 
Cross Roads. He went heart and hand in the work of the gospel 
with McGready ; and often made excursions with him. Agreeing 
in principles and designs, these men were different in their tempait- 
ment and their manner of dispensing the gospel. From his tender 
and affectionate manner Hodge was styled " the Son of Consolation." 

While the work of revival was going on in the counties of Orange 
and Guilford, and in parts of the neighboring ones, the congrega- 
tions in Granville, where Pattillo lived and preached, and along the 
Hico, were visited by Nash Legrand and Carey Allen, young moi 
from Virginia, the fruits of the revival which had prevailed under 
the preaching of John B. Smith, particularly at Hampden Sydney 
College, of which they were members. Great effects followed their 
preaching. When their mission was ended, multitudes followed 
them into Virginia to attend the sacramental seasons in Prince £d- 
■ ward and Charlotte. A friendly intercourse was then conune need 

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REV. JAMES m'oREADT. « 375 

between the congregations of the two Synods, which has continued 
more or less to the present day. 

This revival, which commenced about the year 1791, continued 
for some years in the upper part of ^at is now Orange Presbytery. 
Many professors of religion renounced their hopes and became, as 
they thought, truly converted to God 5 others were greatly enlivened 
and strengthened in their faith, and rejoiced in renewed graces ; 
and many hopeful converts were added to the church. This was 
the SscoNB Revival of Religion in North Carolina, after the Revo- 
lirtionary war, of any extent, of which any account or tradition has 
been preserved ; the first having been in ^edeU. 

Mr. Currie relates the interesting fact, that in the year 1801, in 
the month of March, at Barbacue church in Cumberland county, 
five young men, Messrs. Brown, Murphy, McMillan, McNair, Shaw, 
Matthews, together with himself, were licensed to preach the gospel 
by 3range Presbytery. All had received part of their education at 
Caldwell's school, in Guilford ; and some, the whole. Part of them 
had grown up there, and been more or less under the influence of 
McGready. Of these, Matthews and Brown have received the de- 
gree of D.D. from respectable colleges. 

This revival was attended with no unusual appearances or exer- 
cises. The opposition to the close and practical preaching and re- 
newed discipline never broke out into violence but in one case. At 
Stony Creek there were some families of wealth and influence, that 
had become loose in their religious habits and morals during this 
disturbance of the war and the presence of the armies ; these opposed 
Mri McGready's course and preaching, and proceeded from one step 
of opposition to another, till their dislike exceeded all bounds. 
Some of these, during one of their nights of revelry, made a bonfire 
of the pulpit near the church, and left in the clerk's seat a letter 
written with blood, warning him that unless he desisted from his 
way of preaching, their vengeance would not be satisfied with the 
destruction of the pulpit ; and his person would not be inviolate. 
McGready, as might have been expected, not in the least intimi- 
dated by the burning of the pulpit, or the letter, continued to preach 
as usual ; and the opposition, confined to a few, died away. In a 
few years the dissipation of these families became the ruin of their 
character and property ; and after the lapse of a short period Jiot a 
descendant of theirs could be found in the congregation. 

Throughout the country, the pious, and the sedate who were not 
pious, favored the labors of the ministers that were engaged in this 
work of grace, whose effects have been a blessing to the church.and 

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communitj to this day. Some of the ministers that were bronght 
m to the church, during those years the revival cftntinued, yet live, 
crowned with years and usefubiess, soon to follow to the judgment 
of God the generations that were actors in these scenes. 

In the year 1796 Mr. McGready, who had been ordained in 1793, 
removed to Kentucky ; in the year 1799 the Presbytay of Orange 
dismissed Rev. Wm. McGee, and Barton Stone, a licentiate, to 
Pennsylvania Presbytery, and in 1800 the Rev. Messrs. Wm. Hodge^ 
Samuel McAdo and John Rankin, to remove to the West ; and the 
part these men acted in the succeeding events in the West forms an 
interesting page in the history of the valley of the AGssissippi. 

The following is an extract from McGrready's own statement, wad 
shows the state of things in Kentucky. 

Logan county, Kentucky, Oct. 28iA, 1801. 

** In the month of May, 1797, which was the spring after I came 
to this country, the Lord graciously visited Gasper River congrega- 
tion (an infant church under my charge). The doctrines of Re- 
generation, Faith, and Repentance, which I uniformly preached, 
seemed to call the attention of the people to a serious inquiry. 
During the winter the question was often proposed to me, Is reli- 
gion a sensible thing ? If I were converted would I feel it and 
know-it ? In May, as I said before, the work began. A woman 
who had been a professor in full communion in the church found 
her old hope false and delusive. She was struck with deep convic- 
tion, and in a few days was filled with joy and peace in believing. 
She immediately visited her friends and relations from house to 
house, warned them of their danger in a most solemn and faithful 
manner, and pleaded with them to repent and seek religion. This as 
a mean was accompamed with the divine blessing to the awaken- 
ing of many. About this time the ears of all in that congregation 
seemed to be open to receive the word preached, almost every ser- 
mon was accompanied with the power of God to the awakening of 

" In the summer of 1798, at the administration of the sacrament 
of the supper in July, on Monday the Lord graciously poured out 
his spirit, a very general awakening took place. Perhaps but few 
families in the congregation could be found who less or more were 
not struck with an awful sense of their lost estate." 

A blesang appeared to follow the labors of this man and the 
other preachers of the gospel in the new settlements, from time to 
time in different places, till the year 1800, when an excitement 
commenced, which, for influence, duration, and extent, has been 

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unequalled in the southern and western States ; and as pervading 
and resistless, an^ as fertile in novelties as that which spread over 
the middle and eastern States betwe«i the years 1740 and 1750, in 
which Edwards, Tennent, Davenport, Blair, Wheelock, Davies, and 
others, took a prominent part 

The first laborers in this work were McGready, Hodge and McGee. 
At first it was but a powerful excitement, soon it was accompanied 
with bodily exercises of a strange and unaccountable nature, which 
for a time bewildered the judgments of the most clear-sighted 
ministers, and are with difficulty accounted for at this day. Previous 
to the Jmie sacrament, in his Red River congregation, McGready 
was greatly depressed on account of the state of religion in his own 
charge and in the congregation ajr ound him. In conversation with 
an elder he told him his distress, and his moumfiil anticipations. 
His elder began to teU him his own exercises, which were full of 
hope and expectation, and among other things told him of a dream 
he had lately had, about seeing him and Hodge and McGee catch- 
ing abundance of fish on the side of a dry ragged mountain, out of 
a little clear stream that brake firom the smnmit The effect of 
the elder's conversation on McGh'eady was cheering, awaking 
anticipations of success, like the dream heard by Gideon in the 
enemy's camp. These brethren just mentioned assisted at the June 
meeting, in 1800, and before the close a most wonderfiil excitement 
commenced. Of this McGready says, " But the year 1800 exceeds 
all that eyes ever beheld on earth. In June the sacrament was 
administered at Red River. On Monday multitudes were struck 
under awful conviction. The cries of the distressed filled the whole 
house." From this place it spread that summer wherever meetings 
for continued preaching were held, in Kentucky, Tennessee and Ohio ; 
and ultimately over the whole South and West y 

Soon after the commencement of this excitement, persons began to 
be struck down during religious exercises, lying like persons in a 
swoon for a length of time ; and then rise with songs of praise for 
the deliverance